Commercialization of a practical version of this fuel cell 

June 14 [Fri], 2013, 16:17
If you're frustrated by frequently losing battery power in your laptop computer, digital camera or portable music player, then take heart: A better source of "juice" is in the works. Chemists at Arizona State University in Tempe have created a tiny hydrogen-gas generator that they say can be developed into a compact satellite A200 bright fuel cell package that can power these and other electronic devices -- from three to five times longer than conventional batteries of the same size and weight.

The generator uses a special solution containing borohydride, an alkaline compound that has an unusually high capacity for storing hydrogen, a key element that is used by fuel cells to generate electricity. In laboratory studies, a prototype fuel cell made from this generator was used to provide sustained power to light bulbs, radios and DVD players, the researchers say.

The fuel cell system can be packaged in containers of the same size and weight as conventional batteries and is recharged by refilling a fuel cartridge, they say. Research on these battery replacement fuel cells, which they claim are safer for the environment than regular batteries, was described today at the 232nd national meeting of the American Chemical Society.

"We're trying to maximize the usable hydrogen storage capacity of borohydride in order to make this fuel cell power source last longer," says study leader Don Gervasio, Ph.D., a chemist at the University's Biodesign Institute, Center for Applied NanoBioScience. "That could lead to the longest lasting power source ever produced for portable electronics."

One of the challenges in fuel cell development is finding hydrogen-rich compounds for the fuel source. Many different hydrogen sources have been explored for use in fuel cells, including metal hydride "sponges" and liquids such as gasoline, methanol, ethanol and even vegetable oil.

Recently, borohydride has shown promise as a safe, energy-dense hydrogen storage solution. Unlike the other fuel sources, borohydride works at room temperature and does not require high temperatures in order to liberate hydrogen, Gervasio says.

Gervasio and his associates are developing novel chemical additives to increase the useful hydrogen storage capacity of the borohydride solution by as much as two to three times that of simple aqueous sodium borohydride solutions that are currently being explored for fuel cell development. These additives prevent the solution from solidifying, which could potentially clog or damage the hydrogen generator and cause it to fail.

In developing the prototype fuel cell system, the researchers housed the solution in a tiny generator containing a metal catalyst composed of ruthenium metal. In the presence of the catalyst, the borohydride in the water-based PA3399U-2BAS bright solution reacts with water to form hydrogen gas.

The gas leaves the hydrogen generator by moving across a special membrane separating the generator from the fuel cell component. The hydrogen gas then combines with oxygen inside the fuel cell to generate water and electricity, which can then be used to power the portable electronic device. Commercialization of a practical version of this fuel cell could take as many as three to five years, Gervasio says.

What battery users can do to minimize the effect 

June 14 [Fri], 2013, 16:16
A lead acid battery goes through three life phases, called formatting, peak and decline (Figure 1). In the formatting phase, try to imagine sponge-like lead plates that are being exposed to a liquid. Exercising the plates allows PA3672U-1BRS bright the absorption of more liquid, much like squeezing and releasing a sponge. This enables the electrolyte to better fill the usable areas, an exercise that increases the capacity.

Formatting is most important for deep-cycle batteries and requires 20 to 50 full cycles to reach peak capacity. Field usage achieves this. There is no need to apply added cycles for the sake of priming; however, manufacturers recommend to go easy on the battery until broken in. Starter batteries are less critical and do not need priming; the full cranking power is present right from the beginning, although the CCA reading will go up slightly with early use.

A deep-cycle battery delivers 100–200 cycles before it starts the gradual decline. Replacement should occur when the capacity drops to 70 or 80 percent. Some applications allow lower capacity thresholds but the time for retirement should not fall below 50 percent because the aging occurs rapidly once the battery is past its prime. Apply a fully saturated charge of 14 to 16 hours. Operating at moderate temperatures assure the longest service times. If at all possible, avoid deep discharges; charge more often.

The primary reason for the relatively short cycle life of a lead acid battery is depletion of the active material. According to the 2010 BCI Failure Modes Study,* plate/grid-related breakdown has increased from 30 percent five satellite A100 bright years ago to 39 percent. The report does not give reasons for the increased wear-and-tear, other than to assume that higher demands of starter batteries in modern cars induce added stress.

While the depletion of the active material is well understood and can be calculated, a lead acid battery suffers from other infirmities long before plate- and grid-deterioration sound the death knell. The following articles address the most common problems that develop with use and time and what battery users can do to minimize the effect.

Li-ion the universally acceptable battery for portable application 

April 19 [Fri], 2013, 16:52
It was not until the early 1970s that the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available. Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the 1980s but the endeavor failed because of 12 cells X100einstabilities in the metallic lithium used as anode material.

Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest specific energy per weight. Rechargeable batteries with lithium metal on the anode (negative electrodes) could provide extraordinarily high energy densities, however, cycling produced unwanted dendrites on the anode that could penetrate the separator and cause an electrical short. The cell temperature would rise quickly and approaches the melting point of lithium, causing thermal runaway, also known as “venting with flame.”

The inherent instability of lithium metal, especially during charging, shifted research to a non-metallic solution using lithium ions. Although lower in specific energy than lithium-metal, Li-ion is safe, provided cell manufacturers and battery packers follow safety measures in keeping voltage and currents to secure levels. In 1991, Sony commercialized the first Li-ion battery, and today this chemistry has become the most promising and fastest growing on the market. Meanwhile, research continues to develop a safe metallic lithium battery in the hope to make it safe.

In 1994, it cost more than $10 to manufacture Li-ion in the 18650* cylindrical cell delivering a capacity of 1,100mAh. In 2001, the price dropped to $2 and the capacity rose to 1,900mAh. Today, high energy-dense 18650 cells deliver over 3,000mAh and the costs have dropped further. Cost reduction, increase in specific energy and the absence of toxic material paved the road to make Li-ion the universally acceptable battery for portable application, first in the consumer industry and now increasingly also in heavy industry, including electric powertrains for vehicles.

In 2009, roughly 38 percent of all batteries by revenue were Li-ion. Li-ion is a low-maintenance battery, an advantage many other 12 cells X120echemistries cannot claim. The battery has no memory and does not need exercising to keep in shape. Self-discharge is less than half compared to nickel-based systems.

This makes Li-ion well suited for fuel gauge applications. The nominal cell voltage of 3.6V can power cell phones and digital cameras directly, offering simplifications and cost reductions over multi-cell designs. The drawback has been the high price, but this leveling out, especially in the consumer market.

Reliable devices that can check batteries with certainty 

March 01 [Fri], 2013, 15:04
Most new batteries go through a formatting process during which the capacity gradually increases and reaches optimal performance at 100–200 cycles. After this mid-life point, the capacity gradually begins decreasing and the depth of discharge, operating temperatures and charging method govern the speed of capacity loss. The deeper the batteries are discharged and the warmer the ambient temperature is, the shorter the service life. The effect of temperature on the battery can be compared with a jug of milk, which stays fresh longer when refrigerated.

Most portable batteries deliver between 300 and 500 full discharge/charge cycles. Fleet batteries in portable devices normally work well during the first year; however, the confidence in the portable equipment begins to fade after the second and third year, when some batteries begin to lose capacity. New packs are added and in time the battery fleet becomes a jumble of good and failing batteries. That’s when the headaches begin. Unless date stamps or other quality controls are in place, the user has no way of knowing the history of the battery, much less the performance.

The green light on the charger does not reveal the performance of a battery. The charger simply fills the available space to store energy, and “ready” indicates that the battery is full. With age, the available space gradually decreases and the charge time becomes shorter. This can be compared to filling a jug with cheap rn873 HSTNN-OB42water. An empty jug takes longer because it can accept more water than one with rocks. Figure 1 shows the “ready” light that often lies.

Many battery users are unaware that weak batteries charge faster than good ones. Low performers gravitate to the top and become available by going to “ready” first. They form a disguised trap when unsuspecting users require a fully charged battery in a hurry. This plays havoc in emergency situations when freshly charged batteries are needed. The operators naturally grab batteries that show ready, presuming they carry the full capacity. Poor battery management is the common cause of system failure, especially during emergencies.

Failures are not foreign in our lives and to reduce breakdowns, regulatory authorities have introduced strict maintenance and calibration guidelines for important machinery and instruments. Although the battery can be an integral part of such equipment, it often escapes scrutiny.

The battery as power source is seen as a black box, and for some inspectors correct size, weight and color satisfies the requirements. For the users, however, state-of-function stands above regulatory discipline and arguments cheap rn873 HSTNN-OB60arise over what’s more important, performance or satisfying a dogmatic mandate.

Ignoring the performance criteria of a battery nullifies the very reason why quality control is put in place. In defense of the quality auditor, batteries are difficult to check, and to this day there are only a few reliable devices that can check batteries with certainty.

Your batter can last longer 

January 05 [Sat], 2013, 10:39
Mobile computing has got better with lighter components, better chips and faster processors. But the Achilles heel of a laptop has remained its buy Satellite C650D So here are we are going to look at ways to increase laptop battery life.

Modern graphic intensive operating systems and resource hungry applications are cutting down the life of your laptop’s battery every day. The average battery life per continuous use still stands at a maximum of three to four hours. So, a fast depleting battery could very swiftly put the crutches on your ‘mobile’ road trip.
Falling just short of carrying an extra pack of batteries in the back-pack, are several ways to keep the juice flowing through the batteries.

1. Ship shape with a defrag
Regular defragmentation helps to arrange data more efficiently thus making the hard drive work less to access the data. The quicker the moving hard drive works lesser is the load placed on the battery. Thus, your batter can last longer. The effect is minimal, but this efficiency goes hand in glove with hard drive maintenance.

2. Kill the resource gobblers
End the background processes that are not vital. Monitor the resource usage through a “?Ctrl-Alt-Del’ which brings up the Windows Task Manager (in Windows). If you’re not on the internet, it is safe to shut down the immediatebuy Satellite C655 non-essential programs running in the taskbar like the antivirus and the firewall.

Weed out unnecessary programs running as start-ups by launching the System Configuration Utility from Run ““ Msconfig ““ Tab: Startup. Uncheck the programs which you don’t want to launch and reboot the computer once.

Is there anyone out there with more knowledge of the chemistry 

January 05 [Sat], 2013, 10:38
For the next attempt, I wanted to get 6V and more surface area, so I cut out six strips of lead sheeting, 70mm x 400mm, which when rolled up fitted neatly into a medium sized jam jar. To keep the plates from touching, two sheets of woven glass fibre mat were put in between the sheets of lead. So each cell has tbuy Satellite C645Dwo sheets of lead and four sheets of glass mat.

This time I left it to soak in the acid overnight, as I wanted lead sulphate (PbSO4) to form on the plates. Once a thin layer of PbSO4 forms, it covers the remaining lead and stops the reaction. So in the morning I put it on charge using a small DC power pack. I set it to 3V, which actually develops 7.1V open circuit. I kept track of the current flowing into the cells.

This time there was no bubbling.. perhaps the bubbling was a symptom of over charging the first model?

I noticed a salt like sediment forming in the bottom of the jars. Perhaps these are the sulphation crystals that are mentioned in warnings about overcharging batteries. To get rid of them I put the jars in a 1-2cm bath of boiling water, and stirred the jars once they had heated. This seems to get the sediment back into solution.

So back to charging.... I am not getting very much charging current... the positive should go rust coloured from PbO2 formation. Perhaps this is due to the lack of spongy lead which will hopefully form after repeated charge/discharge cycles (thereby hugely increasing the surface area).

It seems that a way of monitoring the sulphation and discharge process is needed. Or perhaps I should push more current into the cells on charge? And should discharging be done by just shorting out the cells (individually or all together?) or by controlling the discharge current?

Is there anyone out there with more knowledge of the chemistry involved who can suggest anything? Please post a comment buy Satellite C650here, and I will post it here.

Currently (ha ha), the cells are drawing about 5 - 10mA on charge at 6.9V. A new test is an electric motor which spun for 7 seconds from the batteries - I will now alternate charge and discharge and monitor this to see if it increases or decreases.

Any improvements in the medium- to long-term demand picture for electric vehicles  

November 29 [Thu], 2012, 17:06
The results of a 2011 Pike Research poll show that 40 percent of respondents would be “extremely or very interested in purchasing [a highway-capable plug-in electric vehicle] assuming the price were right.” The study points out that “price sensitivity is an issue that continues to loom over the [EV] industry, as surveyorigianl envy 590543-001 participants’ willingness to pay was much lower than the prices currently planned by automakers.”

In recent weeks, the high cost of lithium batteries has become the subject of a series of lawsuits targeting high-profile Japanese and Korean battery manufacturers, including Panasonic (NYSE:PC,TSE:6752), LG (NYSE:LPL), Sony (NYSE:SNE,TSE:6758), Samsung (LSE:BC94), Sanyo and Hitachi (TSE:6501), which together control the majority of the global battery market. In 2011, the worldwide market for batteries was reportedly worth $14 billion and is expected to total $16 billion for 2012.

While the class-action lawsuit brought against failing lithium battery maker A123 Systems (OTC Pink:AONEQ) has dominated battery investment news headlines of late, as of October 23 of this year a total of 10 lawsuits against the world’s leading battery manufacturers had been filed in US courts, according to a report in the New Jersey Law Journal. The lawsuits allege that over the past decade the companies and their American subsidiaries have actively conspired in a price-fixing scheme that has resulted in consumers paying much more than they should for lithium batteries and the electronic devices they power, such as laptops, cell phones and digital cameras.

The plaintiffs claim that the price-fixing scheme first began in late 2001 or early 2002 following a nearly 50-percent drop in lithium-ion battery prices brought about by new competition entering the market. The dramatic price slide allegedly drove the world’s leading battery manufacturers to enter into a price-fixing agreement that led to an almost 66 percent drop in battery production. The plaintiffs believe this scheme is responsible for the dramatic rise in battery prices seen over the past 10 years.

The allegations aren’t far-fetched. Electronics companies have been the subject of several price-fixing investigations conducted by the United States and the European Union in recent years. For example, in December 2011, eight LCD panel manufacturers, including LG, Sharp (TSE:6753) and Samsung, agreed to pay a combined $388 million settlement after being found guilty of price fixing, which drove up purchase prices on screens and the products containing them from 1999 to 2006. The litigation was first brought to court in 2007 following an investigation by the US Justice Department.

The plaintiffs in the current lawsuits “assert the alleged battery price-fixing scheme has similar features: a highly concentrated market, controlled by Asian corporations; pricing pressure exerted by equipment manufacturers; rapid commoditization of new technology; and pricing behavior inconsistent with a competitive market,” wrote the New Jersey Law Journal’s Mary Pat Gallagher.

Although the lawsuits center on the personal electronics industry, news of the pending litigation has sparked discussion among EV market watchers, including Digital Trends’ Jacob Joseph, who pointed out that “[b]reaking up a potential price-fixing racket in lithium-ion batteries could be a significant development for EVs … [p]rices have been predicted to fall for lithium-ion EV batteries over the next decade, but with sales of EVs falling well short of the high expectations of just two years ago and automakers rethinking their EV strategies, a decade from now might already be too late to cheap 448007-001save the EV. Should these suits trigger a worldwide drop in lithium-ion battery prices, the potential is there for an EV market which is competitive with standard gasoline-powered cars.”

Any improvements in the medium- to long-term demand picture for electric vehicles bodes well for overall demand in the lithium market, making the outcome of these class action lawsuits something lithium resource companies and their investors will want to track. Lithium Investing News will continue to follow developments as well, so stay tuned for updates.

Firstly this type of battery should never be overcharged 

November 29 [Thu], 2012, 17:02
A battery is essentially a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.It is a very convenient source of power for household as well as industrial use.Batteries are of two types,primary battery,which is used for a while and discarded and secondary which can be recharged and used repeatedly.You can find replacement AT908AAreally tiny sizes for use in watches and hearing aids,to really large ones that are used in centers for computer data.Since the battery was invented by Allessandro Volta,the unit of measurement of a battery’s electrical energy is known as a volt.

The early version of batteries could not create electrical energy for long periods.They were known as wet cells as the components were liquid electrolytes.The so called dry batteries,were developed in the nineteenth century and as its components were in the form of a paste,grew in popularity as a source portable energy.These types of batteries are made with a combination of nickel and cadmium and are usually very expensive.These are commonly used in power tools,and some types of medical equipment.

The advantage of primary batteries is that it can create electricity directly as it is assembled.They are to be used once and then when it’s “life” is over it is disposed off.It is used for items that do not need a high amount of current.These are made from zinc and carbon or another variety known as alkaline battery.These last for a short amount of time but can deliver a higher electrical charge.A newer invention is the rechargeable battery,also known as a secondary battery.As they are made with its active components in an inactive state,these batteries need to be charged before use. Secondary batteries are recharged by plugging into an electric current.The devices used to carry the electrical current to these batteries are known as chargers.

Power tool batteries are used by carpenters and craftsmen.If you decide to get a power tool to use around the house then do ensure that you take good care of the battery.The earlier form of a secondary battery was the lead-acid battery.That is used in cars.This contains a liquid component and needs to be kept upright.Now an improved version of the lead-acid battery is known as the valve regulated lead acid battery or VRLA battery and has a longer life.Newer rechargeable hp AU213AA laptop battery are available in the dry cell format.These are sealed and used sealed and used in our mobile phones and laptops.

Firstly this type of battery should never be overcharged.If you inadvertently do overcharge it,you are actually harming both the lithium battery and the tool that you use it in.If you leave it on to charge for unnecessarily long,it produces too much heat in the battery.Remember to charge the battery only when it has almost run out of power.After it has been placed in an electrical charger for an hour or so,it should be enough for a complete charge.Typically a display light will go from red to green to indicate that it has been charged.

Thicker plates are used in deep cycle batteries 

October 09 [Tue], 2012, 16:32
Deep Cycle Batteries are the key component in various types of renewable energy systems that require the storage of electricity. A battery is essentially a storage vessel for electricity. It is a critical component heavily relied upon by the system as a whole.

A battery bank can provide a relatively constant source of power when the grid is down, or during periods when your photovoltaic system is nothigh quality WW116 producing power. Although batteries are not one hundred percent efficient, they are predictable and stable enough for reliable long-term service.

Think of Your Batteries Like a Bucket of Energy
Batteries are basically the only method to store direct current (DC) power produced from sources like solar panels, wind generators, micro-hydro or generators. Think of your batteries like a bucket of energy, where the voltage is equal to pressure, and amperage equates to flow rate. Imagine that we are slowly pouring water into a bucket that has a small hole on the bottom. As we pour the water into the bucket, its slow leak will mean that you’ll probably use 12 gallons of water to fill a 10 gallon bucket by the time it is full.

In the same way, it takes more energy to charge a battery than it will actually store. The size of your bucket is analogous to the amp hour capacity of the battery bank. Amp hour is the unit of measurement used to express the storage capacity of deep cycle batteries.

The Amp hour rating, written as Ah, will tell you how much amperage is available when discharged evenly over a 20-hour period. Twenty hours has been the standard time length for rating batteries, although shorter or longer time variables may be used depending on the application.

Battery Components
Battery technology has not changed much in the last 100 years. The standard construction method involves flooding lead plates in sulfuric acid. The chemical reaction between the positively charged lead plate and the negatively charged acid allows the battery to store and “give” electricity. The thickness of theoriginal Inspiron 1420 battery lead plate is closely related to the lifespan of the battery because of a factor called “Positive Grid Corrosion”.

The positive lead plate gradually wears away over time. Thicker plates are used in deep cycle batteries. This usually translates to a longer battery life. Although plate thickness is not the only factor related to longer lifespan, it is the most critical variable.

Most of us have had the experience of a flat battery 

October 09 [Tue], 2012, 16:27
Your car battery stores electricity that is released to start your vehicles engine. Once the engine is started, your cars battery is recharged by the engine-driven charging system or alternator (if a hp envy FK890 battery is discharged i.e. lights left on it must be bench charged to restore to full capacity).

Corrosion at the battery terminals can prevent a car from starting by adding electrical resistance, so it is important to clean the terminals periodically using water and a wire brush, ensure you wear the correct protective gear (gloves and eye protection) as the white powder (lead sulphate) is toxic if inhaled, ingested or contacts the skin.

Most of us have had the experience of a flat battery. In some cases it’s through neglect when lights have been left on, but sometimes it’s simply a case of the battery having served out its useful life.

In either case, battery-related breakdowns account for about 40 per cent of all NRMA road service calls. What this means is that the NRMA is in an ideal position to help stranded motorists by not only startingreplacement Inspiron 1720 battery the vehicle, but making sure that if a new battery is needed, you get the right battery for your car at the right price.

We stand by the quality of our car batteries, knowing that they are built to exacting standards and tested stringently to ensure our members get the best quality batteries for their cars. This is why we offer a warranty for each battery in our range.