Do not dispose of batteries by trying to burn them 

2013年07月26日(金) 16時06分
As a designer and manufacturer of battery belts and other associated power equipment, I have been asked to write an article about the benefits and disadvantages of the various battery technologies, with particular reference to lithium X220T the sort of applications used by readers of this journal. My notes here have been necessarily generalised, and are not necessarily related to any manufacturer's specific product, although I have used a few examples from manufacturer's product lists for comparison purposes.

In particular the major manufacturers are continuously improving their products, so any cost, capacity or weight comparisons I make may not apply to the particular devices you are familiar with.

First of all, before we start, when dealing with batteries, please observe the following safety notes:

Do not dismantle any battery, most of the chemicals are poisonous and/or corrosive.

Do not dispose of batteries by trying to burn them, or otherwise get them too hot, since the chemicals will be forced out of the case, often violently.

Dispose of batteries properly. Ni-Cads in particular are far from biodegradable or environmentally friendly, so you shouldn't just put them in the dustbin, and in fact the use of Ni-Cads are prohibited in some countries.

In my experience, most confusion with electrical matters stems from folk not understanding the basic concepts and terminology. If you appreciate the difference between an Amp (I don't mean an amplifier!) and a Volt, betweenlithium X300 series connections and parallel connections, own and know how to use a simple multimeter, then you will be able to understand the following notes and be able to avoid getting into all sorts of trouble with basic battery usage and maintenance, so read on....

If you have a number of different voltage/capacity Ni-Cad battery packs 

2013年07月26日(金) 16時04分
Because of the memory effect, before charging Ni-Cads, it is wise to ensure that they are fully discharged to an end voltage of 1.0V/cell. This is why many chargers have a built in discharger. It would be as well for you to actually measure the appropriate voltages of your charger and battery combination. It is obvious, that since this discharge end voltage is so critical to the capacity of the Ni-Cadlithium X220 , that you should not just leave the battery connected to a load overnight, since it may go well below the desired 1.0V/cell. If the cell is completely discharged, then polarity reversal may occur, and electrolyte creapage takes place. Gas pressure increases inside the cell, and the cell will be permanently damaged.

For the same reason, it is essential you match the charger to the battery, in particular if you are using a fast charger. Fast chargers employ circuitry that detects the voltage decrease at the end of the charge cycle (negative delta V - the voltage peaks, and then falls slightly when the Ni-Cad battery is nearly fully charged) and switches to a lower current value. If this detection of negative delta V fails, then the second line of defence depends of detection of the increase in temperature of the battery pack, and if that fails it should finally time out if it has been giving a fast charge for too long a period of time.

Before charging they measure the ambient temperature and the state of charge of the battery to calculate the charge rate and time required. These devices cost far more than a simple 0.1C charger.
If you have a number of different voltage/capacity Ni-Cad battery packs, then your charging situation may have to be more 'hands on', unless you have the associated expensive fast charger for each pack. The following notes should help.

The speed of charging is related to the speed of gas recombination at the negative plate and the rate of gas generation. For most cases that I am aware of a charge current of 0.1C for a period of 14 to 16 hours from complete discharge will bring the battery to full capacity, but check with your battery manufacturer to be safe. So, the first requirement is a means of discharging the battery to 1.0 V/cell.

A constant current charger is ideal, but not easy to achieve at low cost for high currents, so a quasi constant current charger is more usual. For the normal domestic UK electricity supply, this is simply a transformer/rectifier with a series resistor between the DC side of the rectifier and the battery . The value of the resistance is adjusted so that the charge current at the end of charging does not exceed the specified current value. This resistor control system is also easily employed if you wish to recharge your batteries from your car battery (assuming the Ni-Cads are less than 10V, say).

Some particular considerations with Ni-Cads: - do not mix old and new cells, or mix different manufacturers or different sized cells within a battery. Internal resistance and other features will be different and can lead to high current flows within the battery pack, and damage to individual cells. Do not overcharge ora lithium X220i over discharge, or charge with poles inverted, which may damage the safety vent. For storage longer than about three months, discharge the battery and ensure it is disconnected from any load.

You will have to go through two or three charge/discharge cycles before reuse, to get the battery back to maximum capacity. The normal rate of self discharge is about 15% per month, increasing in warm temperatures. With proper attention to their use, it is quite feasible to have over 1000 charge/discharge cycles from Ni-Cad batteries.

Researchers in Texas are working on a kind of battery  

2013年06月07日(金) 17時12分
Other battery experts welcomed the team's efforts but said it could prove hard to bring the technology to market.

"The challenge is to make a microbattery array that is robust enough and that does not have a single short circuit in the whole array X130e 9cellsvia a process that can be scaled up cheaply," said Prof Clare Grey from the University of Cambridge's chemistry department.

University of Oxford's Prof Peter Edwards - an expert in inorganic chemistry and energy - also expressed doubts.

"This is a very exciting development which demonstrates that high power densities are achievable by such innovations," he said.

"The challenges are: scaling this up to manufacturing levels; developing a simpler fabrication route; and addressing safety issues.

"I'd want to know if these microbatteries would be more prone to the self-combustion issues that plagued lithium-cobalt oxide batteries which we've seen become an issue of concern with Boeing's Dreamliner jets."
Prof William King Prof William King hopes to use the microbattery to power electronic equipment before the end of the year

He said that in the test equipment only a microscopic amount of the liquid was used, making the risk of an explosion negligible - but if it were scaled up to large sizes the danger could become "significant".

However, he added that he soon planned to switch to a safer polymer-based electrolyte to address the issue.

Prof King added that he hoped to have the technology ready to be trialled as a power source for electronic equipment before the end of the year.

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign X200 9cells team is one of several groups attempting to overhaul the way we power gadgets.

Researchers in Texas are working on a kind of battery that can be spray-painted onto any surface while engineers at the University of Bedfordshire are exploring the idea of using radio waves as an energy source.

The Trusted Everywhere brand 

2013年04月13日(土) 11時17分
Whether it's an approaching storm or a summer vacation with the family, there are too many important details to consider and no tOriginal Satellite P500ime to worry that the batteries you select will have the power you need for your critical devices.

That’s why Duracell?, the Trusted Everywhere brand, is giving consumers peace of mind with the launch of Duralock with Power Preserve? Technology, the biggest news in the brand’s battery product portfolio since the creation of CopperTop. Set for retail distribution starting this summer, Duracell batteries with the Duralock Power Preserve Technology are guaranteed to stay powered for up to 10 years in storage.1

Duracell with Duralock will be packaged with a ”good until” date and be recognizable by the new Duralock ring, providing consumers with instant recognition and the comfort of knowing that Duracell batteries left sitting in a drawer will still work when they are needed most. Whether it’s a CopperTop, an Ultra Power, or a Rechargable battery, Duracell’s Duralock technology means that there’s a battery best suited for every lifestyle.

The entire portfolio of Duracell batteries including Ultra (AA/AAA), CopperTop (AA/AAA/C/D/9V), Rechargeable (AA/AAA), Hearing Aid and Coin Button cells1 will carry a Duralock Power Preserve guarantee.

“All batteries are not the same,” said Volker Kuhn, general manager for Duracell North America. “Duracell has always committed toOriginal Satellite P505 creating batteries and power solutions that consumers can rely on whenever they need it most. Whether it is powering the devices that keep you connected, that entertain, educate, or protect you and your family, the promise of guaranteed power that comes with Duracell with Duralock is an innovation we feel consumers deserve."

The researchers tested the device using nine bathroom tiles  

2013年04月13日(土) 11時17分
Traditional lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics, and while already compact, they are limited to rectangular orOriginal Satellite P305 cylindrical blocks.

But researchers at Rice University in Houston, Texas, have come up with a technique to break down each element of the traditional battery and incorporate it into a liquid that can be spray-painted in layers on virtually any surface.

"This means traditional packaging for batteries has given way to a much more flexible approach that allows all kinds of new design and integration possibilities for storage devices," Pulickel Ajayan, who leads the team on the project, said.

The new rechargeable battery is made from spray-painted layers, with each representing the components of a traditional battery: two current collectors, a cathode, an anode and a polymer separator in the middle.

The paint layers were airbrushed onto ceramics, glass and stainless steel, and on diverse shapes such as the curved surface of a ceramic mug, to test how well they bond.

Neelam Singh, who worked on the project, says the technology could be integrated with solar cells to give any surface a stand-alone energy capture and storage capability.

The researchers tested the device using nine bathroom tiles coated with the paint and connected to each other. When they were charged, the batteries powered a set of light-emitting diodes for six hours, providing a steady 2.4 volts.

One limitation of the technology is in the use of difficult-to-handle liquid electrolytes and the need for a dry and oxygen-freeOriginal Satellite P305 environment when making the new device.

But the researchers are looking for components that would allow construction in the open air for a more efficient production process and greater commercial viability.

The results of the study were published on Thursday in the journal Nature Scientific Reports.

How much charge a battery has left 

2013年03月29日(金) 14時49分
Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new technique that allows users to better determine the12 cells 42T5263 amount of charge remaining in a battery in real time. That’s good news for electric vehicle drivers, since it gives them a better idea of when their car may run out of juice.

The research is also good news for battery developers. “This improved accuracy will also give us additional insight into the dynamics of the battery, which we can use to develop techniques that will lead to more efficient battery management,” says Dr. Mo-Yuen Chow, a professor of electrical and computer engineering at NC State and co-author of the paper. “This will not only extend the life of the charge in the battery, but extend the functional life of the battery itself.”

At present, it is difficult to determine how much charge a battery has left. Existing computer models for estimating the remaining charge are not very accurate. The inaccuracy stems, in part, from the number of variables that must be plugged in to the models. For example, the capacity of a battery to hold a charge declines with use, so a battery’s history is a factor. Other factors include temperature and the rate at which a battery is charged, among many others.

Existing models only allow data on these variables to be plugged in to the model once. Because these variables – such as temperature – are constantly changing, the models can become increasingly inaccurate.

But now researchers have developed software that identifies and processes data that can be used to update the computer model in real time, allowing the model to estimate the remaining charge in a battery much more accurately. While the technique was developed specifically for batteries in plug-in electric vehicles, the approach is also applicable to battery use in any other application.

Using the new technique, models are able to estimate remaining charge within 5 percent. In other words, if a model using the new technique estimates a battery’s state of charge at 48 percent, the real state of charge would be between 43 and 53 percent (5 percent above or below the estimate).

The paper, “Adaptive Parameter Identification and State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries,” will be presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society in Montreal, Oct. 25-28. Lead author 12 cells 51J0497of the paper is Habiballah Rahimi-Eichi, a Ph.D. student at NC State.

The research was supported by the National Science Foundation, in collaboration with the foundation’s Engineering Research Center for Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management, which is based at NC State.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically  

2013年03月29日(金) 14時49分
The resistance of a battery provides useful information about its performance and detects hidden trouble spots. High resistance values are often the triggering point to replace an aging battery, and determining resistance is12 cells L08S6D13 especially useful in checking stationary batteries.

However, resistance comparison alone is not effective, because the value between batches of lead acid batteries can vary by eight percent. Because of this relatively wide tolerance, the resistance method only works effectively when comparing the values for a given battery from birth to retirement. Service crews are asked to take a snapshot of each cell at time of installation.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically honor the warranty if the internal resistance increases by 50 percent.

Their preference is to get true capacity readings by applying a full discharge. It is their belief that only a discharge can provide reliable readings and they ask users to perform the service once a year. While this advice has merit, a full discharge requires a temporary disconnection of the battery from the system, and on a large battery such a test takes an entire day to complete. In the real world, very few battery installations receive this type of service and most measurements are based on 12 cells L09S6Y02resistance readings.

Measuring the internal resistance is done by reading the voltage drop on a load current or by AC impedance. The results are in ohmic values. There is a notion that internal resistance is related to capacity, and this is false. The resistance of many batteries stays flat through most of the service life. Figure 1 shows the capacity fade and internal resistance of lithium-ion cells.

The energy available from these solar panels to charge the batteries  

2012年11月08日(木) 11時25分
Our world today relies heavily on electronics & gadgets. Laptops, cell phones, tablets & cameras are a basic necessity today for every working professional. Such devices upgrade their technology every passing day and yet suffer from a major limitation –Batteries. These devices require sufficient battery capacity to keep bright Vostro 1400 batterythem in activity. Charging such devices can be troublesome when staying off the grid or travelling long distances. This is where a solar battery charger can be of great help!

The solar technology works on a very simple principle. When semiconductor material (Example: Silicon), is exposed to sunlight, electricity is produced. One can either use the energy directly at the point of production or store it with the help of batteries to be used during the evening and night when there is no solar energy available. Solar battery chargers are essentially solar panels which provide the energy during the day time to charge the batteries connected to it. The energy available from these solar panels to charge the batteries depends on the area of the solar panels and the available amount of sunlight during the day.

The solar cheap KM742
chargers come in various capacities based on the capacity of battery used for charging.

The capacity of the battery is determined by the power rating of the appliance & the time period for which the appliance is desired to be run. Thus indirectly, the capacity of a solar battery charger is determined by the kind of electrical appliance it plans to run.

All this maintenance and the considerable expense of solar batteries  

2012年11月08日(木) 11時23分
Promptly recharge partially drained batteries. Some watt-hour meters show the percentage of charge left in the battery (much like most laptop computers). A battery that is only drained to about 90 percent of its capacity will last more than 10 times longer than a battery that is regularly completely drained. With an replacement battery for PA3634U-1BASoff-grid PV system, keeping the battery consistently above 90 percent of capacity is unrealistic. Instead, aim to retain at least 50 percent battery capacity at all times.

This might mean running dishwashers and other appliances on sunny days when the batteries are full and you are drawing power directly from the solar panels. Reduce electric usage during long cloudy periods. It may also be cost-effective in the long run to oversize the battery bank to minimize drainage.

Keep batteries at a comfortable temperature - between about 50 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and ideally around 75 degrees. Don't let batteries freeze, and keep them off cold concrete floors. If the batteries are kept in the home, they should be in a separate, sealed and well-ventilated space out of reach of children.

Check battery fluid levels monthly, and refill as needed with distilled water. Refill to the level specified by the manufacturer, and promptly clean off any battery acid that spills out of the battery. Battery filler bottles simplify the process and help prevent overfilling. Never wear metal jewelry or use non-insulated metal tools when working with batteries. They could conduct dangerous levels of electricity.

Use the charge controller to equalize the batteries quarterly or as needed. Equalization is a controlled overcharging of the cells, and can be done with the PV array on a sunny day or with a backup generator. The battery bank is overcharged for about four to six hours, until the voltage is equal between batteries.

Of course, all this maintenance and the considerable expense of solar batteries can be avoided with a battery-free system that is tied to the main electric grid. These cheaper systems feed power into the electric grid when possible, and draw power from the grid when necessary, and don't require Toashiba satellite A105 laptop batterybackup. If you want a small battery bank in case of a power outage, consider sealed lead-acid batteries, which do not require as much maintenance (and can't be filled or equalized). However, be sure to recharge them occasionally, as they slowly lose their charge. Also avoid freezing or extreme heat.

Much of the above information can be attributed to "Power from the Sun" by Dan Chiras, a thorough, accessible resource for all kinds of information about home solar electric systems, and "The New Solar Electric Home," by Joel Davidson and Fran Orner, which is a more difficult read, but it packs more detailed information.

Larger LIP batteries can even run a notebook computer 

2012年09月06日(木) 10時30分
This new, quickly evolving product category offers the promise of power in faraway places as long as you have a line of sight to the sun.

These solar-collecting devices are configured as thin scrolls, fold-out panels or some similar space- and weight-saving design. In general, they need 8 to 10 hours (or more) of sun exposure to achieve a full charge. Theyhigh quality Pavilion g62 battery transport their charge to portable electronic devices via an assortment of small cables and adapters.

They do not provide a huge or inexhaustible supply of power—a frequently cited estimate is one hour of solar collection provides enough power for 10 minutes of mobile phone usage. Nevertheless, they are a clever, clean way of keeping a GPS receiver or other small device powered during an extended 9cells Pavilion dv7 batterybackcountry journey. They work for PDAs, music players, game players and other low- to moderate-drain devices, too.

Another newcomer to this portable-power category is a sort of "mini-generator"—a rechargeable block of energy known as a lithium iron phosphate (LIP) battery. This external battery (the smallest model weighs about 5 ounces) uses cables and adaptors to connect to and power smaller portable electronics. Larger LIP batteries can even run a notebook computer.