Few Translation Examples About Fund 

2014年04月10日(木) 17時56分
Some colleagues and I started to handle one project about fund from last week, we just completed translation, edition, proofreading until today. Here I’d like to list some applicable translation for the fund, which are extracted from some files, for your reference.

Example 1: American Equity Fund


Word ‘Equity’ should be translated as ‘股票’, not ‘证券’ or anything else.

Example 2: Expense Ratio for Year ending 30 June 2011

截止 2011 年 6 月 30 日止的年度费率

‘Expense ratio’ should be translated as ‘费率’ here, to use different amount to subscribe one fund, since the amount is different and the expense ratio would be different, the more amount, the less expense ratio.

Example 3: The fund has ability to use financial derivative instruments for hedging and/or efficient portfolio management purposes.


In the above example, there are some professional terms in finance field, e.g. ‘financial derivative instrument’, ‘hedging’, ‘portfolio’, they are translated as ‘金融衍生工具’, ‘对冲’ and ‘投资组合’ respectively. The same word has different meaning in Chinese, while translating different sector, as the translator, we should apply the more applicable translation in the corresponding sector.

Example 4: Assets of the Fund may be denominated in a currency other than the Base Currency of the Fund.


In this example, for the phrase ‘Base Currency’ is usually translated as ‘基准货币’, not ‘基础货币’, and we should pay special attention to it.

A Guide to Software Translation 

2014年04月06日(日) 23時32分
A software project can consist of several components, which usually include software, documentation, help, and read me files.

We will focus on the translation of software and documentation (IFUs, user manuals, etc.) as that is what we see more often at our Translations.


In general, the process of localizing software includes the translation of the GUI (Graphical User Interface) components of the application, such as menus, dialog boxes, and error and status messages displayed on the screen.

Menus: A menu is a drop-down list of options from which you can make a selection and then perform a desired action, such as choosing a command (like Save As) or applying a particular format to part of a document. It is usually a list of major categories and their subcategories.

Dialog boxes: A dialog box is a small window that appears on the screen to request input from or provide information to the user. It typically allows users to change options or settings.

Error messages: these are messages displayed when an unexpected condition occurs. They are used when user intervention is required, to indicate that a desired operation has failed, or to give very important warnings.

Things you should take into account when translating software:

- Space restriction: Usually only a limited number of characters can be used for menu names, commands, options, error messages, etc. It is recommendable to keep the translated strings as short as possible. Keep in mind too that most translation of English expands, so it’s likely that you’ll have to use abbreviations much more often than usual.

- Hotkeys: are keys or combinations of keys on a computer keyboard programmed to perform a specific function when pressed. When translating software, hotkeys are usually preceded by the character “&”. In the actual program, however, a hotkey is the underlined letter in a command name which you activate by pressing Alt+. That means that &Open will look like Open in the actual program. Do not place hotkeys on letters which reach below the base line such as g, p, j, y, q as they will hardly be visible in the program (the hotkey underline will overlap with the letter). You should only use hotkeys which are available on every keyboard (avoid special characters like ö, ñ, etc.).

In the example above, &Open would be translated as &Abrir in Spanish or &Ouvrir in French.

- Variables: are symbols which will be replaced by another string/number/date in the final product. Variables can be represented in several ways, like by % and a letter or number (“%s”, “%d”, “%l”, etc), by {0}, {1}, etc, or just by [text], among others. Please see below some common variables and the parameters replacing them:
Variable Parameter
%s String
%d Decimal integer
%ld Decimal long integer
%u Unicode character
%p Page number

Example: “This test %s is not valid”.

Do not touch variables but place the translated text around them in the correct order. Depending on the word that is inserted at the location of the variable, the grammatical form of some words (“valid” in the case of the example) may vary. This might also depend on the gender of the word that is inserted.

In the example above, if we are translating into Spanish and %s is going to replace the word “number” or “name”, the translation would be as follows: “Este %s de prueba no es válido” In Spanish, the variable should go before “test” and a preposition between these two words is needed. Also, “válido” is a male adjective, as both number and name are of masculine gender in this language.

Ideally the Language Lead or Project Manager will have identified for you what text will replace the variables. If not, please ask them for guidance in how to treat the variables. If they can not provide this information, it is permissible to reflect all options (masculine/feminine) in your translations as follows:

“This test %s is not valid” could be translated as “Este/a %s de prueba no es válido/a“

- Control characters: they provide formatting information to be displayed within strings, such as carriage returns or values (percentage, number, etc.). Some control characters are \r, \n, and \t. When translating, they should be left as they are: please be careful not to delete them.


More and more, devices include software that is necessary for the functioning of the device. For this reason, very often there are references to the software in the device’s manuals. The instructions can refer to software options, menus, system messages, etc. See some examples:

Example 1:

Change these settings as follows:

1. Open the Menu window.

2. Select Mask/Port.

3. Select the desired mask/patient interface type (Table 6-1). Select Accept to apply.

In this example, the words in bold refer to software options.

Example 2:
TABLE 4: Error Codes and Troubleshooting Instructions
Error Code Error Message on Display Troubleshooting Instructions
1A-K System ErrorTurn Unit OffSEE INSTRUCTIONS Disconnect the catheter and turn RF generator power off and then on. If the error recurs, contact Technical Support.
2A Bad ConnectionReplace Catheter or Cable Disconnect catheter and connector cable from RF generator. Press reset button, and reconnect catheter and a new connector cable to RF generator to continue the procedure. If the error recurs, disconnect the catheter, press the reset button and connect a new catheter to continue the procedure.
2D No Matrix PresentReplace Catheter Disconnect catheter. Press reset button and connect a new catheter to continue the procedure.

In the example above, the text on the column Error Message on Display refers to error messages that will appear on screen. These are software references as well.

If there are software references in the text, you need to know if the software has been translated or not. Usually, the PM will give you this information (if not, it is imperative that you ask). You will most likely find it in the linguistic analysis. There might be two cases:

a) Software has not been translated: in this case, you can leave the software references in English and write the translation in brackets. Another option is to leave the software references in English without a translation in brackets. Either way, it is very important to make sure that the references stay in English as that’s they way they will show on screen. If they get translated in the manual but they are not translated in the software, the user won’t be able to see what is being referred.

b) Software has been translated: in this case, you will be provided with the translation of the software references and you should use them accordingly. It is very important to use the exact translation of the software reference as that is they way it will appear on screen.

Another thing you should pay attention to is that the documentation of devices can also refer to the keyboard/ buttons which are used to enter commands. Sometimes buttons and keys like “Enter”, “Control”, “Delete”, etc. (see example 3), may remain in the source language and the user will be able to choose to use a localized keyboard.

If these buttons are built into the device (see example 4), they are usually not localized.

Manufacturers are getting better about using symbols instead of words when the buttons are built-in, but this is still something you should take into account during translation.

Usually, the PM will give you this information but again, if not, it is imperative that you ask.

Example 3

Press Enter to save the new volume entered and return to the Syringe/Calibration screen. Press Delete to cancel the changes made and return to the Syringe/Calibration screen.

In the example above, Enter and Delete are keys from the keyboard, so they are most likely to be localized and therefore should be translated. Usually, Microsoft or Mac terminology (depending on the operative system) should be used. The PM or Linguistic Lead should be able to help locate these standard translations for you if you need them.

Example 4

When operating the system in Semi-Automatic mode, the ablation cycle will not start automatically after the successful completion of the CIA. Once a successful CIA has been completed, press the ENABLE button and depress the foot switch a second time to initiate the ablation cycle.

In this example, the button ENABLE is built into the device, so we should know if this has been translated in the device. Usually, these buttons are not translated, but this needs to be checked with the PM.a

Lexical mistakes in second language 

2014年03月28日(金) 17時20分
The important of vocabulary in second language writing is widely accepted, but there has been relatively little research into several lexical errors learners produce when writing in their second language. Empirical evidence suggests that lexical errors are the most frequently occurring

Somehow, mistakes in lexical selection may be less generously tolerated outside classrooms than mistakes in syntax’. This is probably because lexical selection consists mainly of content words, which convey the intended message. Inappropriate lexical choices (lexical errors) will lead to misunderstanding of the message directly, or at least to an increase in the burden of interpreting the text. Linguistic translation problems arise from differences in the vocabulary, syntax features between the source language and the target language, mainly manifesting in the following ways:

Lexical mistakes are frequently made in C-E translation of APCP, even of those reputed companies in the field. Many companies don’t highlight this point, thus causing spelling mistakes, anomalous or wrong usage of words and phrases, and word redundancy.

Example 1


English version:

Smooth of production process flow is the quarantee of efficiency. We are centred in benefit and guided by technic development, focusing on technic investment. (Zhejiang Tianyuan Mechanical & Electrical Co., Ltd)

Spelling mistake and inappropriate diction are evident that “quarantee” should be “guarantee” and “technic investment” ought to be “investment in technical upgrading” for “技改投入”. The reason consists in that “technic” means “technique” only when it is used as a noun.

Lexical mistakes includes wrong words and inappropriate words. According to the above example, “Quarantee” is the wrong words, “investment in technical upgrading”

For using the wrong words, it is obvios to be noticed. Once the translater masters vocabulary very well, such mistakes will be overcomed. Because the meaning of the sentence will be totally different when using the wrong words, readers are very easy to find out the mistake also.

In order to avoid mistakes of inappropriate words, we need to get better known about vocabulary of the source language and the target language. Not only understand the meaning of the words but also learn the concrete usage in different context.