Apply a load that is equal to half the battery's

July 18 [Thu], 2013, 14:44
The condition of the cell plates inside the battery determines whether or not a battery is still serviceable. Current is produced when sulfuric acid in the battery reacts with lead in the cell plates. As the battery discharges, sulfate Brand new G42 accumulates on the plates and reduces the battery's ability to make current. The sulfate is returned to solution when the alternator recharges the battery by forcing current to flow in the opposite direction.

Over time, some of the sulfate becomes permanently attached to the plates. The sulfate forms a barrier that diminishes the battery's ability to produce and store electricity. This process can be accelerated if the battery is run down frequently or is allowed to remain in a discharged state for more than a few days. If the plates have become sulfated, therefore, the battery won't accept a charge and will have to be replaced.

Average battery life is only about four to five years under the best of circumstances -- and sometimes as short as two to three years in extremely hot climates such as Arizona and New Mexico. But the battery may become "sulfated" prematurely if it is chronically undercharged (charging problems or frequent short-trip driving), or if the water level inside the battery drops below the top of the cell plates as a result of hot weather or overcharging and allows the cell plates to dry out.

Battery Testing
This is something you can't really do yourself, so you need to take your vehicle to a service facility that has the proper test equipment. The battery's condition can be determined one of two ways: with a carbon pile "load test" (that applies a calibrated load to the battery) or electronically with a special tester that measures the battery's internal resistance.

Equipment that uses a carbon pile for load testing requires the battery to be at least 75% charged. If the battery is less than 75% charged, a good battery may fail the test. So the state of charge must be checked first, and the Brand new 511872-001 recharged if it is low prior to testing. NOTE: The battery does NOT have to be fully charged prior to testing if an electronic tester that measures internal resistance is being used.

If load testing with a carbon pile, apply a load that is equal to half the battery's cold cranking amps (CCA) rating. A good battery should be able to supply half its CCA rating for fifteen seconds without dropping below 9.5 volts.

A special tester that measures the battery's internal resistance

July 18 [Thu], 2013, 11:19
The condition of the cell plates inside the battery determines whether or not a battery is still serviceable. Current is produced when sulfuric acid in the battery reacts with lead in the cell plates. As the battery discharges, sulfate accumulates on the plates and reduces the battery's ability to make current. The sulfate is Brand new Presario CQ50 returned to solution when the alternator recharges the battery by forcing current to flow in the opposite direction.

Over time, some of the sulfate becomes permanently attached to the plates. The sulfate forms a barrier that diminishes the battery's ability to produce and store electricity. This process can be accelerated if the battery is run down frequently or is allowed to remain in a discharged state for more than a few days. If the plates have become sulfated, therefore, the battery won't accept a charge and will have to be replaced.

Average battery life is only about four to five years under the best of circumstances -- and sometimes as short as two to three years in extremely hot climates such as Arizona and New Mexico. But the battery may become "sulfated" prematurely if it is chronically undercharged (charging problems or frequent short-trip driving), or if the water level inside the battery drops below the top of the cell plates as a result of hot weather or overcharging and allows the cell plates to dry out.


This is something you can't really do yourself, so you need to take your vehicle to a service facility that has the proper test equipment. The battery's condition can be determined one of two ways: with a carbon pile "load test" (that applies a calibrated load to the battery) or electronically with a special tester that measures the battery's internal resistance.

Equipment that uses a carbon pile for load testing requires the battery to be at least 75% charged. If the battery is less than 75% charged, a good battery may fail the test. So the state of charge must be checked first, and the Brand new Presario CQ56 recharged if it is low prior to testing. NOTE: The battery does NOT have to be fully charged prior to testing if an electronic tester that measures internal resistance is being used.

If load testing with a carbon pile, apply a load that is equal to half the battery's cold cranking amps (CCA) rating. A good battery should be able to supply half its CCA rating for fifteen seconds without dropping below 9.5 volts.

Temperatures because of reduced battery performance

July 18 [Thu], 2013, 11:15
The Volkswagen Beetle in simpler days had minimal battery problems. The only management system was ensuring that the battery was being charged while driving. Onboard electronics for safety, convenience, comfort andBrand new Presario CQ43 pleasure have greatly added to the demands on the battery in modern cars since then. For the accessories to function reliably, the state-of-charge of the battery must be known at all times.

This is especially critical with start-stop technologies, a mandated requirement on new European cars to improve fuel economy.
When the engine stops at a red light, the battery draws 25–50 amperes of current to feed the lights, ventilators, windshield wipers and other accessories. When the light changes, the battery must have enough charge to crank the engine, which requires an additional 350A. With the engine started again and accelerating to the posted speed limit, the battery begins charging after a 10-second delay.

Realizing the importance of battery monitoring, car manufacturers have added battery sensors that measure voltage, current and temperature. Packaged in a small housing that forms part of the positive clamp, the electronic battery monitor(EBM)provides useful information about the battery and provides an accuracy of about +/–15 percent when the battery is new. As the battery ages, the EBM begins drifting and the accuracy drops to 20-30 percent. The model used for monitoring the battery is simply not able to adjust. To solve this problem, EBM would need to know the state-of-health of the battery, and that includes the all-important capacity. No method exists today that is fully satisfactory, and some mechanics disconnect the battery management system to stop the false warning messages.

A typical start-stop vehicle goes through about 2,000 micro cycles per year. Test data obtained from automakers and the Cadex laboratories indicate that with normal usage in a start-stop configuration, the battery capacity drops to approximately 60 percent in two years. Field use reveals that the standard flooded lead acid lacks robustness, and carmakers are reverting to a modified version lead acid battery. Read about Environmental Concerns.

Automakers want to ensure that no driver gets stuck in traffic with a dead battery. To conserve energy, modern cars automatically turn off unnecessary accessories when the battery is low and the motor stays running at a stoplight. Even with this measure, state-of-charge can remain low if commuting in gridlock conditions because motor idling does not provide much charge to the battery, and with essential accessories like lights and windshield wipers on, the net effect could be a small discharge.

Battery monitoring is also important on hybrid vehicles to optimize charge levels. Intelligent charge management prevents stressful overcharge and avoids deep discharges. When the charge level is low, the internal combustion (IC) engine engages earlier than normal and is left running longer for additional charge. On a fully charged battery, the IC engine turns off and the car moves on the electrical motor in slow traffic.

Improved battery management is of special interest to the manufacturers of the electric vehicle. In terms of state-of-charge, a Brand new Presario CQ45 discerning driver expects similar accuracies in energy reserve as are possible with a fuel-powered vehicle, and current technologies do not yet allow this. Furthermore, the driver of an EV anticipates a fully charged battery will power the vehicle for the same distance as the car ages. This is not the case and the drivable distance will get shorter with each passing year. Distances will also be shorter when driving in cold temperatures because of reduced battery performance.

xtending the service life of an aging battery is a noble desire

June 15 [Sat], 2013, 15:16
Adding chemicals to the electrolyte of flooded lead acid batteries can reduce the buildup of lead sulfate on the plates and improve the overall battery performance. This treatment has been in use since the 1950s (and perhaps longer) and provides a temporary performance boost for aging batteries. It’s a stopgap Satellite C660 bright measure because in most cases the plates have already been worn out through shedding. Chemical additives cannot replace the active material, nor can cracked plates, corroded connectors or damaged separators be restored with an outside remedy.

Extending the service life of an aging battery is a noble desire. The additives are cheap, readily available and worth the experiment of a handyman. Suitable additives are magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt), caustic soda and EDTA. (EDTA is a crystalline acid used in industry.) These salts may reduce the internal resistance of a sulfated battery to give it a few months of extra life. Using Epsom salt, follow these easy steps:

Heat up the water to about 66°C (150°F), mix 10 heaping tablespoons of Epsom salt into the water and stir until dissolved. The consistency of the brew should vary according to the extent of the sulfation. Avoid using too Satellite C660D bright much salt because a heavy concentration will increase corrosion of the lead plates and internal connectors. Pour the warm solution into the battery.

Be careful not to overfill. Do not place un-dissolved Epsom salt directly into the battery because the substance does not dissolve well. In place of Epsom salt, try adding a pinch of caustic soda. Charge or equalize the battery after service. The results are not instantaneous and it may take a month for the treatment to work. The outcome is not guaranteed.

Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation

June 15 [Sat], 2013, 15:16
Sulfation occurs when a lead acid battery is deprived of a full charge. This is common with starter batteries in cars driven in the city with Satellite C655 bright load-hungry accessories. A motor in idle or at low speed cannot charge the battery sufficiently.

Electric wheelchairs have a similar problem in that the users might not charge the battery long enough. An eight-hour charge during the night when the chair is free is not enough. Lead acid must periodically be charged 14–16 hours to attain full saturation. This may be the reason why wheelchair batteries last only two years, whereas golf car batteries deliver twice the service life. Longer leisure time allows golf car batteries to get the fully saturated charge.

Solar cells and wind turbines do not always provide sufficient charge, and lead acid banks succumb to sulfation. This happens in remote parts of the world where villagers draw generous amounts of electricity with insufficient renewable resources to charge the batteries. The result is a short battery life. Only a periodic fully saturated charge could solve the problem, but without an electrical grid at their disposal, this is almost impossible. An alternative is using lithium-ion, a battery that is forgiving to a partial charge, but this would cost about six-times as much as lead acid


What is sulfation? During use, small sulfate crystals form, but these are normal and are not harmful. During prolonged charge deprivation, however, the amorphous lead sulfate converts to a stable crystalline that deposits on the negative plates. This leads to the development of large crystals, which reduce the battery’s active material that is responsible for high capacity and low resistance. Sulfation also lowers charge acceptance. Sulfation charging will take longer because of elevated internal resistance.

There are two types of sulfation: reversible (or soft sulfation), and permanent (or hard sulfation). If a battery is serviced early, reversible sulfation can often be corrected by applying an overcharge to a fully charged battery in the form of a regulated current of about 200mA. The battery terminal voltage is allowed to rise to between 2.50 and 2.66V/cell (15 and 16V on a 12V mono block) for about 24 hours. Increasing the battery temperature to 50–60°C (122–140°F) further helps in dissolving the crystals. Permanent sulfation sets in when the battery has been in a low state-of-charge for weeks or months. At this stage, no form of restoration is possible.

There is a fine line between reversible and non-reversible sulfation, and most batteries have a little bit of both. Good results are achievable if the sulfation is only a few weeks old; restoration becomes more difficult the longer the battery is allowed to stay in a low SoC. A sulfated battery may improve marginally when applying a de-sulfation service. A subtle indication of whether a lead acid can be recovered is visible on the voltage discharge curve. If a fully charged battery retains a stable Satellite C655D bright voltage profile on discharge, chances of reactivation are better than if the voltage drops rapidly with load.

Several companies offer anti-sulfation devices that apply pulses to the battery terminals to prevent and reverse sulfation. Such technologies tend to lower sulfation on a healthy battery but they cannot effectively reverse the condition once present. Manufacturers offering these devices take the “one size fits all” approach and the method is unscientific. A random service of pulsing or blindly applying an overcharge can harm the battery in promoting grid corrosion. Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation and apply a calculated overcharge to dissolve the crystals. Chargers featuring this technique only apply de-sulfation if sulfation is present and only for the time needed.

The secret lies in Argonne's silicon carbide battery anode material

May 31 [Fri], 2013, 11:10
Energy storage specialist California Lithium Battery (CLBattery) has announced that it has begun work to commercialise a third-generation lithium-ion 504610-001 laptop battery based on technology created at the Argonne National Laboratory. The result: a battery which promises to last three times as long as anything else on the market.

The secret lies in Argonne's silicon carbide battery anode material, which replaces the graphite anode traditionally used in lithium-ion batteries. While silicon carbide had previously been discounted for use in lithium-ion batteries due to its instability, Argonne researchers discovered that applying graphene to the anode - a process it calls graphitisation - resulted in a material with twice the lithium-ion capacity of graphite alone.

Using graphitised silicon carbide as an anode, Argonne claims, results in a direct reduction in weight of the combined anode and cathode by 16 per cent - or, alternatively, an increase in capacity for the same weight. The technology promises to scale with future battery technologies, too, up to a potential 50 per cent weight reduction.

Sadly, while CLBattery is forging ahead with a commercial implementation, it's going to be a while before your laptop or smartphone sees the benefit. The company's first product built around the technology is designed for Pavilion 13 laptop battery use in grid energy storage and electric vehicle applications.

Following the technology's release over the next two years, however, it's likely that Argonne will be looking to licence its invention to other manufacturers - including gadget makers. With the promise of increased longevity and a choice of reduced weight or boosted capacity, it could well prove the first real success for the miraculous graphene.

The system utilizes processes already used on a large scale

May 31 [Fri], 2013, 11:09
Of all the criticisms of electric vehicles, probably the most commonly-heard is that their batteries take too long to recharge – after all, limited range wouldn't be such a big deal if the cars could be juiced up while out and about, in just a few minutes. Well, while no one is promising anything, new batteries developed 511872-001 laptop batteryat the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign do indeed look like they might be a step very much in the right direction. They are said to offer all the advantages of capacitors and batteries, in one unit.

"This system that we have gives you capacitor-like power with battery-like energy," said U Illinois' Paul Braun, a professor of materials science and engineering. "Most capacitors store very little energy. They can release it very fast, but they can't hold much. Most batteries store a reasonably large amount of energy, but they can't provide or receive energy rapidly. This does both."

The speed at which conventional batteries are able to charge or discharge can be dramatically increased by changing the form of their active material into a thin film, but such films have typically lacked the volume to be able to store a significant amount of energy. In the case of Braun's batteries, however, that thin film has been formed into a three-dimensional structure, thus increasing its storage capacity.

Batteries equipped with the 3D film have been demonstrated to work normally in electrical devices, while being able to charge and discharge 10 to 100 times faster than their conventional counterparts.

To make the three-dimensional thin film, the researchers coated a surface with nanoscale spheres, which self-assembled into a lattice-like arrangement. The spaces between and around the spheres were then coated with metal, after which the spheres were melted or dissolved away, leaving the metal as a framework of empty pores. Electropolishing was then used to enlarge the pores and open up the framework, after which it was coated with a layer of the active material – both lithium-ion and nickel metal hydride batteries were created.

The system utilizes processes already used on a large scale, so it would reportedly be easy to scale up. It could also be used with any type of battery, not just Li-ion and NiMH.

The implications for electric vehicles are particularly exciting. "If you had the ability to charge rapidly, instead of taking hours to charge the vehicle you could potentially have vehicles that would charge in similar times as 511884-001 laptop batteryneeded to refuel a car with gasoline," Braun said. "If you had five-minute charge capability, you would think of this the same way you do an internal combustion engine. You would just pull up to a charging station and fill up."

Braun and his team believe that the technology could be used not only for making electric cars more viable, but also for allowing phones or laptops to be able to recharge in seconds or minutes. It could also result in high-power lasers or defibrillators that don't need to warm up before or between pulses.

Samsung is located in Suzhou and 8.5-generation line panel project has just started

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 12:01
Domestic panel makers has become a battle of China and South Korea. LG's panel LG Display (hereinafter referred to as "the LGD") 8.5-generation LCD panel project in Guangzhou was postponed last year finally started yesterday. This month, Samsung, LG and two from South Korea's global panel industry giant has launched projects in China, and the local community has been launched 8.5-generation line item BOE and Huaxing power to commence a formal duel.

It is reported that the LGD set up in Guangzhou, 8.5-generation thin-film transistor LCD panel factory covers an area of ??about 700,000 square meters, plans for mass production in the second half of 2014. LGD of the project accounted for 70% shares of Skyworth shares 20%, and the rest owned by the Guangzhou Development Zone.

Reasons for the panel production line started in the Chinese market, LG, in its official press release listed a set of statistics, 44.52 million of the 2011 sales of LCD TV sets, beyond the conventional LCD TVs in supermarkets in North America and Western Europe, the LCD TV the market is expected in 2014 will reach 57.2 million units, accounting for 22% of the global LCD TV market, China's LCD TV market will maintain rapid growth.

In addition, for the reasons set up in Guangzhou, LG said that the Guangdong region gathered a major domestic TV manufacturers can get a stable 8.5-generation line in Guangzhou, downstream to the sea. Project shares of Skyworth Group spokesman Li would like to Skyworth original shares of the LG 8.5-generation line item, in order to ensure a stable panel in the upstream supply, Skyworth has been the whole factory building to LGD panel plant next, so integration of operations to improve production efficiency. Similarly, LG completion of the Pearl River Delta's color TV enterprises purchasing convenience, such as Konka.

Just last week, Samsung is located in Suzhou, 8.5-generation line panel project has just started. The industry believes that, Samsung, LG, recently started the increase is directly related to tariffs and domestic panel. Since April 1, 2012, our 32-inch and above LCD without backlight shows the import duties levied by the board to adjust from 3% to 5%. Lee would like to think, tariff escalation, high-generation line panel project to become the choice of the international panel of enterprises settled in China.

But it will erode the market of local businesses? As of press time, the the Huaxing electric for a reporter's question whether the entry of Korean companies feel pressure do not want to do any replies, BOE vice president Zhang Yu on this issue had previously said to the reporter: "does not impact on domestic enterprises big. "

Wen Jianping, deputy general manager of industry bodies Ovid consultation pointed out that market competition is yes, but for domestic enterprises, the domestic market because the current annual demand of 100 million Queen-size LCD panel, and the present Huaxing power and BOE capacity are far from adequate. But he believes that the enterprise market in Taiwan will face is divided, as a panel purchasing large domestic machine local procurement, will feel the pressure of competition the first two panel makers AU Optronics and Chi Mei.

In fact, the global large-size LCD display areas, Japan, South Korea and China Taiwan's three-pole trend has been very strong, with China and South Korea in the production the Huafa of high-generation line, this pattern is facing a dramatic transition. Not long ago, Japan's Sharp has just pulled out of line project in China for 10 generations. This also means that Sharp led by the Japanese panel makers are likely to face the impact of China and South Korea. All along, the large-size LCD panel business is Sharp's main profit sector, however, since last year, LCD panel prices for 19 consecutive months of diving, which seriously affect the performance of Sharp, the main plate but a drag.

-----------------------------------------------------------


Other Toshiba Related News:

Screen,Toshiba Satellite L555 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L555D Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L600 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L600D Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L630 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L630D Cooling fan,

Kodak plans to sell the patent of 1100 a number of digital imaging technology

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 12:01
Kodak lost two years of judicial war between Apple and RIM to maintain. Yesterday, a judge of the U.S. International Trade Commission issued a notice, RIM and Apple did not infringe on Kodak patents, the patent is invalid.

This action is built around Kodak's digital picture preview technology patents commenced, Kodak has been trying to use charges for its digital imaging patents, and to initiate proceedings in the case of failure of this strategy. If successful, you can force RIM and Apple reached a settlement and to pay for patents.

In recent years, the film business has suffered a huge impact, Kodak has always been in the burn. Filed for bankruptcy protection in January of this year, the company has been relying on the sale of photography and patent assets for a living, and transformation efforts.

Previously, Kodak plans to sell the patent of 1100 a number of digital imaging technology, accounting for 10% of the share of total patents. The patent involved in the judgment the company is selling 1100 a number of digital signal capture part of the related patent portfolio, according to estimates, the value of this technology for $ 2.21 billion to -25.7 billion. This decision will also allow the damage to the value of the assets sold by Kodak.

-----------------------------------------------------------


Other Popular Electronics News:

Screen,Toshiba Satellite L635 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L640 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L640D Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L645 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L645D Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L650 Cooling fan,

Windows 8 is Microsoft so far developed the most depth and breadth

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 12:00
May 23 morning news, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer (Steve Ballmer) is expected until the end of next year, the number of users of Windows 8 operating system will be more than 500 million people.

Ballmer made the above expectations in a forum held in Seoul, South Korea, he expects the number of users of the Windows 7 operating system later this year to reach 350 million people.

Ballmer said that Windows 8 is Microsoft so far developed the most depth and breadth and the most influential operating system. He made the commitment, support for the hardware vendors and select the operating system for this upcoming Metro application developers to provide "the best economic opportunities.

Earlier reports said that the success of the Windows XP system, companies and business needs to enhance the sales performance of Microsoft Windows 7 operating system, and inadvertently promoted the Windows system from Windows Vista to Windows 7 transformation.

The popularity degree of the Windows XP system up to now is still so high one of the reasons is that the user was initially reluctant to upgrade to Vista system. Many legacy applications can still run well on a Windows XP system, so there was no irritating momentum to encourage users to upgrade the system. Downward compatibility and performance of the Windows Vista operating system, poor performance has prompted many users to switch to this system in Windows 7 system has just released.

The performance of the Windows 7 operating system is far better than Windows XP systems, as so far the fastest-selling operating systems. The data show that U.S. Internet traffic monitoring company Net Applications released Windows XP in the Windows system on the overall market share has dropped to 46 percent, while the share of Windows 7 system has been increased to more than 38%. In accordance with the current trend, the share of the Windows 7 system will be in October, more than Windows XP, Microsoft plans to release Windows 8 month.

The industry pointed out that Microsoft released Windows 8 will be an interesting test of the moment. This upcoming new operating system will run on a PC and Tablet PC products, while at the same time, ultra-pole of this market is still evolving - with the Apple MacBook Air to compete - and very likely will improve Windows super pole this sales of this product.

Market research firm Gartner predicted that 2012 global Tablet PC sales will be over 100 million units, will more than triple by 2015, more than 320 million. Gartner also expects Windows 8 system in the Tablet PC market share will rise to more than 12%, this performance is far less than the Apple iPad, which share close to 60%.

Bank of Montreal, Canada last week lowered the target price of HP and Dell , the bank, an analyst pointed out: "Windows 8 system performance will be disappointing." Analysts believe that the Windows 8 degree of success of the system can not be comparable to Windows 7, which forecast that PC sales will be damaged. Industry insiders say that if Windows 7 system can continue to maintain good sales performance in October beyond the Windows XP system, then Windows will be able to weather the most difficult period that analysts expected.

-----------------------------------------------------------


Other Simple Electronics Related News:

Screen,Toshiba Satellite L655 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite L655D Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite M300 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite M305 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite P100 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite P105 Cooling fan, Toshiba Satellite P200 Cooling fan,

P R
カテゴリアーカイブ
https://yaplog.jp/personaltech/index1_0.rdf