Most battery chemistries allow serial and parallel configuration 

June 14 [Fri], 2013, 11:49
Battery packs achieve the desired operating voltage by connecting several cells in series, with each cell adding to the total terminal voltage. Parallel connection attains higher capacity for increased current handling, as each cell Presario CQ50 bright adds to the total current handling. Some packs may have a combination of serial and parallel connections.



Laptop batteries commonly have four 3.6V Li-ion cells in series to achieve 14.4V and two strings of these 4 cells in parallel (for a pack total of 8 cells) to boost the capacity from 2,400mAh to 4,800mAh. Such a configuration is called 4S2P, meaning 4 cells are in series and 2 strings of these in parallel. Insulating foil between the cells prevents the conductive metallic skin from causing an electrical short. The foil also shields against heat transfer should one cell get hot.

Most battery chemistries allow serial and parallel configuration. It is important to use the same battery type with equal capacity throughout and never mix different makes and sizes. A weaker cell causes an imbalance. This Presario CQ56 bright is especially critical in a serial configuration and a battery is only as strong as the weakest link.

Imagine a chain with strong and weak links. This chain can pull a small weight but when the tension rises, the weakest link will break. The same happens when connecting cells with different capacities in a battery. The weak cells may not quit immediately but get exhausted more quickly than the strong ones when in continued use. On charge, the low cells fill up before the strong ones and get hot; on discharge the weak are empty before the strong ones and they are getting stressed.

One thing we do know will get better along with range is price 

April 18 [Thu], 2013, 16:43
The issue of limited range has been an impediment to EV sales since before such vehicles even went on sale. But as The Truth About Cars now reports, Toyota just might have the answer to this problem. The first steps have 12 cells HSTNN-OB60been taken toward making a battery which uses sodium-ion compound as the positive electrode. This produces 30 percent more voltage than a lithium-ion battery, and it’s estimated that it could at least double the range of electric cars. It is even estimated that range to extend to 1,000 km (620 miles) with sodium batteries.

Toyota hasn’t said what we can expect for recharge times on these batteries, and a 600-mile range would be something of a mixed blessing if it also needed two days to recharge. But improvements are being made in the area of recharging as well, and sine Toyota has said that they don’t expect the sodium batteries to be ready until 2020, it’s still a bit early to say what conditions will be like when it comes time to actually charge the batteries.

One thing we do know will get better along with range is price. Sodium is one of the most abundant elements on earth, and Toyota says the new batteries would almost surely be cheaper than the lithium-ion batteries we currently use.

This announcement came as a bit of a shock, as it was just a couple of months ago that Toyota announced they would be scaling back on EV building and that the technology just wasn’t ready for full-scale implementation. We 12 cells HSTNN-Q21Ccan only assume that this research is being conducted as part of Toyota’s desire to remain the world leader in hybrids.

Whatever their motivation, we’re marking off 2020 on our calendars. It should be fascinating to see how this impacts the market and even whether the technology will spread to other devices which use batteries as well.

The group now plans to study the cathode 

February 28 [Thu], 2013, 15:47
A mobile phone battery built using the Northwestern techniques would charge from flat in 15 minutes and last a week before needing acheap rn873 VGP-BPS13B/Q recharge.

The density and movement of lithium ions are key to the process.

Dr Harold Kung and his team at Northwestern said they have found a way to cram more of the ions in and to speed up their movement by altering the materials used to manufacture a battery.

The maximum charge has been boosted by replacing sheets of silicon with tiny clusters of the substance to increase the amount of lithium ions a battery can hold on to.

The recharging speed has been accelerated using a chemical oxidation process which drills small holes - just 20-40 nanometers wide - in the atom-thick sheets of graphene that batteries are made of.

This helps lithium ions move and find a place to be stored much faster.

The downside is that the recharging and power gains fall off sharply after a battery has been charged about 150 times.

"Even after 150 charges, which would be one year or more of operation, the battery is still five times more effective than lithium-ion batteries on the market today," said lead scientist Prof Harold Kung from the chemical and biological engineering department at Northwestern.

So far, the work done by the team has concentrated on making improvements to anodes - where the current flows into the cheap rn873 VGP-BPS13S when they are providing power.

The group now plans to study the cathode - where the current flows out - to make further improvements.

A paper detailing the work of Prof Kung and his co-workers has been published in the journal Advanced Energy Materials.

You take the nickel base chemistries  

February 28 [Thu], 2013, 15:41
The new devices are, according to BAE, more than just traditional batteries in an different shaped case. Potentially the technology cheap rn873 VGP-BPS13ABcould be a substitute for existing carbon-composite structural materials.

"There are number of people that will build a battery shaped like a beam, for example, but fundamentally that is just an odd-shaped battery, it isn't a structural battery," Mr Penney said.

"The beauty of what we've got is that, when it's fully developed, a company will be able to go out and buy what is a standard carbon-composite material, lay out the shape, put it through the curing process and have a structural battery," he said.

In order to achieve this BAE said it had "merged battery chemistries into composite materials".

"You take the nickel base chemistries and there are ways you can integrate that into the carbon fibre," Mr Penney explained.

While applications in military hardwarecheap rn873 VGP-BPS13B/B and motor-racing suggest a big price tag BAE believes it can make structural batteries relatively inexpensive.

"The goal, and we are still working towards it, is to have a material that isn't significantly more expensive than carbon fibre," Mr Penney said.

The good news about Going Green is that lowering your carbon footprint 

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 15:53
A few days ago we reported on the issue of standby power–that our homes and workplaces are populated with electronics that often consume energy even when they’ve been turned off. Nationally,such secretive parasites add 5-10% to our total electrical consumption.At the global level,one of the biggestbuy Aspire 7741 culprits are cell phone chargers.Without diving into a nerdy discussion of electrical engineering,most chargers use essentially the same amount of power regardless of whether they’re recharging batteries or sitting idle.


In fact,the lion’s share of a mobile battery carbon footprint lies not in the energy required to charge its battery,but in the endless hours that its charger will spend plugged into an outlet doing nothing.A small portion of consumers are fairly dedicated about removing their chargers from the outlet when it’s done,but most are simply unaware of the problem.Then there are those not unlike myself,who,however well intentioned or conservation-savvy,have occasionally forgotten to unplug said cell phone charger only to realize their absentmindedness many days,and watts,later.

Whatever group of consumer you fall in,there’s good news as AT&T’s ZERO smart charger has announced that it will be offering a smart charger for its US customers at “dumb” charger prices.This is particularly good news for iPhone and Blackberry owners seeking to keep their carbon footprint as trim as possible.If the whole issue of fretting over cell phone chargers sounds trivial,keep in mindbuy Aspire 7745 that there are an estimated 4.6 billion cell phones in use around the globe.


The good news about Going Green is that lowering your carbon footprint = saving money,not the other way around.Just like the smart chargers, our expertise lies in delivering to you the necessary information to intelligently lower your energy usage (and without having to give up your car or electricity.)

Experts hope to bring the approach to the market as soon as possible 

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 15:52
The group developed a new method for boosting battery efficiency, which relies heavily on the use of a bi-dimensional carbon compound buy Aspire 5820Tcalled graphene. The material has a hexagonal structure, and boasts impressive chemical and physical properties.

Currently, graphene is not widely used because obtaining it is a very complex process. However, recent advancements in manufacturing techniques are bringing the material closer and closer to being available on a large scale.


As this happens, we can expect to see more and more researches based on its properties. For the latest one, NU experts decided to improve on past designs that called for graphene to be introduced in Li-Ion batteries. The team says that its new power storage devices recharge 10 times faster than any other.

Investigators published their research in the latest issue of the esteemed scientific journal Advanced Energy Materials. “We have found a way to extend a new lithium-ion battery’s charge life by 10 times,” reports the lead author of the new paper, Harold H. Kung.

“Even after 150 charges, which would be one year or more of operation, the battery is still five times more effective than lithium-ion batteries on the market today,” adds the expert, who is a professor of chemical and biological engineering in the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science.

The new batteries, he explains, feature anodes made up of silicon and graphene. The former is known for its ability to store 4 lithium atoms for each silicon atoms, but is highly unstable as a result. Graphene holds 1 lithium atom per six carbon atoms.

By combining the two chemicals, the research team managed to successfully obtain the best of both worlds. “We have much higher energy density because of the silicon, and the sandwiching reduces the capacity loss caused by the silicon expanding and contracting,” Kung says.

“Even if the silicon clusters break up, the silicon won’t be lost,” he goes on to say. The main issue silicone anodes have is that they tend to contract and expand with each recharge cycle. This leads to fragmentation andbuy Aspire 7551 loss of charge.

The NU team now plans to continue developing this new approach to manufacturing lithium-ion batteries. Experts hope to bring the approach to the market as soon as possible.

This is also important in distinguishing accidental conduct 

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 14:47
Battery is a general intent offense. This means that the actor need not intend the specific harm that will result from the unwanted contact, but only to commit an act of unwanted contact. This also means that gross negligence orbuy Aspire 5750 even recklessness may provide the required intent or (in criminal matters) mens rea to find a battery.

The doctrine of transferred intent is also applicable. If one person intends to strike another, but the person moves out of the way to avoid being struck, causing the blow to hit a third person, both an assault (against the second person) and a battery (against the third person) have occurred, in both criminal and civil law.

This is important in the distinction between a battery and an assault. A battery involves actual contact. An assault is, in actuality, an incomplete battery; a person commits an assault if he or she intentionally places a person in apprehension of an impending battery. Conversely, if a persons intended only an assault (to cause apprehension of an imminent battery), and harmful or offensive contact actually occurs, the person has committed a battery as well as an assault.

This is also important in distinguishing accidental conduct. If a person violently slams into a fellow passenger on a moving public bus, there is no liability. But if, on the same public bus, there is only the slightest intentional touching of another, which is harmful or offensive and also non-consensual (such as buy Aspire 5810Treaching out and touching a woman's thigh), a battery has occurred.

Conversely, if there was only an intended assault, as in a person gesturing toward another in a menacing manner, and the person trips and actually crashes into the other person, both an assault and battery have occurred.

The negative electrode supplies a current of electrons  

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 14:46
A battery, which is actually an electric cell, is a device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction. Strictly speaking, a buy Aspire 5741consists of two or more cells connected in series or parallel, but the term is generally used for a single cell. A cell consists of a negative electrode; an electrolyte, which conducts ions; a separator, also an ion conductor; and a positive electrode.

The electrolyte may be aqueous (composed of water) or nonaqueous (not composed of water), in liquid, paste, or solid form. When the cell is connected to an external load, or device to be powered, the negative electrode supplies a current of electrons that flow through the load and are accepted by the positive electrode. When the external load is removed the reaction ceases.

A primary battery is one that can convert its chemicals into electricity only once and then must be discarded. A secondarybuy Aspire 5742has electrodes that can be reconstituted by passing electricity back through it; also called a storage or rechargeable battery, it can be reused many times.

Batteries come in several styles; the most familiar are single-use alkaline batteries.

The good news about Going Green is that lowering your carbon footprint  

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 14:43
A few days ago we reported on the issue of standby power–that our homes and workplaces are populated with electronics that often consume energy even when they’ve been turned off. Nationally,such secretive parasites add 5-10% to our total electrical consumption.At the global level,one of the biggest buy Aspire 4820Tculprits are cell phone chargers.Without diving into a nerdy discussion of electrical engineering,most chargers use essentially the same amount of power regardless of whether they’re recharging batteries or sitting idle.


In fact,the lion’s share of a mobile battery carbon footprint lies not in the energy required to charge its battery,but in the endless hours that its charger will spend plugged into an outlet doing nothing.A small portion of consumers are fairly dedicated about removing their chargers from the outlet when it’s done,but most are simply unaware of the problem.Then there are those not unlike myself,who,however well intentioned or conservation-savvy,have occasionally forgotten to unplug said cell phone charger only to realize their absentmindedness many days,and watts,later.

Whatever group of consumer you fall in,there’s good news as AT&T’s ZERO smart charger has announced that it will be offering a smart charger for its US customers at “dumb” charger prices.This is particularly good news for iPhone and Blackberry owners seeking to keep their carbon footprint as trim as possible.If the whole issue of fretting over cell phone chargers sounds trivial,keep in mind that there buy Aspire 5551are an estimated 4.6 billion cell phones in use around the globe.


The good news about Going Green is that lowering your carbon footprint = saving money,not the other way around.Just like the smart chargers, our expertise lies in delivering to you the necessary information to intelligently lower your energy usage (and without having to give up your car or electricity.)

As an emergency backup, then it can be useful to have a battery pack  

October 09 [Tue], 2012, 12:10
These are not normally used as a main power source for audio or video equipment, but are often used in auxiliary devices, e.g. remote wireless or infrared controllers, microphones, etc. There are many different chemical systems cheap KY265employed in these cells, some using very expensive components.

The requirement for, say, a clock battery, which will be expected to supply a comparatively low amount of energy for a year or so, is different than that required for a battery powering a digital camera with a flash lamp, which has to supply pulses of relatively high power. Within many electronic devices, for example real time clock circuitry and memory maintenance circuitry, there is a requirement for primary cells which will supply a low amount of power for ten or so years.

A few advantages of primary cells are that they are easily available, at least in the standard consumer sizes, have a long shelf life and a high power density.

As an emergency backup, then it can be useful to have a battery pack which will take standard primary cells, but chose an easily available cell size, AA, C or D

Originally, (well, in my childhood days) most primary cells were of zinc-carbon construction. A later development was zinc chloride which has a greater capacity, whereas now most primary cells are of alkaline construction. However, in some situations the high capacity of the alkaline cells can cause a hazard due to sparking on installation. For example, a standard alkaline Duracell D cell has a capacityreplacement Vostro 1320 battery of 18000mAh, and therefore Zinc based cells are still used in hazardous situations.

Later cell technologies include zinc air, which provide energy only when a protective seal is removed and they thus have a very defined operational life. Other chemistries include silver oxide, mercury, and a whole range of lithium based cells, such as lithium iron sulphide, lithium manganese dioxide and lithium thionyl chloride. These cells are usually highly matched to a particular application, and give a saving in size and weight (but not usually cost) when compared with an alkaline cell of the same capacity