How does wireless charging relate to radio transmission

June 14 [Fri], 2013, 12:20
Wireless charging may one day replace plugs and wires similar to how Wi-Fi and Bluetooth have modernized personal communication. Wireless charging with inductive coupling uses an electromagnetic field that transfers energy from the transmitter to the receiver. Consumers are wild about the convenience of Presario CQ71 bright simply placing a portable device on a charging mat. Wireless charging works well with mobile phones, digital cameras, media players, gaming controllers and Bluetooth headsets. Other potential applications are power tools, medical devices, e-bikes and electric cars (EVs).

Wireless transfer of power is not new. In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered induction and stated that electromagnetic forces can travel through space. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Nicola Tesla began demonstrating wireless broadcasting and power transmission. Early experiments in Colorado Springs in 1899 lead to the Wardenclyffe Tower in New York — Tesla was adamant to prove that electrical power could be transmitted without wires, but a lack of funding halted the project.

It was not until the 1920s that public broadcasting began, and Europe built massive AM transmitters with signal strengths to penetrate many countries. The transmitter at Beromünster in Switzerland (Figure 1) could have transmitted at 600kW, but legislation on electro-smog and protests from the local population limited the power to 180kW. Smaller FM stations have since replaced these large national transmitters.

How does wireless charging relate to radio transmission? Both models are similar in that they transmit power by electro-magnetic waves. Wireless charging operates in a near field condition in which the primary coil produces a magnetic field that is picked up by the secondary coil in close proximity. The radio transmitter Presario F500 bright works on the far field principle by sending waves that travel through space. While the receiving coil of the wireless charger captures most of the energy generated, the receiving antenna of the radio needs only a few microvolt (one millionth of a volt) to rise the signal above the noise level and receive clear intelligence when amplified.

Li-ion does not need to be fully charged

June 14 [Fri], 2013, 12:19
Charging and discharging batteries is a chemical reaction, but Li-ion is claimed as an exception. Here, battery scientists talk about energies flowing in and out as part of ion movement between anode and cathode. This claim has merits, but if the scientists were totally right then the battery would live forever, and this Presario CQ62 bright is wishful thinking. The experts blame capacity fade on ions getting trapped. For simplicity, we consider aging a corrosion that affects all battery systems.

The Li?ion charger is a voltage-limiting device that is similar to the lead acid system. The difference lies in a higher voltage per cell, tighter voltage tolerance and the absence of trickle or float charge at full charge. While lead acid offers some flexibility in terms of voltage cut?off, manufacturers of Li?ion cells are very strict on the correct setting because Li-ion cannot accept overcharge. The so-called miracle charger that promises to prolong battery life and methods that pump extra capacity into the cell do not exist here. Li-ion is a “clean” system and only takes what it can absorb. Anything extra causes stress.

Most cells charge to 4.20V/cell with a tolerance of +/–50mV/cell. Higher voltages could increase the capacity, but the resulting cell oxidation would reduce service life. More important is the safety concern if charging beyond 4.20V/cell. Figure 1 shows the voltage and current signature as lithium-ion passes through the stages for constant current and topping charge.


The charge rate of a typical consumer Li-ion battery is between 0.5 and 1C in Stage 1, and the charge time is about three hours. Manufacturers recommend charging the 18650 cell at 0.8C or less. Charge efficiency is 97 to 99 percent and the cell remains cool during charge. Some Li-ion packs may experience a temperature rise of about 5oC (9oF) when reaching full charge. This could be due to the protection circuit and/or elevated internal resistance. Full charge occurs when the battery reaches the voltage threshold and the current drops to three percent of the rated current. A battery is also considered fully charged if the current levels off and cannot go down further. Elevated self-discharge might be the cause of this condition.

Increasing the charge current does not hasten the full-charge state by much. Although the battery reaches the voltage peak quicker with a fast charge, the saturation charge will take longer accordingly. The amount of charge current applied simply alters the time required for each stage; Stage 1 will be shorter but the saturation Stage 2 will take longer. A high current charge will, however, quickly fill the battery to about 70 percent.

Li-ion does not need to be fully charged, as is the case with lead acid, nor is it desirable to do so. In fact, it is better not to fully charge, because high voltages stresses the battery. Choosing a lower voltage threshold, or eliminating the saturation charge altogether, prolongs battery life but this reduces the runtime. Since the consumer market promotes maximum runtime, these chargers go for maximum capacity rather than extended service life.

Some lower-cost consumer chargers may use the simplified “charge-and-run” method that charges a lithium-ion battery in one hour or less without going to the Stage 2 saturation charge. “Ready” appears when the Presario CQ70 bright reaches the voltage threshold at Stage 1. Since the state-of-charge (SoC) at this point is only about 85 percent, the user may complain of short runtime, not knowing that the charger is to blame. Many warranty batteries are being replaced for this reason, and this phenomenon is especially common in the cellular industry.

Avoiding full charge has benefits, and some manufacturers set the charge threshold lower on purpose to prolong battery life. Table 2 illustrates the estimated capacities when charged to different voltage thresholds with and without saturation charge.

A study done by Cadex to examine failed batteries reveals

April 19 [Fri], 2013, 11:33
Li-ion batteries contain a protection circuit that shields the battery against abuse. This important safeguard has the disadvantage of turning the battery off if over-discharged, and storing a discharged battery for any length o12 cells L09S6Y11f time can do this. The self-discharge during storage gradually lowers the voltage of a battery that is already discharged; the protection circuit will eventually cut off between 2.20 and 2.90V/cell.

Some battery chargers and analyzers, including those made by Cadex, feature a wake-up feature or “boost” to reactivate and charge batteries that have fallen asleep. Without this feature, a charger would render these batteries as unserviceable and the packs would be discarded. The boost feature applies a small charge current to first activate the protection circuit and then commence with a normal charge.

Do not boot lithium-based batteries back to life that have dwelled below 1.5V/cell for a week or longer. Copper shunts may have formed inside the cells that can lead to a partial or total electrical short. When rech12 cells 57Y4559arging, such a cell might become unstable, causing excessive heat or showing other anomalies. The “boost” function by Cadex halts the charge if the voltage does not rise normally.

A study done by Cadex to examine failed batteries reveals that three out of ten batteries are removed from service due to over-discharge. Furthermore, 90 percent of returned batteries have no fault or can easily be serviced. Lack of test devices at the customer service level is in part to blame for the high exchange rate. Refurbishing batteries saves money and protects the environment.

The battery energy requirements for this type of system

February 28 [Thu], 2013, 17:49
Solar energy, both photovoltaic and heat collection, based systems have existed in various forms for many years. The addition of renewable energy battery systems to solar photovoltaic sites has increased both the efficiency and the applicability of these systems. In order to optimize the efficiency and applicability ocheap rn873 L09M6Y02f these systems even further, it is important to understand the system design requirements for renewable energy battery systems. This article will address the most important system design considerations for solar renewable energy battery systems.
System Functional Requirements

The first step in optimizing the system design is to identify the system’s functional requirements. For example, is the system intended to be a renewable energy backup system for an existing grid connected site to increase power reliability or is it a standalone power system for a remote off-grid site such as a mountain home? The battery requirements for these two extremes can be vastly different. In reality, renewable energy battery systems are often intended to fulfill a wide range of needs. The functional requirements can be categorized as follows:

Power backup system for a grid connected site (power outage backup)
Standalone power system for a remote off-grid site
Combined power backup / grid-tie site
A power backup system for a site that normally obtains its power from the AC utility grid may only be required to provide power to a minimum number of ‘emergency’ circuits such as lighting, communications, electrical requirements for heating and ventilation, cooking, preservation of refrigerated goods for a relatively short period of time. This type of system usually relies on a backup generator or some other energy source sufficient to support larger energy requirements such as heating and air conditioning and longer term backup power (more than a few hours).

The battery energy requirements for this type of system are usually relatively small (5-10 kWh).
A standalone power system for a remote site that does not or cannot obtain its power from the AC utility grid has to supply the total electrical power requirements for the site year-round and during all conditions of inclement weather. This may be a mountain, desert, or island site where obtaining power from the AC utility grid is difficult or simply cost prohibitive. In this case, the solar renewable energy battery system must supply all the electrical power requirements for the site; even though the energy source for larger energy requirements such as heating and air conditioning, water heating, etc. are more cost effectively supplied by other energy sources (propane, oil, wood, solar heat collection, etc.). The battery energy requirements for this type of system are usually much larger (50-100 kWh).

c are designed with the intention of not only providing power for emergency backup in the event of a power outage but also to ‘sell’ power back to the AC utility through a ‘grid-tie’ system. A solar grid-tie system utilizes DC electrical energy from a solar panel to supply a DC-AC inverter and power conditioning/monitoring circuitry to sell power back to the AC utility. Even though a battery system is not required for a basic solar grid-tie system, the addition of a renewable energy battery system can improve the efficiency and functionality cheap rn873 L09S6Y11of the system and adds the capability for power backup.

The battery energy requirements for this type of system can range from a relatively small battery (similar to the power backup system at 5-10 kWh) all the way up to the 50-100 kWh battery used in a standalone power system. The larger grid-tie battery system would be most practical in a remote area that has access to the AC electrical grid but the power may be unreliable or very expensive.

Market demand for rechargeable batteries will increase

November 29 [Thu], 2012, 15:36

Electronic manufacturers should consider what truly is the heart of most of their portable devices - the battery. The size, shape, weight, and function are all directly related to the battery that will power them. The battery also provides an essential backup on printed circuits and computer systems. It seems that just about every six months a new battery technology emerges using much more exotic and expensive materials. Think about what the cell phone has become as a direct result of the size and capacity of the batteries powering them. Each successive improvement makes9cells Pavilion Envy 14 battfery batteries smaller, able to hold a charge longer, and able to charge faster. This article takes a look at some of the new battery technologies and how they will improve the electronics industry.
Latest Developments


Sanyo introduced the new "eneloop" battery, which is a rechargeable NiMH battery useable right off the shelf. Unlike previous rechargeable batteries, which have limited shelf life because of their rapid discharge, these batteries retain 85% of their charge even after one year. Because this battery can be used for thousands of charges and is easily recycled, it is much more convenient, cost-effective, and eco-friendly than the traditional single-use batteries.

Toshiba Corporation has announced a breakthrough in lithium-ion batteries that makes long recharge times a thing of the past. The company's new battery can recharge 80% of a battery's energy capacity in close to one minute, approximately 60 times faster than the typical lithium-ion batteries in wide use today. The battery also has a long life cycle, losing only 1% of capacity after 1,000 cycles of discharging and recharging, and can operate at very low temperatures

Techtronic Industries Co. Ltd. of Hong Kong developed the V28?. This 28-volt battery delivers increased power and up to twice the run time of traditional 18-volt models, yet the battery weighs slightly less. This means the introduction of new tools like the world's first cordless band saw powerful enough for every day professional use. Containing no cadmium, the lithium ion battery has built-in fuel gauge that tells users how much run time is available. In addition, this battery is equipped with built-in Performance Optimizing Circuit to provide consistent, fade-free power throughout discharge cycle to ensure job power consistency.

Panasonic Batteries has its new Digital Xtreme Power batteries with oxyride technology, designed to last twice as long as regular alkaline batteries, according to the company. They utilize a combination of newly developed materials for the cathode (plus side): Oxy Nickel Hydroxide and new technologically developed manganese dioxide and graphite. According to Panasonic, that means the batteries will yield three times as many snapshots with a digital camera, with a shorter flash recovery time.
Trends

Battery Council International recently completed part of an ongoing project to determine the trends of battery development (among other things) and how manufacturers will adapt. There are a few interesting items to note from their research:

The North American volume will continue to decline due to longer life batteries.
Auto accessories will increase battery power needs.
Government regulations and restrictions will become more stringent
Lead-acid batteries will lose share in the car industry due to increased use of Lithium and Nickel batteries
Market demand for rechargeable batteries will increase
Various forms of lithium batteries are emerging on the market.

Although there are concerns about their flammability, many manufacturers are pushing industry standards by pre-qualifying these battery makers. The reason for this trend is simple - lithium is the lightest metal, which results in a high specific charge. For example, it takes 3.85g of lead to produce 1 amp for 1 hour while it only takes 0.26 grams of lithium to produce the same. One type of lithium 12 cells 537626-001is only 2.5mm. Lithium also produces a higher voltage and therefore, a higher energy density. Lithium is also more eco-friendly than lead or cadmium. These characteristics seem to fit right in line with market trends and many electronics manufacturers have noticed.

A substantial number of rechargeable lithium batteries

November 29 [Thu], 2012, 15:35

Initial scientific tests with the Li-Ion battery started in 1912 with G.N. Lewis however it was not until the early 1970s that the initial non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially accessible.Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium replacement Pavilion G50 batteryfollowed in the 1980s,but failed due to safety concerns.

Lithium is the lightest of all metals,has the greatest electrochemical potential and gives the biggest energy density per weight.Rechargeable batteries utilizing lithium metal anodes (negative electrodes) are capable of supplying both good voltage and exceptional capacity,resulting in an extraordinary high energy density.

After much study on rechargeable lithium batteries during the 1980s,it was discovered that cycling causes adjustments on the lithium electrode.These transformations,which are part of normal wear and tear,decrease the thermal stability,creating potential thermal runaway situations.When this occurs,the cell temperature swiftly approaches the melting point of lithium,resulting in a violent reaction called “venting with flame”.

A substantial number of rechargeable lithium batteries sent to Japan had to be recalled in 1991 when a battery in a mobile phone created flaming gases and caused burns to a person’s face.

There is no memory and no regular cycling is needed to prolong the battery’s life.In addition,the self discharge is less than half compared to Ni-Cd and Nickel metal hydride,making the Li-ion well suited for modern day fuel gauge applications.The high cell voltage of Li-ion battery enables the creation of battery packs comprising of only a single cell.Several of today’s cellular phones operate on a solitary cell,an advantage that simplifies battery style and design.Supply voltages of electronic apps have been heading down,which in turn calls for less cells for each battery packs.To hold the same power,however,higher currents are necessary.This emphasizes the significance of particularly low cell resistance to enable unrestricted flow of current.

Because of the underlying volatility of lithium metal,in particular throughout charging,exploration moved to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions.Even though slightly reduced in energy density than lithium metal,the lithium-ion is stable,as long as particular safety measures are met when charging and discharging.In 1991,the Sony Corporation commercialized the initial lithium-ion battery.Other producers followed suit.Today,the Lithium-ion battery is the fastest developing and most promising battery chemistry.

The energy density of the lithium ion battery is commonly twice that of the typical nickel cadmium battery.Improvements in electrode active components have the potential of increasing the energy density close to 3 times that of the Nickel cadmium.In addition to good capacity,the load characteristics are fairly good and high quality Pavilion G72 battery behave similarly to the Nickel cadmium in terms of discharge attributes (comparable style of discharge profile,but different voltage).The flat discharge curve presents productive utilization of the saved electrical power in a useful voltage range.

The Li 18650 battery is a low maintenance battery,an advantage that most other technologies are unable to state.

Lithium-ion battery technology delivers

August 08 [Wed], 2012, 16:57
Give your notebook computer the extra runtime you need. The Universal Notebook Battery 50 is an economical rechargeable external 9cells VGP-BPS14/Bpack that can provide up to 4 hours of extra runtime for your notebook computer (depending on power management settings and size of notebook).

Lithium-ion battery technology delivers plenty of power with rapid recharge times, and an LED status bar lets you know how much charge you have left with the press of a button.

The Universal Notebook Battery 50 is perfect for use with leading brands of notebook computers with screen sizes of 15.4" or less, and it is lightweight and compact enough to easily fit into almost any notebook case. It is a great accessory for the mobile professional who is often without access to AC power for several hours at a time. To see if your notebook is compatible with the Universal Notebook 11.1v 5200mah 9cells VGP-BPS14/S50, see the Compatibility Guide under the Documentation tab below

Lights in the store solar energy

May 09 [Wed], 2012, 15:53
Lights in the store solar energy during the day and night, then solar energy used for lighting. The idea is, of course, but not the kind of cheap and can permanently use solar energy saving battery. The researchers of the University of Basel, Switzerland, has recently brought us the good news, they have found a the development of sustainable renewable solar energy equipment. According to the researchers published an article in the journal "Chemical Communications", this method will be able to develop both a lot of metal-based low-cost solar cells.

The researchers claim they have achieved two major breakthrough. First of all, they have prepared a development strategy in the surface of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with color materials. Secondly, they have proved to be a ready-made metal zinc compounds. The team said they have found a method of synchronization of synthetic dyes and coating to the semiconductor surface.

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The average efficiency of all production lines for the 12.4%

May 09 [Wed], 2012, 15:49
Source: Global battery Network Date :2012 -5-9: Global battery outlets hit: 23

As the two largest PV manufacturers in the United States, Forth First Solar and SunPower recently announced the company's first quarter earnings report, the two companies in the first quarter sales compared to the previous quarter were lower. Forth First Solar first quarter net sales of $ 497 million, compared with 2011 fourth quarter decreased by $ 163 million. SunPower first quarter sales of $ 494 million, a decrease of $ 131.3 million the previous quarter.

Investment rate of return on the company's long-term strategy and development platform will ensure the future development of the company. We believe that by implementing the strategic routes to complete our restructuring plan, we can in 2016 production reached 2.6 to 3GW chairman Mike Ahearn, said: will reach 13-17 percent. "

Forth First Solar Chief Financial Officer Mark Widmar said that the efficiency of its most efficient component of a production line has reached 13.1%.

The average efficiency of all production lines for the 12.4% efficiency target for the end of 2012 from 12.6% to 12.9%.

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The total investment of more than 2 billion yuan

May 09 [Wed], 2012, 15:47
May 9, Hunan create Photovoltaic Technology Co., Ltd. held a grand groundbreaking ceremony, along with the first a highly efficient silicon thin film solar photovoltaic cells success off the assembly line a 50MW project marks to create a photovoltaic mass production. The total investment of more than 2 billion yuan, annual production capacity of 200MW of silicon thin film solar photovoltaic cell module production base, which the first phase of building a scale 50MW, to introduce a full set of the microcrystalline silicon tandem thin film solar production of volt battery production line, the photoelectric conversion rate of 10%, to a leading position among the world of similar products.

The Hunan create Photovoltaic Technology Co., Ltd. Hunan Province, the first professional engaged in the silicon thin film battery module technology development, the manufacture of photovoltaic products, and products used in the grid, off-grid solar power station, as well as BIPV joint venture enterprises, belonging to create a Group. Was established in July 2009, covers an area of ​​209 acres, belonging to one of the Hunan Province 1000MW solar photovoltaic vertically integrated industry chain plan of action ".

To create a photovoltaic amorphous microcrystalline silicon tandem thin film solar photovoltaic cell production project in Hunan Province in 2010, 2011 key construction projects. Projects comply with the national energy development strategy, the national focus on supporting the development of new industrial projects, the project is the contemporary international state-of-the-art silicon-based thin film solar photovoltaic cell production technology, production technology different from traditional crystalline silicon solar photovoltaic cells technology, low iron glass as substrate, mass production of non-toxic, non-polluting, low-cost, low light is good, and has the independent intellectual property rights of thin film solar PV modules are widely used in power station on the ground, family and business.

The rooftop power generation, photovoltaic agriculture, remote power supply, independent power systems, photovoltaic curtain wall, skylights, sun, noise, and other field of BIPV. Have broad market prospects and social benefits, the increasing scarcity of fossil energy savings for improving the structure of energy consumption, reduce and cut carbon emissions, develop low-carbon economy has far-reaching significance.

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