The panels generally by the insulating material 

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:59
Regular and recurring pollution in the production environment seriously affect production efficiency, in every possible surface contamination processes using the contact cleaner, efficacy can significantly improve production efficiency and solar cells.

The photovoltaic cell production plant today are faced with constantly improve production efficiency, improving the efficiency of their products work pressure, another dramatic changes in raw material prices also make it imperative. Affect the production efficiency and product efficacy to improve one of the main problems is the pollution of regular and recurring production environment, surface coating, printing or lamination process before pollution, production efficiency will be a serious impact.

This article will focus on the effects of pollution; major source of pollution problems that may arise; and feasible solutions to reduce the pollution problems.

Pollution impact of solar module production, depending on the production of what kind of solar module. Module production in three ways:

The first generation of solar cell - wafer: dust and pollutants will affect the screen printing process, raises many questions such as 'tombstoning phenomenon', open circuit and short circuit. When the contaminant volatilization and rapid expansion in the soldering point, will result in the weld and dry welding. Followed by solar cells are encapsulated in EVA film, film and battery, dust or pollution particles, blocking the sun, the work efficiency of the final product will reduce.

Even tiny pollution particles invisible to the naked eye, because it will 'tent' effect 'fish eyes' surface pressure in the complex, resulting in defective vision. These are the factory to try to avoid.

Second-generation solar cells - alloy vacuum: it is more efficient, but the surface of the substrate before entering the deposition process must ensure that it is very clear statement. Pollution particles in the connection circuit, there will be the first generation of technology, such as 'fish eye' and 'tombstone'. Similarly, if you want to achieve the best efficiency of battery in the package phase of the glass or film surface must be clean.

The third generation of solar cells using screen printing technology similar to the electronics industry. Usually this type of battery is not the first generation and second generation of efficient, because of pollutants and reduce the efficiency of the problem even more serious. Substrate and templates before each printing step is thorough cleaning. Generally used for screen printing, the substrate is a plastic material or metal foil, these direct from the factory to reach, usually with pollution residues into the substrate before coating or deposition. Plastic film, for example, will normally be based on customer requirements to be cut into different sizes, debris may be left in the surface of the material, the electrostatic attraction of dust is also a serious problem.

The pollution is not just cause problems in the production process. If the pollutant is a conductive material, will cause corrosion of the finished product, is likely only in the latter part of the product, when deposited in the Treasury will be found.

Sources of pollution in the production process come from?

A large number of potential sources of contamination include human hair, fabric fibers, exfoliated epidermis (one of the main source of air dust), ceilings, floors, packaging and bracket, and even called 'non-shedding fibers containing alcoholic substances cleaning cloth will become a source of pollution. 'No loss of fiber' means that the fabric off the surface of the fiber, but when to use it to wipe the battery substrate or template components, the fiber is likely to fall off and left on the clean surface. Static electricity is another major cause of the lead to pollution.

The panels generally by the insulating material, easy to contain electrostatic charge. Therefore, the loose particles will immediately surface of the panels to attract. Transportation to packaging or with a rag to clean the solar panels will generate static electricity. Surface treatment processes, especially in the printing, coated or laminated needs, clean substrate to product quality, reduce waste and downtime, up to increase productivity and corporate profits are vital.

So what to do in order to minimize pollution and the impact of solar cells? How can pollution and static electricity, as well as their impact on production to fight? There are two surface dust, in addition to the static method: non-contact and exposure to dust removal.

Non-contact dust refers to the cleaning equipment is not directly related to being cleaned surface contact, such as vacuuming, blowing dust or ultrasound. Combination of direct contact with the coil mechanical In addition to the static bar and vacuum in order to achieve the effect of dust. If the vacuum system must be evenly distributed over the entire surface of the vacuum force. If the connection is clean material and the poor sealing of the vacuum cleaner, the cleaning effectiveness of the operation will be reduced. The correct location and setting is crucial, at the same speed, width and type of material also be cleaned and vacuum output matching. The drawback is that the working environment around the pollution residual dust removal process of cleaning equipment is activated. Similarly, if the blowing dust, the same to ensure that the surface of blowing dust and air force to be consistent, In addition, the blowing pollution particles or dust is likely to be scattered in other parts of the production line, or surface electrostatic secondary capture . The non-contact type of dust in the removal of moderate pollution (pollutants of about 25 μm) was relatively successful. However, the quality requirements of today's solar cell manufacturing and users continue to improve, because it is difficult to effectively break the pollutants cleaning materials on the surface air layer, can only remove about 25 microns, such a clean performance is clearly not enough. Moving coil or sheet form a layer of air, if you want to achieve a clean and efficient results, we must break with this air layer. Some people believe that the high-pressure air will break through this layer, and then blow on the surface of particles. But in reality, this application does not work. Sources of pollution spreading in the air, and then stay in the other materials after cleaning. Therefore, the traditional non-contact cleaning machines such as ultrasound or air type, because it is unable to break through pollution particles trapped by the surface air layer of clean material, so it is not the most efficient way.

Another option is the use of technology - contact cleaning technology has been confirmed by the semiconductor industry. Contact dust removal technology began in the late 1970s early 1980s, the British Teknek R & D and manufacture the world's first contact cleaner. Contact cleaning is usually clean, dust cleaning roller and the clean surface the physical contact of purpose. Contact cleaning roller is polymer-covered rubber rollers, provide a highly efficient coil and single-Zhang Qingjie way. When the cleaning roller physical contact with the substrate surface contaminants, pollutants transferred to the surface of the cleaning roller. This is the crimp method, the cleaning roller at the same time squeeze the air layer of the substrate surface. Results in a high-speed, high efficiency (96%) to remove micro pollutants (usually less than 10 microns). Unlike brush or mechanical brush cleaning system will scratch the sensitive surface (such as films), the rubber wheel will not damage the surface of the panels. Contact cleaning equipment to remove loose particulate contamination of the surface of the substrate of silicon, glass or EVA film to 1 micron, without damaging the substrate surface. Subsequently cleared of pollution particles transferred to the sticky paper rolls for further analysis and destruction. During the cleaning process, the panels of the cleaned immediately eliminate by electrostatic unit place static to prevent attracting the particles to cause further pollution.

Use contact cleaner, can significantly improve production efficiency and solar cells, the efficacy of the process in every possible surface contamination. Contact cleaning has been proven to be the most efficient surface dust, clean way.


With the continuous increase in raw material prices, the solar cell production plant must find their own to improve production efficiency and reduce waste. Pollutants on the production efficiency and solar battery efficiency have a major impact. Contact cleaning technology to improve production and efficiency of the battery to provide the best alternative solutions.

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To improve the utilization of the battery 

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:57
Solar cells (components) production process
Component line known as the packaging line, the package is a key step in the production of solar cells, the packaging process, more than a good battery not produce a good component board. The battery package can make the battery life is guaranteed, but also to enhance the fight against strength of the battery. Products of high quality and life is to win a key to customer satisfaction is very important, so the quality of the component board package.


1, the battery test - positive Welding - test 3, the back of the cascading - test 4, laying (glass cleaning, cutting materials, glass pretreatment, laying) - 5, laminated - 6, to flash ( to the side, cleaning) - 7, fitted border (glue, loading angle keys, punching, framed, scrub plastic) - the welding junction box - high pressure test - 10 component test - 11 appearance inspection, packaging and storage

The components of an efficient and high life how to ensure that:

A high conversion efficiency, high-quality cells;

2, high-quality raw materials, such as: a high degree of crosslinking of the EVA, high bond strength of the package agent (neutral silicone resin), high transmittance high strength tempered glass;

3, the packaging process

4, staff strict style of work;

Because solar cells are high-tech products, some of the details in the production process, some obscure problems, such as should wear gloves and not wear, should be uniform brushing reagent scratchy bin enemy of product quality, so in addition to the development of rational the production process, the employees of a serious and rigorous is very important.

The solar cell assembly Process description:

Process Description: here only a brief look at the role of technology, to an emotional understanding.

A battery test: Due to the randomness of the production conditions of the cells produced by the battery performance is not the same, for effective performance of identical or similar battery together, it should be classified according to their performance parameters; battery test that through the test cell the size of the output parameters (current and voltage) of its classification.

To improve the utilization of the battery, make the quality standards of the battery components.

2 positive Welding: is the convergence zone soldered to the battery positive (negative) of the main gate line, the convergence zone for the tinned copper strip, we use the welding machine can weld with the form of multi-point spot in the main gate line. Welding heat source is an infrared light (infrared thermal effect). Welding with a length of about 2-fold the long side of the battery. The extra ribbon and the back electrode is connected to the back of the cells in the back of the welding

3, the back of cascading: welding the back of the 36 batteries strung together to form a component string, our current process is manual positioning of the battery depends mainly on a membrane with a board with 36 place cells groove, the groove size and the size of the battery corresponding to the slot position has been designed with different specifications of the components use a different template, the operator use a soldering iron and solder wire to the front of the battery positive electrode (anode) welding behind the battery on the back electrode (cathode), so that in turn 36 concatenated together and welding the lead in the positive and negative component string.

Laminated lay: on the back of cascading after inspection, the component string, glass and cut a good EVA, glass fiber, backplane, laid according to a certain level, ready to laminate. The glass pre-coated with reagents (primer) to increase the bonding strength of the glass and EVA. When installed to ensure the relative position of the battery string with glass and other materials to adjust the distance between the good battery, and to lay the foundation for the laminate. (Laying of levels: from bottom to top: glass, EVA, batteries, EVA, glass fiber, backplane).

5, laminated components: laying a good battery into the laminating machine, vacuum components of the air out, and then heated to melt the EVA batteries, glass and back bonding together; final cooling out components. The lamination process is the key step of the component production, lamination temperature lamination time, depending on the nature of EVA. We use a fast-curing EVA lamination cycle time is about 25 minutes. The curing temperature of 150 ℃.

6, trimming: laminated EVA melt as a result of the pressure outward extension of curing the formation of flash, and laminated finish it should be removed.

Framed: similar to glass mounted to a frame; glass components mounted aluminum frame to increase the strength of the components, further sealing the battery components to extend battery life. Borders and glass components of the gap filled with silicone resin. The border between the angle button to connect.

8, welded junction box: a box in the components of the back of the lead welding in order to facilitate battery and other equipment or battery connection.

9, the high-pressure test: high-pressure test is the component borders and between the electrode leads to impose a certain voltage, pressure and dielectric strength of the test components to ensure that components are not damaged in the harsh natural conditions (lightning, etc.) .

10, component testing: The purpose of the test is the output power of the battery, calibration, testing its output characteristics to determine the quality and grade of components.

The solar array design steps in a computational load 24h consumption capacity P.

P = H / V

V - load rated power

Selected daily sunshine hours of T (H).

(3) calculation of the solar array current.

IP = P (1 + Q) / T

Q - rainy period surplus coefficient, Q = 0.21 ~ 1.00

4 Make sure the battery float voltage to the VF.

Nickel-cadmium (GN) and lead-acid monomer (CS) battery float voltage of 1.4 ~ 1.6V and 2.2V, respectively.

Solar cell temperature compensation voltage VT.

VT = 2.1/430 ​​(T-25) VF

(6) calculate the solar array operating voltage VP.

The VP = VF + VD + VT

Where VD = 0.5 ~ 0.7

About equal to the VF

The solar array output power of the WP  flat plate solar panels.

WP = IP × UP

According to the VP, WP in the series form of the tablet combination of silicon cells to determine the series of standard specifications and the number of parallel groups.

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The lithium battery is a lithium metal  

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:55
Some users may want to ask, while charging watching movies? This problem can not be generalized. Separate some products AC circuit and battery circuit design, the edge using the edge charge

Lithium battery tips

The lithium battery is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode material, the use of non-aqueous electrolyte solution battery. Reflect the process as follows:

Of Li + MnO2 = Rhombohedral LiMnO2 the reaction for the oxidation-reduction reaction, the discharge.

Lithium although only in recent years to be widely used, but it has a long history. The first one lithium battery is invented by Thomas Edison. High demands on the manufacturing process due to the lithium metal is very lively. Early use in the aerospace or military, with the upgrading of the manufacturing process, was able to promotion in the civil equipment.

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Multi-compound thin film solar cells 

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:52
A Brief Analysis of solar cells and solar power prospects
At present, the application of solar cells from the military field, the aerospace industry into the industrial, commercial, agriculture, communications, household appliances and utilities sector, in particular, can be distributed in remote areas, mountains, deserts, islands and rural, in order to save cost expensive transmission lines.

But at this stage, it costs very high, and issued a 1kW electric need to invest thousands of dollars, so the large-scale use is still subject to economic constraints.

But in the long run, with the improvement of solar cell manufacturing technology, as well as new light - electrical conversion device of the invention, the protection of the environment and the huge demand for renewable and clean energy, solar cells will continue to use solar radiation practical way to open up broad prospects for the future of mankind on a large scale use of solar energy.

Classification of the solar cell

Can be divided into crystalline thin film of non-crystalline thin film solar cell according to the crystalline state (the following two categories a-), while the former is further divided into single-crystalline and multi-crystalline form.

Silicon thin film form, the compound semiconductor thin film and organic film-shaped materials can be divided, while the compound semiconductor thin film is divided into amorphous (a-Si: H, a-Si: H: F, a-SixGel-x: H) III V group (GaAs, InP), II-VI family (Cds lines), and zinc phosphide (Zn3p2).

Solar cell according to the different materials used in solar cells can be divided into: silicon solar cells, multi-compound thin film solar cells, polymer multilayer modified electrode type solar cell, the four classes of the nanocrystalline solar cells, silicon solar cells is the current development the most mature, dominant in the application.

(1) silicon solar cells

Silicon solar cells are divided into single crystal silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells and amorphous silicon thin film solar cells of three.

The monocrystalline silicon solar cell conversion efficiency is the highest, most mature technology. In the highest conversion efficiency of 23% of the laboratory scale production efficiency of 15%. Still dominant in the large-scale application and industrial production, but because of the high cost price of single crystal silicon, a significant reduction in its cost is very difficult, in order to save silicon material, the development of polycrystalline silicon thin film and amorphous silicon thin film as a single crystal silicon solar battery of alternative products.

Polycrystalline silicon thin film silicon solar cells with relatively low cost, efficiency higher than that of amorphous silicon thin film cells, its laboratory at the highest conversion efficiency of 18%, 10% conversion efficiency of industrial-scale production. Therefore, the polysilicon thin-film batteries will soon be in the solar power to market to dominate.

Amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, low-cost, light weight, high conversion efficiency, ease of mass production, there is great potential. Recession effect subject to the material caused by the photoelectric efficiency, high stability, which directly affect its practical application. Further resolve the stability problems and improve the conversion rate, then the amorphous silicon solar cells is undoubtedly one of the major development of solar cells.

(2) multi-compound thin film solar cells

Multiple compound thin film solar cell materials as inorganic salts, including gallium arsenide III-V compound, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfide and copper indium selenide thin film batteries, etc..

CdS, CdTe polycrystalline thin-film cell efficiency compared to amorphous silicon thin film solar cell efficiency, the cost of silicon cells, and easy mass production, but due to cadmium is highly toxic and the environment causing serious pollution crystalline silicon solar cells is not the best alternative.

Up to 28% cell conversion efficiency gallium arsenide (GaAs) III-V compounds GaAs compound material has very good optical band gap and high absorption efficiency, radiation hardness, and is not sensitive to heat, suitable for manufacturing efficient single-junction cells. Expensive GaAs material, and thus in large part to limit the popularity of the use of GaAs cells.

Copper indium selenide thin film batteries (referred to as the CIS) for photoelectric conversion, there is no light-induced recession, the conversion efficiency and polysilicon. Has the advantages of low cost, good performance and simple process, will become an important direction for future development of solar cells. The only problem is the source of the material, due to the indium and selenium are relatively rare element, therefore, the development of such batteries will be subject to restrictions.

(3) multi-layer polymer modified electrode type solar cell

Organic polymers instead of inorganic materials is just the beginning of a solar cell manufacturing research. Significance of the flexible organic materials, making easy, wide range of sources of material, the end of the cost advantages of large-scale use of solar energy to provide cheap electricity. But only just begun the study of the organic material of solar cells prepared, whether it is life, battery efficiency can not be compared and inorganic materials, especially silicon cells. Ability to develop products with practical significance, and needs further research and exploration.

(4) nanocrystalline solar cells

Nano TiO2 crystal chemistry of solar cells is a recent development, the advantage of its cheap cost and simple technology and stable performance. Stability of the photoelectric efficiency above 10%, the production cost of silicon solar cells, only 1/5 ~ 1/10. Life can reach more than 2O years.

However, such a battery research and development has just started, estimated that in the near future will gradually got onto the market

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The maintenance-free batteries 

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:47
The battery is an essential part of the car, according to the variety of existing batteries in the market can be divided into just two kinds: the traditional lead-acid batteries in recent years in the country of widely used maintenance free batteries.

Lead-acid battery consists of positive and negative plates, partitions, shell, electrolyte and wiring trailer coupling, the discharge of chemical reactions rely on the positive plate active material and the negative plate active material in the electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid solution) which the gate electrode holder is manufactured with lead-antimony alloy. Conventional batteries will happen in the course of less fluid phenomenon, which is due to the gate rack antimony will pollute the negative plate of lead, resulting in excessive water decomposition, a lot of oxygen and hydrogen, respectively, overflow from the positive and negative plate to the electrolyte to reduce .

The maintenance-free batteries use lead-calcium alloy batteries using lead-calcium alloy grid frame, so charging less hydrolysis, water evaporation is also low, coupled with the sealing structure, releasing sulfuric acid gas small, so it is compared to conventional battery, without adding any liquid, less corrosion on the wiring trailer coupling, wires and body, anti-overcharge ability to start a large current, and power storage for a long time, in recent years popular favor in the country.

Here are some problems need to pay attention to the battery in use and maintenance.

A battery not long, it will slowly self-discharge, until the end of life. Therefore, from time to time they should start a car to charge the battery. Another option is to pull down the two electrodes on the battery must be noted that unplug from the electrode column is negative two electrode lines, first disconnect the negative cable, or remove the connection of the anode and the vehicle chassis, and then and then pulling with the cathode mark (10), the other end. The battery has a limited life, to be replaced to a certain period of time. In the replacement of the same to follow the order of the But Jie Shangqu electrode line, the order is contrary to the first pick positive, and then followed by the negative.

Battery storage capacity can be reflected in the dashboard. When the ammeter pointer shows the lack of storage capacity, to be charged. Sometimes found in the way power is not enough, the engine stalled will not start as an interim measure to other vehicles with other vehicles on the battery-powered vehicles will be connected to two battery cathode and anode, cathode and cathode connected to the .

(3) the density of the electrolyte should be in accordance with different regions, different seasons according to the standard is adjusted accordingly.

(4) loss of electrolyte should be added in distilled water or special rehydration, should not drink pure water instead of pure water contains many trace elements, adverse effects on the battery.

Start the car, the uninterrupted use to start the opportunity to lead to battery damage due to excessive discharge. The correct approach is to use the time length of each launch vehicle is not more than 5 seconds, start again time interval of not less than 15 seconds. From the circuit, in the case of repeated start is still the car ignition coil or oil to find a cause.

Daily traffic should always check the battery cover the hole ventilation, if the battery cover holes blocked, the resulting hydrogen and oxygen did not break out the electrolyte expansion would be the battery casing bursting, affecting battery life.

Check the battery positive and negative with or without signs of oxidation, with hot water from time to time poured battery wire connections.

8 check the circuit with or without aging or short circuit to prevent battery because of excessive electrical discharges in premature retirement.

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Light - electric conversion 

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:26
What is a solar cell
The solar cell is the direct conversion of light energy into electrical energy via the photoelectric effect or photochemical effects.

The principle of solar cell

The sun light on the semiconductor pn junction to form a new hole - electron pairs in the role of the pn junction electric field, the holes from the n region to the p zone, n area of ​​electron flow by p zone connected to the circuit after the formation of current. This is the photoelectric effect of solar cell works.

A solar power generation solar power in two ways, one is light - heat - electricity conversion mode, and the other is the direct conversion of light - electric.

(1) light - heat - electricity conversion mode through the use of thermal energy generated by solar radiation, is usually converted by the solar collectors to absorb the heat of the refrigerant vapor, and then drive a steam turbine power generation. Before a process - thermal conversion process; after a process of heat - electricity conversion process, with the ordinary thermal power. Disadvantage of solar thermal power generation efficiency is low and the high cost, estimated investment of at least than the average fire power plants of 5 to 10 times more expensive. a 1000MW of solar thermal power plants need 20 to $ 2.5 billion investment, average 1kW investment of 2000 to $ 2500. Therefore, only a small scale used in special occasions, large-scale use in the economy is very uneconomical, but also can not compete with the ordinary power plant or nuclear power plants.

(2) light - electric conversion is the use of the photoelectric effect, solar radiation will be converted directly into electrical energy, light - electric conversion device is the solar cell. Solar cell is a photovoltaic effect and solar energy directly converted into electrical energy device, a semiconductor photodiode, when the sun light to the photodiode, the photodiode of the sun's light energy into electrical energy, resulting in currents. When many cells in series or parallel can be a relatively large output power of solar cell matrix. Solar cell is a promising new type of power supply, with a permanent, clean, and the flexibility of the three major advantages of solar battery life, as long as there is sun, the solar cells can be an investment in long-term use; and thermal power, nuclear power generation compared to solar cells does not cause environmental pollution; solar cells can be both medium and small, large to medium-sized plant of one million kilowatts, small enough to only a solar battery pack, which is unmatched by other power

Solar cell industry status quo

Thin-film solar cell of the photoelectric effect at this stage to the mainstream, while the photochemical effect of the wet solar cell is still in its infancy.

The global solar cell industry status quo

Dataquest statistics show a total of 136 countries around the world into the boom of the wider application of solar cells, of which 95 countries are large-scale solar cell research and development, actively produces a variety of energy-saving new products. In 1998, worldwide production of solar cells, the total power generation capacity of 1,000 MW in 1999 up to 2850 MW. In 2000, nearly 4600 manufacturers around the world providing the market with photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic cells for power products.

At present, many countries are to formulate medium-and long-term solar energy development program in preparation for the launch of large-scale development of solar energy in the 21st century, the U.S. Department of Energy National PV program, Japan launched the Sunshine Project,. NREL PV program is an important element of the U.S. National PV program, the scheme in the single crystal silicon and advanced devices, thin film photovoltaic technology, PVMaT, PV modules and system performance and engineering, photovoltaic applications and market development such as the five areas of research.

The United States also launched a "solar street light plan, designed to allow the United States as part of the city's street lights are powered by solar energy, according to the plan, every street lamp annual energy-saving 800 degrees instead.

Japan is also the implementation of solar energy, "70000 sets of the project, Japan is ready to the popularity of solar residential power generation system is installed on the roof of residential solar power generation equipment, the family use the remaining power can be sold to power companies.

A standard family can be installed on a 3000-watt power generation system. Europe will be research and development of solar cell included in the famous "Eureka" high-tech projects, the introduction of the 100 000 sets of projects. Wider application of photovoltaic cells, solar engineering "program is one of the important driving force is currently promoting the development to the solar cell industry.

Japan, South Korea and Europe, a total of eight countries recently decided to work together in the Asian inland and desert areas in Africa building the world's largest solar power station, their goal is to account for the global land area of ​​about 1/4 of the desert areas long sunshine that resources are effectively utilized to provide one million kilowatts of electricity for 300,000 users. The plan will start in 2001, spent four years to complete.

Currently, the U.S. and Japan holds the largest market share in the world PV market. The United States has the world's largest photovoltaic power plants, power 7MW, Japan has also built a power output of 1MW of photovoltaic power plants. The worldwide total of 230,000 photovoltaic power generation equipment, Israel, Australia, New Zealand's leading position.

Since the 1990s, the global solar cell industry increase of 15% per year, continuous development. According to Dataquest released the latest statistics and forecasts, the United States, Japan and the industrial countries of Western Europe's total investment in research and development of solar energy in 1998 amounted to $ 57 billion; $ 64.6 billion in 1999; $ 70 billion in 2000; 2001 will up to $ 82 billion; expected to exceed $ 100 billion in 2002.

China's solar cell industry status quo

China attaches great importance to the solar cell research and development work, early in seventy-five during the amorphous silicon semiconductor research work has been included in major national issues; eighty-five and 1995, China research and development focused on large-area solar cell and so on. October 2003, the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology to develop a solar energy resource development programs in the next five years, Development and Reform Commission, "Bright Project" will raise 10 billion yuan to promote the application of solar power technology, solar power to 2005 The system's total installed capacity of 300 MW.

In 2002, the relevant state ministries to start the western provinces without electricity Township power plan "to solve the problems of the western seven provinces and regions without electricity Township electricity through solar and small wind turbines. The start of this project greatly stimulate the solar power industry, the country has built several solar cell packaging line, annual production of solar cells increased rapidly. China currently has 10 solar cell production line, annual production capacity of approximately 4.5MW, of which eight production lines introduced from abroad in eight production lines, six single crystal silicon solar cell production lines, two of amorphous silicon solar cell production line. Experts predict that demand for China's PV market every 5MW 2001 to 2010, the annual demand will reach 10MW, since 2011, China's PV market demand will be greater than 20MW.

Domestic solar silicon production enterprises Luoyang silicon plant, the Hebei ningjin monocrystalline silicon base and Sichuan Emei Semiconductor Materials Factory and other vendors, which the Hebei ningjin monocrystalline silicon base is the world's largest monocrystalline silicon solar production base, accounting for about 25 percent of the world of monocrystalline silicon solar market share.

In the downstream market of solar cell materials, the enterprises of the domestic production of solar cells Baoding Yingli New Energy, Suntech, Kaifeng solar-cell factory, Yunnan Semiconductor Device Factory, Qinhuangdao, China and the United States photovoltaic electronics, Zhejiang Sino-Italian solar, Ningbo Solar Electric Power, Beijing porcelain (Tianjin) Solar companies, for a total annual production capacity of 120MW above.

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In the battery and charging and discharging process 

May 08 [Tue], 2012, 15:17
The electric car has entered our lives, how to use maintenance of battery electric vehicles? Car, not frequently start the process of moving the brakes, because the current drain the battery.

Encounter steep uphill or road conditions, poor, get off the implementation (driving force), to reduce battery current discharge, otherwise easy to damage the battery.
Constant attention to the battery's electrical storage, if loss of electrical phenomena, to be timely given the charge to prevent curing;

When charging to charge the green light up, should not be stopped charging and then driving, so easy to produce sulfide;

The car when not in for a long time, should be fully charged place, per month to supplement the battery power once, to prevent sulfide.
In addition, The quality of the charger on the battery life is not inconsiderable, the following instructions for your reference.
A good charger Why can extend battery life?
Riding the electric cars of friends, especially friends like configuration of high-powered motor, generally six months to a year or so is necessary to replace the battery, how to extend the service life of the battery to extend battery replacement cycle is a friend of each car are very concern.

To extend battery life, battery quality outside and riding habits, more closely related to the quality of the charger is good or bad. On the one hand, although the battery is simple in principle, but have their own charge and discharge characteristics (each charge and discharge processes have taken place in the complex physical and chemical changes), and only meet this charge characteristics, and have a pulse charger can repair function to extend battery life in the true sense; the other hand, the charger almost every day, and battery charging accompanied by, does not meet the battery charging characteristics of the charger, it means the battery the pillow killer "," slow poison ", overcharge or less charge will be long-term "poison" the battery, a long time, prone to dehydration, drum kits deformation affect the normal battery life of this industry often say "batteries not being worn, is filling bad" argument .

The following is the battery charge and discharge during use will lead to capacity fading of several factors:
(1) in the battery and charging and discharging process, there will be "curing" the effects of battery capacity.
Note: that is, sulfide battery during use due to the electrochemical reaction, the plate will gradually cover the hard lead sulfate crystals, leading to the active plate area to gradually reduce the acid concentration decreased the decline in battery capacity.

Winter and summer battery charging voltage is different, if no suitable charger transformer to adjust with the environment, will make the summer Battery over-charge dehydration caused by the battery eventually cause the battery to bulge, deformation, or winter charge less mileage drop.

Note: The battery charging voltage and ambient temperature is inversely proportional relationship.

A variety of factors due to the use and battery factory compatibility error series between the battery voltage is not balanced, the battery capacity will be subject to the minimum voltage that the battery.

Note: Because the battery series is made mostly from three to four 12V battery, use battery factory compatibility error and other factors will make the battery voltage is inconsistent, while the traditional series of constant voltage or constant current charging mode can not solve the battery voltage is not balanced, the final battery capacity will be subject to the influence of low battery voltage, higher capacity battery power will not be able to be released.
How to select a good charger?
Generated based on the above battery, targeted to select a good charger is critical, probably to meet the following requirements:
(1) single-chip digital control, charge and discharge control parameters should be consistent with cells specific to the charging curve, current judge the battery is full, rather than voltage to judge.
2 .. with positive and negative pulses repair charge can crushed plates of lead sulfate crystals, repair plates active.

With automatic temperature compensation function can be different according to the ambient temperature, adjust the charging voltage to ensure that summer, however charge, the winter does not charge less.

With balanced charging function, to prevent the series between the battery voltage is inconsistent, to maintain the consistency of the battery capacity.
Conventional reverse polarity, short circuit, overcurrent overvoltage, over temperature and no-load no output protection function.

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