Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements

June 27 [Thu], 2013, 16:35
If you have done any research on how batteries work or what you should look for when selecting a battery, you are probably buried in Inspiron N5010 rn873 information, some of which is conflicting. At BatteryStuff, we aim to clear that up a bit.

You have most likely heard the term K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid). I am going to attempt to explain how lead acid batteries work and what they need without burying you with a bunch of needless technical data. I have found that battery data will vary somewhat from manufacturer to manufacturer, so I will do my best to boil that data down. This means I may generalize a bit, while staying true to purpose.

The commercial use of the lead acid battery is over 100 years old. The same chemical principal that is being used to store energy is basicly the same as our Great Grandparents may have used.

If you can grasp the basics you will have fewer battery problems and will gain greater battery performance, reliability, and longevity. I suggest you read the entire tutorial, however I have indexed all the information for a quick read and easy reference.

A battery is like a piggy bank. If you keep taking out and putting nothing back you soon will have nothing. Present day chassis battery power requirements are huge. Consider today’s vehicle and all the electrical devices that must be supplied. All these electronics require a source of reliable power, and poor Latitude E6500 rn873 condition can cause expensive electronic component failure. Did you know that the average auto has 11 pounds of wire in the electrical system? Look at RVs and boats with all the electrical gadgets that require power. It was not long ago when trailers or motor homes had only a single 12-volt house battery. Today it is standard to have two or more house batteries powering inverters up to 4000 watts.

Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. Life span depends on usage; 6 months to 48 months, yet only 30% of all batteries actually reach the 48-month mark. You can extend your battery life by hooking it up to a solar charger during the off months.

Cost savings are realized if the batteries are never fully discharged

June 27 [Thu], 2013, 16:34
The reusable alkaline was introduced in 1992 as an alternative to disposable batteries. The battery was promoted as a low-cost power source for consumer goods. Attempts were made to open markets for wireless communications, medical and defense. But the big breakthrough never came. Today, the reusable alkaline occupies only a small market and its use is limited to portable entertainment devices 448007-001 rn873 and flashlights. The lack of market appeal is regrettable when considering the environmental benefit of having to discard fewer batteries. It is said that the manufacturing cost of the reusable alkaline is only marginally higher than the primary cell.


The idea of recharging alkaline batteries is not new. Although not endorsed by manufacturers, ordinary alkaline batteries have been recharged in households for many years. Recharging these batteries is only effective, however, if the cells have been discharged to less than 50% of their total capacity. The number of recharges depends solely on the depth of discharge and is limited to a few cycles at best. With each recharge, the amount of capacity the cell can hold is reduced. There is a cautionary advisory. Charging ordinary alkaline batteries may generate hydrogen gas, which can lead to explosion. It is not prudent to charge ordinary alkaline unsupervised


The reusable alkaline is designed for repeated recharge. Also here,, there is a loss of charge acceptance with each recharge. The longevity of the reusable alkaline is a direct function of the depth of discharge; the deeper the discharge, the fewer cycles the battery can endure.

Tests performed by Cadex on 'AA' reusable alkaline cells showed a high capacity reading on the first discharge. In fact, the energy density was similar to that of nickel-metal-hydride. After the battery was fully discharged and recharged using the manufacturer's charger, the reusable alkaline settled at 60%, a capacity slightly below that of nickel-cadmium. Repeat cycling in the same manner resulted in a fractional capacity loss with each cycle. The discharge current in the tests was adjusted to 200mA (0.2 C-rate, or one fifth of the rated capacity); the end-of-discharge threshold was set to 1V/cell.

An additional limitation of the reusable alkaline system is its high internal resistance, resulting in a load current capability of only 400mA (lower than 400mA provides better results). Although adequate for portable radios receivers, CD players, tape players and flashlights, 400mA is insufficient to power most mobile phones and video cameras.

The reusable alkaline is inexpensive to buy but the cost per cycle is high when compared to other rechargeable batteries. Whereas nickel-cadmium checks in at $0.04US per cycle based on 1500 cycles, the reusable alkaline costs $0.50 based on 10 full discharge cycles. For many applications, this seemingly high cost is still economical when compared to primary alkaline that provides a one-time use. By only partially discharging the reusable alkaline, an improved cycle life is possible. At 50% depth of discharge, 50 cycles can be expected.

To compare the operating cost between the standard and reusable alkaline, a study was done on flashlight batteries for hospital use. The reusable alkaline achieved measurable cost savings in the low?intensity care unit in which the flashlights were used only occasionally. The high-intensity care unit, which 590543-001 rn873 used the flashlights constantly, did not attain the same result. Deeper discharge and more frequent recharge reduced the service life and offset any cost advantage over the standard alkaline battery.

When considering reusable alkaline, one must realize that the initial energy is slightly lower than that of the standard alkaline. Each subsequent recharge/charge cycle causes the capacity to decrease. Cost savings are realized if the batteries are never fully discharged but have a change to be recharged often.

An addition problem with the SMBus battery is non-compliance

May 10 [Fri], 2013, 10:51
The 'smart' battery has some notable downsides, one of which is price. An SMBus battery costs about 25% more than the 'dumb' equivalent. In addition, the 'smart' battery was intended to simplify the charger but a full-fledged AS10D61 brightLevel 3 charger costs substantially more than a regular model.

A more serious drawback is the requirements for periodic calibration or capacity re-learning. The Engineering Manager of Moli Energy, a manufacturer of lithium-ion cell commented, "With lithium-ion we have eliminated the memory effect; but is the SMBus battery introducing digital memory?"

Why is calibration needed? The calibration corrects the tracking errors that occur between the battery and the digital sensing circuit while charging and discharging. The most ideal battery application, as far as fuel-gauge accuracy is concerned, would be a full charge followed by a full discharge at a constant current. In such a case, the tracking error would be less than 1% per cycle. In real life, however, a battery may be discharged for only a few minutes and the load pulses may be very short. Long storage also contributes to errors because the circuit cannot accurately compensate for self-discharge. Eventually, the true capacity of the battery no longer synchronizes with the fuel gauge and a full charge and discharge is needed to 're-learn' the battery.

How often is calibration needed? The answer lies in the battery application. For practical purposes, a calibration is recommended once every three months or after every 40 short cycles. Many batteries undergo periodic full discharges as part of regular use. If the portable device allows a deep enough discharge to reset the battery and this is done regularly, no additional calibration is needed. However, if no discharge reset has occurred for a few months, a deliberate full discharge is needed. This can be done on a charger with discharge function or a battery analyzer.

What happens if the battery is not calibrated regularly? Can such a battery be used in confidence? Most 'smart' battery chargers obey the dictates of the chemical cells rather than the electronic circuit. In this case, the UM09A31 bright will fully charge regardless of the fuel gauge setting and function normally, but the digital readout will become inaccurate. If not corrected, the fuel gauge simply becomes a nuisance.

An addition problem with the SMBus battery is non-compliance. Unlike other tightly regulated standards, the SMBus protocol allows some variations. This may cause problems with existing chargers and the SMBus battery should be checked for compatibility before use. The need to test and approve the marriage between a specific battery and charger is unfortunate, given the assurance that the SMBus battery is intended to be universal. Ironically, the more features offered on the SMBus charger and the battery, the higher the likelihood of incompatibilities.

These batteries can only be charged with a regular charger

May 10 [Fri], 2013, 10:48
The SMBus is the most complete of all systems. It represents a large effort from the electronics industry to standardize on one communications protocol and one set of data. The Duracell/Intel SBS, which is in use today, was AS07B72 brightstandardized in 1993. It is a two-wire interface system consisting of separate lines for the data and clock. Figure 2 shows the layout of the two-wire SMBus system.


The objective behind the SMBus battery is to remove the charge control from the charger and assign it to the battery. With a true SMBus system, the battery becomes the master and the charger serves as slave that must follow the dictates of the battery.

Battery-controlled charging makes sense when considering that some packs share the same footprint but contain different chemistries, requiring alternative charge algorithms. With the SMBus, each battery receives the correct charge levels and terminates full-charge with proper detection methods. Future battery chemistries will be able to use the existing chargers.

An SMBus battery contains permanent and temporary data. The permanent data is programmed into the battery at the time of manufacturing and includes battery ID number, battery type, serial number, manufacturer's name and date of manufacture. The temporary data is acquired during use and consists of cycle count, user pattern and maintenance requirements. Some of this information is renewed during the life of the battery.

The SMBus is divided into Level 1, 2 and 3. Level 1 has been eliminated because it does not provide chemistry independent charging. Level 2 is designed for in-circuit charging. A laptop that charges its battery within the unit is a typical example of Level 2. Another Level 2 application is a battery that contains the charging circuit within the pack. Level 3 is reserved for full-featured external chargers.

External Level 3 chargers are complex and expensive. Some lower cost chargers have emerged that accommodate SMBus batteries but are not fully SBS compliant. Manufacturers of SMBus batteries do not fully endorse this shortcut. Safety is always a concern, but customers buy them because of low cost. Serious industrial battery users operating biomedical instruments, data collection devices and survey equipment use Level 3 chargers with full-fledged charge protocol.

Among the most popular SMBus batteries are the 35 and 202 form-factors (Figure 3). Manufactured by Sony, Hitachi, GP Batteries, Moli Energy and others, these batteries work (should work) in all portable equipment designed for this system. Although the 35 has a smaller footprint than the 202, most chargers AS10B31 bright accommodate both sizes. A non-SMBus ('dumb') version with same footprint is also available.

These batteries can only be charged with a regular charger, or one that accepts both In spite of the agreed standard and given form factors, many computer manufacturers have retained their proprietary batteries. Safety, performance and form factor are the reasons. They argue that enduring performance can only be guaranteed if their own brand battery is used. This makes common sense but the leading motive may be pricing. In the absence of competition, these batteries can be sold for a premium price.

Considering that a typical battery recycling plant recovers

November 23 [Fri], 2012, 12:07
Seal Lead Acid batteries have a long history of being one of the most environmentally friendly resources on the free market and are actually “greener” then soft drink cans, beer cans, newspapers, glass bottles, and tires. Indeed lead-acid batteries are an environmental success story of our time. More than 97 percent of all cheap Presario CQ50 battery lead is recycled. This is almost twice as much as aluminum soft drink and beer cans, newspapers, glass bottles and tires. In fact lead-acid batteries are the most recycled consumer product of our time. How are lead acid batteries recycled and reused in brand new batteries. What is the recycling process of lead acid batteries? Let’s find out.

Lead acid batteries are transported via trucks to recycling centers. Once at recycling centers batteries are broken apart in a hammermill, which is a machine that hammers the battery into pieces. At its most basic level a hammermill is a steel drum that contains a cross-shaped rotor. On the rotors are mounted hammers that pivot when the rotor spins. When the rotor spins the hammers swing and when the battery fed into the drum the batteries broken into pieces.

Once broken the batteries components are separated into 3 categories:

Plastics

Broken pieces of polypropylene plastic are collected, washed, blown dry and sent to a plastic recycler. At the plastic recycler the broken pieces of polypropylene are melted at the plastics correct melting point (or glass transition temperature (Tg), which is the temperature at which a polymer changes from hard and brittle to soft and pliable). Then the molten plastic is passed through a machine called an extruder that shapes the molten plastic into pellets which are then sold back to battery manufacturers to begin the new battery’s manufacturing process.

Lead

The lead acid batteries lead grids, lead oxide and other lead parts are cleaned and then heated to 621.5 degrees Fahrenheit - leads melting point. After the lead reaches its melting point the molten lead is poured into ingot molds. The leads impurities, known as dross, floats to the top and subsequently scraped away and then the ingots sit there thill they are cooled. After cooling the ingots are sold back to manufacturers for use in new lead plate production.

Electrolyte - Sulfuric Acid

Spent battery acid can be neutralized using an industrial grade baking soda compound. After neutralization the acid turns into water, treated, cleaned to meet clean water standards, and then released into the public sewer system. Or another option would be to convert spent battery acid into sodium sulfate, Compaq envy Presario CQ56 battery which is used in laundry detergent, glass and textile manufacturing.

Considering that a typical battery recycling plant recovers 10,000 tons of lead, about 4000 tons of sulphuric acid, and can produce about 6000 tons of sodium sulphate – there is definitely some merit into this conversion process.

Battery grade lithium metal is the material

November 23 [Fri], 2012, 12:04
In an article titled Battery Grade Lithium I highlighted the only US manufacturer of Lithium (Chemtell). It gives a backdrop to a very important metal that we all use in some form or another. Recently on 6-16-2011 Chemtell announced a 20% increase in prices (effective July 1, 2011) for its lithium salts, including lithium9cells Presario CQ43 battery carbonate, lithium hydroxide, lithium chloride, and increases on battery grade lithium metal.

Battery grade lithium metal is the material that is used in batteries and over the past 7 years about 2.4 billion batteries have been in use and are utilizing approximately 35 million pounds of battery grade lithium.

Standard battery grade lithium is a lithium carbonate manufactured for solid ion conductors and monocrystals used in the electronics industry. Such carbonate is a source of a raw material for the production of cathode material used in lithium ion batteries (lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide). In terms of its chemical composition standard battery grade lithium, or Lithium bis-(oxalato) borate – LiBOB. LiBOB is a conductive agent for the use in high performance lithium (Li) batteries and lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries and lithium polymer (Li-po) batteries.

Battery grade lithium metals are sold to a wide assortment of manufacturers by the kilogram as ingots. A lithium ingot is often times a cylindrical roll of lithium that weighs about 11 pounds on average. Special order ingots of course can be requested thereby changing the average weight. Lithium ingots are made from technical grade lithium carbonate which is a byproduct of lithium and a solution of lithium hydroxide. The conversion of lithium in the lithium hydroxide solution results in lithium carbonate as a fine white powder. This powder is placed into a billet container prior to being processed through the extrusion. The extruded billet may be solid or hollow in form, commonly cylindrical, used as the final length of material charged into the extrusion press cylinder. It is usually a cast product, but may be a wrought product or sintered from powder compact. This billet of lithium carbonate is the ingot.

Battery manufacturers take the typically shaped ingot and stretch it into a thin sheet of metal that is only 1/100th of an inch thick and 650 feet in length. A laminator furthers the process by stretching the 655 foot lithium roll to about 1.25 miles of lithium used to make 210 lithium batteries. The battery cell is then tested to measure 3.6V. Volts (volts are an electrical measure of energy potential - you can think of it as the pressure being exerted by all the electrons of a battery’s negative terminal12 cells Presario CQ45 battery as they try to move to the positive terminal)

In terms of pricing in 1998 the price of lithium was $43.33 per pound. In April of 2009 the average price per pound was $28.57. In May of 2010 the average price of lithium per pound was $28.24 and currently the average price per pound of lithium is increasing to around $35.86. As noted above a typical ingot weighs in at about 11 pounds (total metal value is about $394.46 per ingot – note this is not the complete costs that manufacturers pay for a single ingot).

Before a long-lasting rechargeable sodium battery

October 25 [Thu], 2012, 15:23
Now, the gold standard in the industry is the lithium ion battery, which can be recharged hundreds of times and works really well. Its only problem is that it is made with lithium, which is not cheap. It could get even more high quality as10b31expensive if more electric vehicles powered with lithium ion batteries hit the road and drive up demand.

"Some people think lithium will be the next oil," says Shahbazian-Yassar, an associate professor of mechanical engineering-engineering mechanics at Michigan Technological University.

Sodium may be a good alternative. "After lithium, it's the most attractive element to be used in batteries," Shahbazian-Yassar said. It's also cheap and abundant; seawater is full of it.

It has just one drawback: sodium atoms are big, about 70 percent larger in size than lithium atoms. "When the atoms are too big, that's problematic," says Shahbazian-Yassar, because they can cause a battery's electrodes to wear out faster. "Imagine bringing an elephant through the door into my office. It's going to break down the walls."

Before a long-lasting rechargeable sodium battery can be developed, scientists need to better understand these challenges and develop solutions. With a $417,000 National Science Foundation grant, Shahbazian-Yassar is leading that effort at Michigan Tech. "We have an opportunity to tackle some of the fundamental issues relating to charging and discharging of batteries right here," he said. "We have a unique tool that lets us observe the inside of a battery."

Using a transmission electron microscope, Shahbazian-Yassar and his team can peer inside and see how a battery is charging and discharging at the atomic level. "We will study these fundamental reactions and find out what 9cells AS10D61materials and electrodes will do a better job hosting the sodium."

Sodium ion batteries would not have to be as good as lithium ion batteries to be competitive, Shahbazian-Yassar notes. They would just need to be good enough to satisfy the consumer. And they could make electric cars more affordable, and thus more attractive. Plus, they could reduce our dependence on fossil fuels, particularly if the batteries were charged using renewable energy sources. That would lead to two laudable goals: greater energy independence and less pollution worldwide.

These are the choices when it comes to choosing a processor for your computer

October 25 [Thu], 2012, 15:22
Basically, if you are looking for an Intel CPU and expect high-end performance, go for the Core i5 line. Intel Core i5 CPUs use the Sandy Bridge technology, which means they give your PC a turbo boost. If you are happy to 11.1v 5200mah 9cells UM09H36spend about $210 on your CPU, then Intel Core i5-2500 Quad-Core 3.3-3.7GHz (Turbo) is the way to go.

Another good choice from Intel is Core i5 750. Well, that’s as far as Intel is concerned. But let’s not overlook AMD processors – they are quickly gaining in popularity and have the potential to outperform Intel.

If you ask me what is the best computer processor from AMD, I will recommend the AMD Phenom II line. Phenom II are not the newest processors from AMD, but they are the best choice when it comes to the performance and price combination.

Even though AMD have released AMX FX processors that are commonly called AMD Bulldozer, these processors have trouble outperforming Intel Core i5 and i7 in most cases. And when it comes to some operations, Phenom II works better than Bulldozer.

But what if you are looking for a budget CPU that will offer you decent performance? What is the best computer processor to buy for less than $100? Well, there are a few choices from both Intel and AMD. From Intel you should consider Intel Celeron G530 Dual-Core 2.4GHz, Intel Pentium G620 Dual-Core 2.6GHz, and Intel Pentium G850 Dual-Core 2.9GHz.

As for AMD, check out AMD Phenom II X2 555 3.2GHz Dual-Core 80W 6MB L3 Black Edition AM3 and AMD Phenom II X4 925 2.8GHz 6MB L3 Cache Quad-Core. Both of these processors offer good performance and will suit replacement as07b72 the needs of most home computer users.

These are the choices when it comes to choosing a processor for your computer. But to tell you the truth, only you can answer the question what is the best computer processor for your budget because it depends on the tasks you run and your particular computer performance requirements.

This is pretty common and the leakage of the battery usually is the potassium hydroxide

September 14 [Fri], 2012, 10:52
They come in two types – normally they are either rechargeable or disposable and they are made up of a number of materials that can include either zinc,iron and manganese oxide.The chemical make up of the batteries differ greatly from the old zinc chloride batteries,and where they may contain the same voltage as these 11.1v 5200mah 9cells as07b32,the one advantage that they do have is that the have a much larger energy density and the self drain status is much lower than the zinc chloride counterpart.

This means that you can keep your alkaline batteries on the shelf for much longer before it drains all the power away through normal electrical decay.

The reason they are called alkaline batteries is because they have an alkaline within the battery matrix made of potassium hydroxide,which is far different from the acidic electrolyte used in the older zinc chloride and carbon zinc battery.Within this the negative terminal,or the anode, is made of a material of zinc powder,which gives the aspect of the battery much more surface area and a higher rate of reaction for good electron flow,and it also contains a positive terminal,or a cathode that is made from manganese.

The capacity of the battery is quite standard fare,with 1.5 volts being the normal rating that you would get,but because of the denser energy storage within the cells,it can last up to 5 times longer than older zinc batteries.1000mA is the normal current that can be provided by the alkaline battery,and that increases with size.

Higher rated and larger alkaline batteries like the D and C cells,are much bigger and have much larger current storage.One thing you should note about the alkaline battery is that over time and misuse,there might be leakage issues.AA carbon zinc battery,also called R6P carbon battery, features advantages including large capacity,no leakage,discharge voltage stable etc.Product label and shrink film could use degradable PET material,not PVC material any more.PVC material since it will cause carcinogenic material when garbage burning treatment that forbid by many country,large companyhigh quality al10b31 eco-friendly carbon zinc battery without PVC package,according to customer strict environmental requirement.

This is pretty common and the leakage of the battery usually is the potassium hydroxide,which when coming into contact with the skin,can cause problems and irritations.What ever you do,do not mix battery types and recharge batteries not meant to be recharged – a well as storing them properly and keeping them out of the heat.As of late,the alkaline battery is being replaced with the more expensive and much more effective lithium-ion battery but we should not forget the many years that the good old alkaline battery has served the world of portable gadgets and electronic devices well and will continue to as a cheap alternative to the more costly solutions out there.

This means smaller batteries providing the same amount of power

August 17 [Fri], 2012, 11:05
While many are taking the recent news that MIT has found what amounts to a “pourable” battery and focusing on the liquid portion of it, there are in fact greater revelations to be found in their research.

Yes, the idea that Electric Vehicles can refill their power source as easily as pouring gasoline does seem interesting. However, the practicality doesn’t seem as simple. Are typical consumers really going to step out of replacement battery for dv5 battery their car, dump old spent battery sludge and pour in freshly charged sludge? It seems most likely that the currently employed method of simply swapping discharged batteries for new one’s makes more sense.

What should be receiving the focus is the fact that MIT’s research allows for denser batteries. This means smaller batteries providing the same amount of power, or same-sized batteries providing even more power. Smaller, more powerful batteries of course translate into the potential for cheaperhp g70 laptop battery electronics and more affordable electric vehicles.

No word yet on when the new technology would be available for public consumption, but it’s safe to say that as the world’s appetite for smaller and more powerful electronics grows, newer advances in battery life can only benefit us all.
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