The ultimate solution

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 16:09
Hydrogen is a kind of new energy vehicles, hydrogen-powered vehicles is a true zero-emission transport emissions are pure water, its non-polluting, zero emission, abundant advantage, therefore, the hydrogen-powered vehicles ideal alternative to conventional cars. Compared with conventionally powered vehicles, hydrogen cars cost at least 20% higher.

China Changan Automobile in 2007 completed the first efficient zero-emission hydrogen internal combustion engine ignition, and independent research and development of China's first hydrogen-powered concept car "hydrogen process on display at the 2008 Beijing auto show."

"Car society" gradually formed, cars are constantly on the rise, oil and other resources are stretched, on the other hand, swallow large amounts of gasoline in vehicles emit harmful gases and pollutants. The ultimate solution, of course not to limit the development of automobile industry, but to open new energy alternative to oil, fuel cell vehicles of the four quickly and quietly rolling across the road, almost exactly the printed name of the new energy - hydrogen.

Almost all of the world's auto giants in the development of new energy vehicles. The electricity had been considered to be the future power of the car, but the lengthy battery charging time and the weight of the people gradually it dull. Current (referring to 2009), hybrid and gasoline combination can only temporarily alleviate the energy crisis can only be reduced but can not get rid of dependence on oil.

This time, the emergence of the hydrogen-powered fuel cell, like recycling a Noah's Ark, so that people see from the crisis of infinite hope. Hydrogen as a fuel for vehicles this statement just come out to surprise, but in fact is. Hydrogen has a high energy density, the energy released is sufficient to make the car engine running, and the hydrogen and oxygen in the fuel cell chemical reaction generates only water, no pollution.

Therefore, many scientists predicted, hydrogen energy, fuel cell car of the 21st century core technology, the revolutionary significance of its automotive industry, which is equivalent to the microprocessor of the computer industry as

Emissions of hydrogen-powered cars is pure water, the driving does not produce any pollutants. However, the high cost of hydrogen fuel cell, hydrogen fuel storage and transportation in accordance with the present technical conditions very difficult, because the hydrogen molecules is very small, easily escape through the shell of the storage device.

The most fatal problem, hydrogen extraction needs through the electrolysis of water or the use of natural gas, also need to consume a large amount of energy this way, unless the use of nuclear power to extract, otherwise it is impossible to radically reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

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New energy passenger car sales

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 16:08
New energy vehicles refers to all other energy vehicles in addition to gasoline and diesel engines. Including fuel cell vehicles, hybrid vehicles, hydrogen powered cars and solar cars. Exhaust emissions low.

According to incomplete statistics, the world has more than 400-10000 LPG cars, over 100 million natural gas vehicles. The Chinese market in the sale of new energy vehicles are hybrid vehicles.

China's new energy automotive industry [1] began in the early 21st century. In 2001, the new energy automotive research project was included in the national "10th Five-Year" period, "863" major scientific and technological issues, and plan strategy with petrol vehicles as a starting point, the goal of advancing to the hydrogen-powered vehicles.

"Eleventh Five-Year", China put forward the strategy of energy conservation and new energy vehicles, "Government attaches great importance to R & D and industrialization of new energy vehicles. In 2008, new energy vehicles in China has shown a full attack potential. 2008 to become China's "new energy vehicles the first year".

January to December 2008 sales growth of new energy vehicles is the growth of passenger cars, 1-December new energy passenger car sales of 899 units, an increase of 117 percent, while commercial vehicle sales of 1536 units of new energy vehicles, January to December fell 17 percent.

In 2009, in the context of the intensive support policies, China's new energy vehicles to enter the fast track of development. Although the proportion of new energy vehicles in China's auto market is still minimal, but it is the growth potential in the Chinese commercial vehicle market has begun to release.

In January-November 2009, new energy passenger car sales fell 61.96 percent, to 310. January to November 2009, new energy commercial vehicles - passenger car of liquefied petroleum gas, liquefied natural gas buses, hybrid buses, etc. - sales grew by 178.98% to 4034. Compared to the cold reception in the passenger car market, the "new energy vehicles in the Chinese commercial vehicle market has begun to rapid growth.

In 2010, China is stepping up efforts to support the new energy vehicles, and June 1, 2010, the state start in five cities including Shanghai, Changchun, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Hefei, private purchase of new energy vehicles subsidy pilot. In July 2010, 10 City, one thousand energy-saving and new energy vehicle demonstration and promotion of pilot cities increased from 20 to 25. New energy vehicles are entering a comprehensive policy to support the stage.

"12th Five-Year" period, China's new energy vehicles will be officially entered the stage of industrial development :2011-2015, enter the industrial stage, the whole of society to promote new energy city bus, hybrid cars, small electric cars. Thirteen Five-Year "period that is, 2016-2020, China will further popularize new energy vehicles, multi-energy hybrid, plug-in electric cars, hydrogen fuel cell car will gradually into the ordinary household.

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The efficiency of silicon thickness

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 16:06
A short-circuit current Jsc
When using thinner polysilicon films, be faced with a problem is the quality of the surface of the composite with the base material. Experiments confirmed using SiNx as the front surface passivation layer and Al as the back of the field (BSF), when the polysilicon film thickness greater than 200um, Jsc and silicon thickness is independent of the relationship, only the silicon thickness of less than 200um , Jsc was reduced with the reduction of the thickness.

BSF can hinder the photogenerated minority carriers support or oppose the surface of movement, reducing back surface recombination, p / n junction on the carrier collection. Low thickness, the matrix of the incident light absorption to reduce the BSF solar cell short-circuit current density is even more obvious. SiNx as a front surface passivation layer to reduce surface recombination and improve the quality of the base material. However, when the silicon thickness is very low, low low-energy photons will pass through the silicon can not be absorbed, Jsc decreased.

Silicon thickness of the open circuit voltage (Voc)

AL-the BSF in the back of the polycrystalline silicon solar cells, silicon thickness is greater than 200um, open circuit voltage (Voc) and silicon thickness is an independent relationship. Thick silicon wafer, Voc is independent of silicon thickness.

Third, the efficiency of silicon thickness

Silicon thickness is greater than 200um, AL-the BSF polycrystalline silicon solar cell efficiency is independent of each other with the silicon thickness. Thickness of less than 200um silicon wafer, solar cell efficiency of the high base quality is reduced as the thickness decreases, the low base quality solar cell efficiency is still constant.

Standard industry out of step, 200um thickness of the silicon wafer is the starting point of the polycrystalline silicon solar cell reduced performance. When the polysilicon film thickness of less than 200um, the main electrical parameters of the polycrystalline silicon solar cells started to decrease. Reduce silicon thickness to reduce the cost of photovoltaic, to use the effective surface passivation to reduce surface recombination and to improve the quality of the base region.

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Adding additives to the electro-hydraulic

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 16:03
In order to ensure safe and reliable use of the lithium-ion battery, the experts were very strict, careful design of the battery safety, in order to achieve the battery safety assessment indicators.
(1) divide 135 ℃ Automatic shutdown protection

Adopts the international advanced Celgard2300PE-PP-PE three-tier composite membrane. When the battery temperature reached 120 ° C, the composite membrane on both sides of the PE film hole closed, the battery internal resistance increases, the battery internal warming mitigation, the battery temperature reached 135 ° C, PP film hole closed, the battery internal circuit, the battery is no longer warming, ensure safe and reliable battery.

(2) adding additives to the electro-hydraulic

Overcharge the battery, the battery voltage higher than 4.2v conditions, electro-hydraulic additives and other substances in the electro-hydraulic aggregate increase in battery internal resistance mate, internal battery to form a large area of ​​open circuit, the battery is no longer warming.

(3) the battery cover composite structure

The battery cover using the notch explosion-proof structure, when the temperature of the battery, the battery internal activation generated in the process part of the expansion of gases, the battery internal pressure increased, the pressure reaches a certain degree of notch rupture deflated.

(4) a variety of environmental abuse trial

The abuse tests, such as external short circuit, overcharge, acupuncture, flat shock, burning, study the safety performance of the battery. Battery temperature shock test and vibration, drop, shock and other mechanical properties test, the performance of the inspection battery in actual use environment.

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This regeneration process needs to consume more electricity

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 15:57
It is reported that the zinc-air battery consumption is electrical energy, will be done and the zinc oxide in the scrap battery power after electrolytically reduced to metallic zinc powder, and decomposes chemical electrolyte. This regeneration process needs to consume more electricity.

It is understood that, under normal circumstances, the discharge of the zinc-air battery pack in electric vehicles each put one kwh of electricity of the zinc powder 4.5 kwh electric regeneration, regeneration into the discharge is 4.5 to 1, the power consumption ratio with two batteries compared, such as lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride batteries, lithium batteries, the power conversion efficiency is very low. With the electrolysis of water into hydrogen and then hydrogen for fuel cell power generation, power consumption ratio is considerable.

According to expert calculations, a 10-meter-long buses, for example, replacement of a new zinc-air battery 250 kwh of electricity, can travel 250 kilometers, is basically a 1 kwh electricity 1 kilometer. According to the proportion of electrolytic zinc required electricity, count the loss of electric vehicle 1 km about 5 kwh of electricity. Jiangsu Province, one kwh tariff hair much money, that is, if the use of zinc-air battery electric vehicles each traveling 1 km takes the power of money is 2 dollars

In addition, the zinc-air battery is cyclic, vehicle factory, excluding battery cost, just a dedicated battery compartment can not require a battery management system, security and surveillance systems, car chargers, plugs and sockets, electric vehicles with the motor drive system and the speed controller to the cost of such electric vehicles are not fuel car than the same configuration.

Compared to the general public familiar lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries, electric vehicles use zinc-air battery, the user does not have to take into account a few years and then change the input of a set of battery power. In addition, zinc-air battery will not produce the explosion is a stable chemical power, simply stop the supply of air oxygen, it does not response to discharge. Same time it is a solid, no leakage of electrolyte on the road and pedestrians will not cause harm.

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We should vigorously develop new and alternative energy sources

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 15:53
Concerns about the situation in the Middle East as well as the debt crisis in Europe under the influence of the decline in global oil demand, will be the two main factors that affect future oil prices. International crude oil prices hovering between bear and bull market two extreme possible.

Face of high oil prices, on the one hand, we should vigorously develop new and alternative energy sources, at the same time, because there is not an alternative energy source can be a very economical way and improve the technology to replace traditional fossil fuels. Therefore, by reducing the energy price subsidies, promote energy conservation, the inevitable choice to deal with high oil prices.

He Vatican satisfied, Platts Platts oil seminar recently held in the near term, the political risks of the oil-producing countries in the Middle East, especially the Iranian nuclear crisis and other factors, will enable the international crude oil prices remain high and volatile. Deterioration of the situation in Iran, resulting in the Strait of Hormuz is blocked, the industry estimates that crude oil prices even rose to $ 200 per barrel at the meeting. However, the medium term, the impact of the European debt crisis on the global economy global oil demand and the resulting decrease in the international price of oil dropped to below $ 100 a barrel.

He said the Vatican is satisfied that the current problems may arise in addition to Iran's oil supply, the supply of oil in Sudan, Yemen, Syria and other countries have failed to reach the upper limit, Libya's production capacity has not been fully restored, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries spare production capacity has shrunk. Commercial crude oil inventories for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the past seven months continue to lower, and is now below the average level in five years, which caused great pressure on the current oil price.

She also stressed that the short term, the possibility of shrinking global demand for crude oil. Iran, the situation does not deteriorate further, crude oil prices likely to remain at current levels for some time.

She also said that if the future of the U.S. shale gas to achieve large-scale exports will drive natural gas prices fall, will play an important substitution effect on oil.

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Long-term development perspective

May 24 [Thu], 2012, 15:40
The thin film battery is not only an efficient energy products, is a new type of building materials. Under the environment of continued tension in the international market of silicon raw materials, thin film solar cells has gradually become the international PV market development of new trends and new hot spots.

At present, into the industrial mass production of thin film batteries silicon thin film solar cells, copper indium gallium selenide thin-film solar cells (cigs), cadmium telluride thin film solar cells, three kinds.

Yet S & P consulting electronics industry analyst pointed out: the thin-film batteries and crystalline silicon cells should not be mutually exclusive in the coming period will be a co-existence rather than the alternative situation. At present, crystalline silicon technology in the photovoltaic industry is mainstream, accounting for a rather high percentage in the field of BIPV thin film batteries will have some big as. Film battery in the construction, installation more convenient.

Short period of crystalline silicon cells will remain dominant, but the long-term development perspective, the prospects for the development of thin film battery is superior to the development of crystalline silicon cells. At present, the efficiency of crystalline silicon can reach about 17.5%, the limits of the single-cell efficiency of 29%, the current laboratory can achieve 25% efficiency of crystalline silicon space is limited. The limits of efficiency of the film and crystalline silicon, can reach 29%, and the current efficiency of only about 10%, which means that the conversion efficiency of the film, there is still much room for improvement.

According to yet S & P advisory issued by the thin film battery industry, investment analysis and forecast report: The current thin-film batteries instead of crystalline silicon cells and not realistic. But the advantages of thin film batteries in bipv the field is still very clear. User selection of the crystalline silicon or thin film batteries, which mainly depends on the policy changes.

Optoelectronic integration project for the type of those building materials and building height in close connection with thin film batteries are less sensitive to the mounting angle, the architectural design requirements and adaptable, so more advantage. The thin film battery is truly suited to the needs of building materials, to comply with the installation of building materials, design specifications, such as security, fire and other requirements, can be installed on buildings.

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