Manufacturers of primary batteries only specify specific energy

July 06 [Sat], 2013, 10:38
The growth has been in secondary batteries (rechargeable) but non-rechargeable or primary batteries are equally important. They continue to fill an important niche market in applications such as wristwatches, remote controls, electric keys and children’s toys. Primary batteries also assist when charging is im satellite A200 battery for practical or impossible, such as military combat, rescue missions and forest-fire services. Other applications of primary batteries are tire pressure gauges in cars and trucks, transmitters for bird tracking, pacemakers for heart patients, intelligent drill bits for mining,as well as light beacons and remote repeater stations. High specific energy, long storage times and operational readiness make this battery well suited for such applications. The battery can be carried to remote locations and used instantly, even after long storage. Most primary batteries are inexpensive, readily available and environmentally friendly.

Carbon-zinc, also known as the Leclanché battery, is the least expensive battery and comes with consumer devices when batteries are included. These general purpose batteries are used for applications with low power drain, such as remote controls, flashlights, children’s toys and wall clocks. One of the most common primary batteries for consumers is the alkaline-manganese, or alkaline for short. Lewis Urry invented it in 1949 while working with the Eveready Battery Company Laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline delivers more energy at higher load currents than carbon-zinc. Best of all, alkaline does not leak when depleted, as carbon-zinc does. On the negative side, alkaline is more expensive than carbon-zinc.

Primary batteries have one of the highest energy densities. Although secondary batteries have improved, a regular household alkaline provides 50 percent more energy than lithium-ion. The most energy-dense primary is the lithium battery made for film cameras and military combat. It holds more than three times the energy of lithium-ion and comes in various blends, such as lithium-metal, lithium manganese dioxide, lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium oxygen and others. Figure 1 compares the typical gravimetric energy densities of lead acid, NiMH, Li-ion, alkaline and lithium primary batteries.


Specific energy indicates the energy a battery can hold. This, however, does not guarantee delivery. Primary batteries tend to have high internal resistance, which limits the discharge to light loads such as remote controls, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. Digital cameras are borderline — a power drill on alkaline would be unthinkable.

Manufacturers of primary batteries only specify specific energy; the specific power (ability to deliver power) is not published. While most secondary batteries are rated at a discharge current of 1C, the capacity of primary PA3399U-2BAS battery for is measured by discharging them at a very low current of 25mA, or a fraction of a C. In addition, the batteries are allowed to go down to a very low voltage of 0.8 volts per cell. This evaluation method provides impressive readings on paper, but the results are poor under a more demanding load.

Figure 2 compares performance of primary and secondary batteries on a discharge of 1C. The results are indicated in Actual and Rated. Actual is the Wh/kg derived at a 1C discharge, Rated is the Wh/kg the manufacturer specifies when discharged at a much low current. While the primary batteries do well on a discharge representing entertainment device, secondary batteries have lower capacities but are more resilient at a load of 1C.

As we examine the characteristics of battery systems

July 06 [Sat], 2013, 10:37
Many battery novices argue, wrongly, that all advanced battery systems offer high energy densities, deliver thousands of charge/discharge cycles and come in a small size. While some of these attributes are possible, this is not attainable in one and the same battery in a given chemistry.

A battery may be designed for high specific energy and small size, but the cycle life is short. Another battery may be built for high load capabilities and durability, and the cells are bulky and heavy. A third pack may PA3672U-1BRS battery for have high capacity and long service life, but the manufacturing cost is out of reach for the average consumer. Battery manufacturers are well aware of customer needs and respond by offering products that best suit the application intended. The mobile phone industry is an example of this clever adaptation. The emphasis is on small size, high energy density and low price. Longevity is less important here.

The terms nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) do not automatically mean high specific energy. For example, NiMH for the electric powertrain in vehicles has a specific energy of only 45Wh/kg, a value that is not much higher than lead acid. The consumer NiMH, in comparison, has about 90Wh/kg. The Li-ion battery for hybrid and electric vehicles can have a specific energy as low as 60Wh/kg, a value that is comparable with nickel-cadmium. Li-ion for cell phones and laptops, on the other hand, has two to three times this specific energy.

The Cadex-sponsored website www.BatteryUniversity.com generates many interesting questions. Those that stand out are, “What’s the best battery for a remote-controlled car, a portable solar station, an electric bicycle or electric car?” There is no universal battery that fits all needs and each application is unique. Although lithium-ion would in most instances be the preferred choice, high price and the need for an approved protection circuit exclude this system from use by many hobbyists and small manufacturers. Removing Li-ion leads back to the nickel- and lead-based options. Consumer products may have benefited the most from battery advancements. High volume made Li-ion relatively inexpensive.

Will the battery replace the internal combustion engine of cars? It may come as a surprise to many that we don’t yet have an economical satellite A100 battery for that allows long-distance driving and lasts as long as the car. Batteries work reasonably well for portable applications such as cell phones, laptops and digital cameras. Low power enables an economical price; the relative short battery life is acceptable in consumer products; and we can live with a decreasing runtime. While the fading capacity can be annoying, it does not endanger safety.

As we examine the characteristics of battery systems and compare alternative power sources, such as the fuel cell and the internal combustion (IC) engine, we realize that the battery is best suited for portable and stationary systems. For motive applications such as trains, ocean going ships and aircraft, the battery lacks capacity, endurance and reliability. The dividing line, in my opinion, lies with the electric vehicle.

Formatting is most important for deep-cycle batteries

June 22 [Sat], 2013, 10:32
A lead acid battery goes through three life phases, called formatting, peak and decline (Figure 1). In the formatting phase, try to imagine sponge-like lead plates that are being exposed to a liquid. Exercising the plates allows A1322 laptop battery the absorption of more liquid, much like squeezing and releasing a sponge. This enables the electrolyte to better fill the usable areas, an exercise that increases the capacity.

Formatting is most important for deep-cycle batteries and requires 20 to 50 full cycles to reach peak capacity. Field usage achieves this. There is no need to apply added cycles for the sake of priming; however, manufacturers recommend to go easy

A deep-cycle battery delivers 100–200 cycles before it starts the gradual decline. Replacement should occur when the capacity drops to 70 or 80 percent. Some applications allow lower capacity thresholds but the time for retirement should not fall below 50 percent because the aging occurs rapidly once the battery is past its prime. Apply a fully saturated charge of 14 to 16 hours. Operating at moderate temperatures assure the longest service times. If at all possible, avoid deep discharges; charge more often.


The primary reason for the relatively short cycle life of a lead acid battery is depletion of the active material. According to the 2010 BCI Failure Modes Study,* plate/grid-related breakdown has increased from 30 percent five years ago to 39 percent. The report does not give reasons for the increased VGP-BPS13/Q laptop battery wear-and-tear, other than to assume that higher demands of starter batteries in modern cars induce added stress.

While the depletion of the active material is well understood and can be calculated, a lead acid battery suffers from other infirmities long before plate- and grid-deterioration sound the death knell. The following articles address the most common problems that develop with use and time and what battery users can do to minimize the effect.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically

June 19 [Wed], 2013, 15:12
The resistance of a battery provides useful information about its performance and detects hidden trouble spots. High resistance values are often the triggering point to replace an aging battery, and determining resistance is Satellite A665D replacementespecially useful in checking stationary batteries. However, resistance comparison alone is not effective, because the value between batches of lead acid batteries can vary by eight percent.

Because of this relatively wide tolerance, the resistance method only works effectively when comparing the values for a given battery from birth to retirement. Service crews are asked to take a snapshot of each cell at time of installation and then measure the subtle changes as the cells age. A 25 percent increase in resistance over the original reading hints to an overall performance drop of 20 percent.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically honor the warranty if the internal resistance increases by 50 percent. Their preference is to get true capacity readings by applying a full discharge. It is their belief that only a discharge can provide reliable readings and they ask users to perform the service once a year. While this advice has merit, a full discharge requires a temporary disconnection of the battery from the system, and on a large battery such a test takes an entire day to complete. In the real world, very few battery installations receive this type of service and most measurements are based on battery resistance readings.

Measuring the internal resistance is done by reading the voltage drop on a load current or by AC impedance. The results are Satellite C640 replacement in ohmic values. There is a notion that internal resistance is related to capacity, and this is false. The resistance of many batteries stays flat through most of the service life.


To estimate capacity and state-of-charge on the fly involves impedance trending by scanning a battery with frequencies ranging from less than one hertz to several thousand hertz. Read more about Testing Lead Acid Batteries.

Scientists around the world are engaged in many different

May 31 [Fri], 2013, 11:19
Batteries tend to stay in the background until we run into a problem — like a dead car battery stranding us in the middle of nowhere or a 497694-001 laptop batteryfaulty cell phone battery tying us to an outlet. Despite this, many exciting, promising developments have recently stemmed from cutting-edge battery research

Technologies big and small have increased demand for more efficient batteries. Smaller gadgets, such as cell phones and tablets, require powerful batteries at the smallest size possible. Meanwhile, larger, more environmentally friendly vehicles require batteries that can compete with their internal combustion cousins. Creating batteries that can charge for a later use, power a device at the push of a button, recharge quickly and regularly, and be tailored to match the design and needs of 593562-001 laptop battery different technologies requires a great deal of development work.

Scientists around the world are engaged in many different aspects of battery research, ranging from improving their durability and lifetime to optimizing them for integrating renewable energy systems (like solar and wind) into the electrical grid. There are groups working on new kinds of batteries that can store more charge for longer periods of time than the most efficient lithium-ion batteries, and other groups are working on techniques for charging batteries more rapidly. As hybrid and fully electric vehicles become increasingly popular, research related to optimizing electric vehicle battery technology has already taken off.

A major component of the battery's weight

May 31 [Fri], 2013, 11:18
Lithium-air batteries have the potential to be the next big leap in battery tech because they get rid of a lot of the weight and complexity involved with standard batteries. That's because, instead of having all the battery components stored inside the battery itself, lithium-air batteries use oxygen in the atmosphere probook 4710s laptop battery to bring some electrons to the party. There has been some progress in terms of getting air into the battery and having the oxygen react once it gets there, but the technology still faces a significant challenge: reactive oxygen tends to also react with the battery's components.

The result of these reactions is that existing lithium-air batteries can typically only handle a handful of charge/discharge cycles before they start to decay. But researchers have now found an electrolyte material that doesn't react with oxygen, allowing stable performance over multiple charging cycles. And the theoretical capacity of the battery was staggering, possibly more than ten times that of the lithium-ion tech on the market.

The problem has been, as the researchers put it, that lithium-air batteries have an end-point of lithium peroxide (Li2O2), which forms through an intermediate oxygen radical. That radical is very reactive and will generally decompose the electrolyte that shuttles charged ions around between the battery's two electrodes. If it's not possible to avoid the reactive oxygen, the authors reasoned, the best thing to do is to change the electrolyte to something that doesn't react with oxygen.

Some preliminary research in this area had been done, but the initial materials would only conduct charges well at temperatures above 70°C. The authors came up with a mixture of an ethylene glycol derivative (tetra(ethylene) glycol dimethyl ether) and a complex lithium salt, LiCF3SO3. This worked well at room temperature and, perhaps most significantly, the authors found it went through oxygen reactions so quickly that they couldn't detect any reactive oxygen intermediates. "Equally importantly, the peak corresponding to LiCO3+—one of the most likely products of electrolyte decomposition—is not seen," the authors note.

This chemical stability also translated to stable performance, with the behavior on the 20th charge/discharge cycle being difficult to distinguish from the 100th. It also performed well across a variety of charges, from half an amp/gram of electrode material up to 3A/g.

The difficulty of interpreting these results is that the electrode is only one part of a larger assemblage. Although the authors take some pains to argue that the electrode they measure is a major component of the battery's weight, it's still difficult to compare to other battery technology.

That said, the authors calculate a theoretical capacity that's nothing short of jaw-dropping. At a high discharge rate, they figure it can handle up to 13,500Wh/kg of electrode. "Even assuming a reduction factor of one order of magnitude due to the weight of the ancillary components, such the cell case, current collectors and electrolyte, the practical energy density may be estimated at a value much higher HSTNN-DB73 laptop battery than that offered by the present lithium-ion battery technology," they argue.

For comparison, current lithium technology is at around 150Wh/kg, and the most promising hardware that has been announced might be able to double that. If the authors' order-of-magnitude estimate is right, it would still place this battery at 10 times the capacity of the current generation of lithium-ion batteries.

SmartGlass whether the application will also be released for Apple iOS

June 06 [Wed], 2012, 11:24
June 5 - According to foreign media reports, Microsoft announced on Monday it has launched called "Xbox SmartGlass" (hereinafter referred to as "SmartGlass) screen sharing / entertainment platform. Industry have pointed out, very similar to the SmartGlass performance with Apple's AirPlay.

Microsoft said the hands of users of mobile devices (such as Windows 8 Tablet PC, the Windows Phone mobile phone, etc.), users will be able to film, drama, music, and Xbox games to interact.

Strictly speaking, the SmartGlass not a screen sharing, but no keyboard to enter the premise to interact with the user media content. And just watch the media content, the SmartGlass allow user interaction with these media, and then a very pleasant experience.

For example, if the user himself is stored on the Tablet PC a TV series sharing on the TV replacement Toshiba Satellite A135 Cooling fan, the Tablet PC will provide users with the movie summary, actor and film release date information.

, The SmartGlass also integrate Microsoft Kinect somatosensory control. If the user does not want to use Kinect gestures to control the content on the Xbox game console, smart phone or tablet PC as a remote control.

Microsoft has not made ??it clear that SmartGlass whether the application will also be released for Apple iOS or Google Android platform. However, AppleInsider and Engadget technology blog site, the SmartGlass applications will be released for non-Windows mobile cheap Toshiba Satellite A200 laptop Cooling fan devices.

Kleinberg make a favorable ruling on the Hewlett-Packard

June 06 [Wed], 2012, 11:15
June 5 - According to Reuters, HP lawyers in court on Monday said that Oracle's decision to no longer develop new database software compatible with the HP Itanium servers, in violation of the contract signed with Hewlett-Packard. Therefore, HP Oracle compensation for the loss of $ 4,000,000,000.

Oracle lawyers referenced in HP's "brief, casual" contract language, has never agreed to Toshiba Satellite A210 laptop cheap Cooling fan give up the business agility. Oracle announced last year, Intel made ??it clear that the Itanium chip is about to complete the mission and focus instead on x86 processors, so decided to stop developing new software for the Itanium chip.


However, HP said, signed with Oracle to support Itanium chip agreement should continue to implement these software, devices using the chip will become waste. HP's Mark Hurd, former HP CEO Mark Hurd, litigation, previously employed in the reconciliation Oracle, has confirmed these commitments.

Heard the case of the settlement agreement clearly require Oracle to continue to provide the best products for Hewlett-Packard; executives of both companies, including Oracle president Safra Katz (Safra HP lawyer, Jeffrey Thomas (Jeffrey Thomas) Catz) and when he was director Ann Livermore, HP's enterprise business Ann Livermore, is responsible for the negotiation of the agreement, demonstrating the importance of the contract.

However, Oracle attorney Dan Wall (Dan Wall), the Hurd case settlement agreement only for the reconciliation of employment litigation, does not apply to a strategic business partnership of arduous negotiations. He also believes that the Itanium chip is the decline of the product. "HP is trying to force Oracle to support Oracle do not trust technology Toshiba Satellite L650D replacement cheap Cooling fan."


The first phase of the trial of the case to the jury did not, but by the Santa Clara County Superior Court Judge James Kleinberg, James Kleinberg, is responsible for, he will be the existence of such a contract between HP and Oracle and its terms, make a ruling.

Kleinberg make a favorable ruling on the Hewlett-Packard, the jury ruled that Oracle is a violation of the contract and the amount of compensation.

Self-developed technology enables effective solar irradiance of the collector area is maximized

June 06 [Wed], 2012, 11:13
In the world of solar thermal utilization, Qiwei Te enterprises dare to eat crab, and determined to create a solar air conditioning, low-cost leading the first of its kind. It is due to the love of the solar energy industry, Qiwei Te solar-efficiency energy-saving central air conditioning also awarded the highest award of the field of science and technology - third prize of "National Energy Technology Progress Award".

The technology is always the boosters of market development, the enthusiasm for high temperature applications, especially in industry-wide concern of the solar light. Shandong Qi Weite artificial environment Co., Ltd. Chairman Levin At the recent Qiwei Te solar assisted Toshiba Satellite U405 replacement Cooling fan heat pump (SAP), central heating, hot water product launches, said, Qiwei Te solar heat pump hot water system using the latest track for the whole day trough The solar collector comprehensive collection efficiency up to 80%, four times the ordinary vacuum tube collection of energy. At the same time, solar hot water host heat amplification efficiency of 1.9, the integrated mining heat capacity is 8 times the ordinary vacuum tube water heater.


"Sun tracking self-developed technology enables effective solar irradiance of the collector area is maximized, the integration of these technologies makes the sun to maximize the collection and use of energy through on this basis will be collected The solar air conditioning, solar boilers and other equipment will be solar efficient for our use. "Levin said.

Levin changed the subject, we can Qiwei Te trough collectors collecting solar energy to generate electricity, we are actively developing, it will be a revolutionary innovation.

Levin said Qiwei Te solar air conditioning collector obvious advantages, the future market is optimistic about the First, apply to the upper floors, changed unable height to install the shortcomings of the traditional solar water heater. Architectural layers within the 13-story building, installation of solar heat pump can fully meet the heating needs; construction-rise buildings over 13 floors, you can install the solar heat pump and absorption heat pump to meet the heating needs, we are now in the 30-storey above the roof. "Levin said.

Secondly, the heat pump market is undergoing fission, that is, as the country introduced forced excessive use of groundwater resources policy, the geothermal heat pump is out of the market. "Geothermal energy is non-renewable resources, and not all cities have geothermal energy, geothermal resources by the geographical limitations of alternative products in the most promising solar heat pump hot water systems have obvious advantages." Levin said.

If we say technology and high-floor installation is not sufficient to attract the market of consumers, Qiwei Te solar once again showed the killer - low cost significantly. Qiwei Te solar heat pump combined with the free energy of the sun and air two extreme environmental protection and comfort heating, not only to create a more intuitive breakthrough new low on running costs.

It is understood that the traditional plug-in type air-conditioning use of cost after the purchase has been accumulated as coal, oil and other energy gradually reducing electricity costs are increasing, solar air conditioning just good to make up for this shortcoming of the traditional electric air conditioning. that great to use the cost of traditional electric air conditioning can save us after the purchase, which makes solar air conditioning have innate universal advantage.

Innate technical and cost advantages to build up core competitiveness, and the huge demand of domestic and international cheap high quality Toshiba Satellite U405D Cooling fan market, has outlined a better market prospects for the solar air conditioning. 2011 solar collectors water heating market, for example, sold a total of 15.7 million square meters, the output value 70 billion yuan, engineering market, accounted for 45%, sitting on 30 billion yuan market.

Digital subscriber no longer use the newspaper as a reference and source of their business

June 06 [Wed], 2012, 11:10
June 5 - According to foreign media reports, the U.S. technology blog Silicon Alley Insider founder Henry Blodget (Henry Blodget) Sun the author pointed out that Nielsen recently released data show that users watch television time has been more and more. Blodget view, this means that the U.S. television industry has signs of collapse.

The following is a summary of the article:

In the first decade of the Internet commercial operation - the last century from the 1990s to the early 21st century - the industry had widely expected the newspaper high quality Toshiba Satellite U300 Cooling fan industry will slide into recession. Was stressed that the figure does not read newspapers. They visit the site, read the articles in the network, but they will no longer be at the table reading the newspaper inside the articles, pictures and advertising.


In addition, digital subscriber no longer use the newspaper as a reference and source of their business. They navigate eBay and Craigslist, perhaps related to classified information; movie site, they get to telecine; real estate Web site, they get real estate information; by e-mail and coupon sites, they get the discount information. In other words, the user behavior of a century of support for newspaper companies and there have been changes.

But in this decade, the newspaper industry did not find: the number of subscribers is still increasing; advertising revenue is still growing; the company's share price is still rising. At least it seems from the newspaper company executives, those who advocate the newspaper industry entered a recession in the industry are the so-called "doomsday mongers" .

However, all this occurred after this. Newspaper Association of America (the Newspaper Association of America) statistics show that the 21st century, has been a lot of newspaper company bankruptcy or on the verge of bankruptcy. As the first newspaper group, The New York Times Company's stock price from $ 50 down to $ 6. In other words, the newspaper industry has indeed entered a recession, only slightly longer than the forecast of the industry.

The TV industry is also facing the same situation. Many families the television consumption habits have undergone enormous changes in the past decade, especially over the past five years:

- Consumers no longer watch live TV (except for live sports programs are very noteworthy).

- Consumer almost do not watch TV commercials.

- Watch a lot of television and film content consumers, but almost all on-demand, no longer viewing the ads (consumers are now accustomed to Netflix, iTunes or watching television HBO).

- Consumer access to news through the Internet. Only when a large event, consumers will focus on TV news.

- Consumers through four different screen to watch TV and movie content, depending on which is more convenient (TV, laptop computers, mobile phones and iPad).

If it is not a live sports programs, and many consumers do not choose to pay the cable TV or other traditional pay-TV. Even sports fans, the current through the network TV to watch some live sports program. Therefore, these users will also consider whether to pay for live sports programs.

In other words, in many families, the television industry will face the same situation Toshiba Satellite U305 Cooling fan with the newspaper industry. TV consumption habits of the user has undergone enormous changes. While users will still consume TV content, but the user wants the purpose of consumption of TV content. In other words, consumers are no longer sitting in front of the TV, watching the new TV will be staged. In addition to watching live sports programs, consumers have become accustomed to watching TV shows without advertising, and do not want their own viewing experience disturbed.



Although this type of family is still only a few, but in the near future, this will become a big trend. 24 to 55 years old, the family remains the family, because many advertisers and TV networks want to contact these families still buy a lot of consumer goods.

Changes in consumer habits will bring the following important effects:

- The cable network has become meaningless. We do not need, do not have to care about Which cable network has the copyright of a TV series in which the channel will play the drama. The question is whether this drama will play Netflix, Hulu, iTunes, or Amazon. This means that the traditional cable business has been "abandoned".

- To pay the vast majority of cable TV is a waste. Consumers to use broadband cable companies. Consumers as well as 500 almost never watch the channel, in addition to a number of pay little attention to the channel such as HBO, Tennis Channel, etc..

- Consumers paid little attention to television commercials. In television commercials, consumers will do other things - such as typing and so on. In addition, the ad seems to affect the consumer's viewing experience.
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