Laptop batteries commonly have four 3.6V Li-ion cells in series to achieve 14.4V

June 14 [Fri], 2013, 10:33
Battery packs achieve the desired operating voltage by connecting several cells in series, with each cell adding to the total terminal voltage. Parallel connection attains higher capacity for increased current handling, as each cell adds T117C bright to the total current handling. Some packs may have a combination of serial and parallel connections.

Laptop batteries commonly have four 3.6V Li-ion cells in series to achieve 14.4V and two strings of these 4 cells in parallel (for a pack total of 8 cells) to boost the capacity from 2,400mAh to 4,800mAh. Such a configuration is called 4S2P, meaning 4 cells are in series and 2 strings of these in parallel. Insulating foil between the cells prevents the conductive metallic skin from causing an electrical short. The foil also shields against heat transfer should one cell get hot.

Most battery chemistries allow serial and parallel configuration. It is important to use the same battery type with equal capacity throughout and never mix different makes and sizes. A weaker cell causes an imbalance. This is especially KY265 bright critical in a serial configuration and a battery is only as strong as the weakest link.

Imagine a chain with strong and weak links. This chain can pull a small weight but when the tension rises, the weakest link will break. The same happens when connecting cells with different capacities in a battery. The weak cells may not quit immediately but get exhausted more quickly than the strong ones when in continued use. On charge, the low cells fill up before the strong ones and get hot; on discharge the weak are empty before the strong ones and they are getting stressed.

Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements

April 17 [Wed], 2013, 14:39
If you have done any research on how batteries work or what you should look for when selecting a battery, you are probably buried in information, some of which is conflicting. At BatteryStuff, we aim to clear that up a bit.You have If you have done any research on how batteries work or what you should look for when12 cells Pavilion 13 selecting a battery, you are probably buried in information, some of which is conflicting.

At BatteryStuff, we aim to clear that up a bit.You have most likely heard the term K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid). I am going to attempt to explain how lead acid batteries work and what they need without burying you with a bunch of needless technical data. I have found that battery data will vary somewhat from manufacturer to manufacturer, so I will do my best to boil that data down. This means I may generalize a bit, while staying true to purpose.

The commercial use of the lead acid battery is over 100 years old. The same chemical principal that is being used to store energy is basicly the same as our Great Grandparents may have used.

If you can grasp the basics you will have fewer battery problems and will gain greater battery performance, reliability, and longevity. I suggest you read the entire tutorial, however I have indexed all the information for a quick read and easy reference.

A battery is like a piggy bank. If you keep taking out and putting nothing back you soon will have nothing. Present day chassis battery power requirements are huge. Consider today’s vehicle and all the electrical devices that must be supplied. All these electronics require a source of reliable power, and poor battery condition can cause expensive electronic component failure. Did you know that the average auto has 11 pounds of wire in the electrical system? Look at RVs and boats with all the electrical gadgets that require power. It was not long ago when trailers or motor homes had only a single 12-volt house battery. Today it is standard to have two or more house batteries powering inverters up to 4000 watts.

Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. Life span depends on usage; 6 months to 48 months, yet only 30% of all batteries actually reach the 48-month mark. You can extend your battery life by hooking it up to a solar charger during the off months.most likely heard the term K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid).

I am going to attempt to explain how lead acid batteries work and what they need without burying you with a bunch of needless technical data. I have found that battery data will vary somewhat from manufacturer to manufacturer, so I will do my best to boil that data down. This means I may generalize a bit, while staying true to purpose.

The commercial use of the lead acid battery is over 100 years old. The same chemical principal that is being used to store energy is basicly the same as our Great Grandparents may have used.

If you can grasp the basics you will have fewer battery problems and will gain greater battery performance, reliability, and longevity. I suggest you read the entire tutorial, however I have indexed all the information for a quick read and easy reference.

A battery is like a piggy bank. If you keep taking out and putting nothing back you soon will have nothing. Present day chassis battery power requirements are huge. Consider today’s vehicle and all the electrical devices that must be supplied. All these electronics require a source of reliable power, and poor12 cells Pavilion dm1condition can cause expensive electronic component failure. Did you know that the average auto has 11 pounds of wire in the electrical system? Look at RVs and boats with all the electrical gadgets that require power. It was not long ago when trailers or motor homes had only a single 12-volt house battery. Today it is standard to have two or more house batteries powering inverters up to 4000 watts.

Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. Life span depends on usage; 6 months to 48 months, yet only 30% of all batteries actually reach the 48-month mark. You can extend your battery life by hooking it up to a solar charger during the off months.

This leads to enhanced active-material utilization levels

February 28 [Thu], 2013, 12:24
irefly’s technology is an innovative material science that removes almost all limitations of current lead-acid battery products. The materials also hold the promise of major simplification for manufacturing of lead-acid cheap rn873 A32-F52and will potentially deliver more flexible form factors or configurations, which may be the catalyst to change the entire distribution and profitability models of the battery industry.

As he began his research into lead acid battery chemistry and structure, Kurt Kelley discovered that much of the lead in the grid structure of conventional batteries can be replaced by a totally new type of grid material. Of course, once the basic material was determined to have the requisite physical and chemical properties, much subsequent research and testing was required to determine the optimum configuration and “architecture” within the battery itself. These results are confirmed in recently granted U.S. Patents.

In the advanced battery architectures that Firefly has perfected, the MicrocellTM composite foam “grids” are impregnated with a slurry of lead oxides which are then formed up to the sponge lead and lead dioxide in the normal fashion. Because of the foam structure, the resultant negative and positive plates have enormous surface-area advantages over conventional lead acid grid structures. This results in much-improved active material utilization levels (i.e. from the historical 20-50% up into the range of 70-90%) as well as enhanced fast-recharge capability and greater high-rate / low-temperature discharge times.

The signal advantage of Firefly’s Microcell Technology™ is that it fundamentally changes the performance of active materials within the lead acid cell due to its unique architecture. Overall, the Firefly foam electrode structure results in a redistribution of most of the electrolyte (the biggest “resistor” in a lead acid battery) into the pores of the foam plate, in closer proximity to the lead chemistry. This is in contrast to a traditional lead acid battery, where most of the electrolyte is in the separator, more distant from the plate’s chemistry. Each foam wafer contains hundreds or thousands of spherical microcells (depending on the foam pore diameters).

This leads to enhanced active-material utilization levels because each microcell has its full complement of sponge lead or lead dioxide and sulfuric acid electrolyte. Liquid diffusion distances are reduced from the traditional levels of millimeters over linear paths (the conventional “2D” diffusion mechanism) to the level of cheap rn873 A32-F82microns in the three-dimensional space within the discrete microcells that collectively comprise a totally new type of electrode structure (what Firefly calls a “3D” electrode).

Such a structure results in much higher power and energy delivery and rapid recharge capabilities relative to conventional lead acid products. These foam electrodes can be used in either flooded or VRLA battery designs.

Electric or hybrid car owners are spared the inconvenience of having to recharge their batteries

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 11:01
This incredible new battery technology works because of the material that is being used in the actual construction of the items. The reason that the new material is making headlines is because of the fact that it can be integrated buy AS10D75into the design of an automobile and would make it lighter and more fuel efficient, but could actually supply power to recharge the battery of an electric car.

With the material being able to be strong enough for the construction of a car, there are many other possibilities for its use. Right off the bat, devices such as cell phones, iPods, laptops and anything else that you can think of that would use battery power would be able to benefit from this new battery technology.

In the case of portable devices, the entire outer shell would actually be made from this material and would serve as the charging agent. There would simply never be a need to ever plug the device into a charger again. For cars, areas such as the roof or part of a door panel could have the material integrated into it and the power routed to the battery of the automobile. Again, electric or hybrid car owners are spared the inconvenience of having to recharge their batteries.

Because the material is also super lightweight, it will improve the overall performance of the vehicle as well efficiency of the gas mileage. Because of the lighter weight, the cars would also need fewer batteries to power them. With the cost of the batteries being pretty significant, the overall cost of the car wouldbuy AL10C31 actually come down with new battery technology.

The new technology is just that, new, so there is still a lot of work to be done in order get it to be as effective as possible. The developers are still continuing to find ways to make it stronger, lighter, more durable and of course more energy efficient. In addition, they are seeking ways to make the actual production of the materials needed more cost effective so that the consumer can truly reap the benefits of this incredible new battery technology.

Toshiba laptop batteries are a product of top-quality design

January 04 [Fri], 2013, 11:01
The General Motors-backed Envia Systems has come up with a new process that creates a battery with an energy density of 400 watt-hours per kilogram. To put that in perspective, the lithium cells found in most electric cars today only pack about 100-150 Wh/kg. Even the batteries on Tesla's forthcoming Model S only pack in around 240Wh/kg. In terms of cost, when it was first produced, the Nissan Leaf'sbuy AL10D56cost around $375 per kilowatt-hour. The Envia battery is projected to cost just $125 per kilowatt-hour.

The new magic comes from combining a "High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR)" cathode and a silicon-carbon nanocomposite anode, and then passing the lithium ions though a new, secret electrolyte formula (Powerade? Probably Powerade) that allows for increased voltage.

All of this isn't just lofty PR claims; they have already been independently tested by the Electrochemical Power Systems Department at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. So that's the good news. The bad news: they aren't likely to be commercialized and available to Terry T. Public until 2015.

I know, I know, I want it now, too. But at least these sorts of breakthroughs are being made. The high-cost and low capacity of batteries is one of the major impediments to adoption of electric cars. The idea that these problems will be greatly reduced within the next few years is a very, very good thing.
4
After acquiring a Toshiba laptop battery, firstly, you need to know that new Toshiba laptop batteries need to be braked in first before you start to use the notebook. They must have a first charge of twelve to fourteen hrs - and this must be done on the A/C wall adapter - rather than other charger, such as a cigarette charger. It doesn't matter what any charge indicator light says, wait the full time before disconnecting. It is recommended that you fully charge and discharge your new battery 2 to 4 times to allow it to reach its maximum rated capacity. This can fully condition the battery.

Pretty much, the present-day notebook computers reduce the autonomy mostly as a result of 2 reasons: Firstly the utilization, secondly the normal aging of the chemical materials. As a result, regardless of what the tips that you will take your battery pack will wear gradually.Usually the life of a rechargeable battery using is generally between 500 to 800 charge-discharge cycles. This translates into one and a half to 3 years of battery life for the typical owner.

Some normal good care of the notebook battery can absolutely help make a positive change in how long your battery will last as well. Here let me let you know some helpful recommendations on prolonging the lifespan of a Toshiba laptop battery to make sure that you can take most advantages of it.

The very first thing to understand it's that it loses a little its load permanently even if you do not use it. More the temp of the battery is, more quickly it discharges. Accordingly keep your battery as new as possible.

Another idea to be aware of it is that the autonomy of the battery reduce slightly with each charging cycle. Just what is not amazing, but when one combines it with the preceding point that can involve shocking consequences: When a user leaves his battery in his system but yet leave his power adapterbuy AS10D41 attached to the socket, the battery of its computer passes constantly by cycles of charge/discharge!

For that reason, if you don't use the Toshiba laptop battery, outside of your laptop in a fresh and dry space. Every month or so exercise your battery. This is just a natural method that your battery needs to go through so that you can keep its long battery lifespan. Toshiba laptop batteries are a product of top-quality design, and need to be carefully care to make sure they give you the best possible performance and durability within the lifetime.

The four researchers hope their work helps them win accreditation from Athena Swan

November 29 [Thu], 2012, 11:32
Dr Liza Howe-Walsh and Dr Sarah Turnbull, from the University of Portsmouth Business School, have won funding to run workshops which could help revolutionise women’s career paths.

Their workshops will include psychometric diagnostic assessments to reveal whether barriers women might have to becoming leadershp 504610-001 laptop battery exist in their minds or personality, in their skills, or in another area. The workshops will also include one-to-one sessions to help women navigate their way to the tops of their careers.

Dr Howe-Walsh, an international human resources expert, and Dr Turnbull, a marketing expert who has worked in the Gulf at senior level for many years, are among a very limited number of specialists worldwide who are qualified to use the Kozai Group’s Global Competencies Index (GCI). The GCI index is a psychometric instrument designed to assess an individual’s current global competence and examines personal qualities associated with effectiveness in intercultural situations including perception management, relationship management and self management.

Dr Howe-Walsh said: "This project will investigate developing Arab women entering the science and technology professions in the Middle East and explore the wider career progression implications for women working in these fields.

"It builds upon existing information on the range of positive traits and qualities seen in women in positions of global leadership, and acknowledges that the challenges faced by female Arab leaders differ from those faced by female leaders in Western countries.”

To date, there have been no focused investigations of the nature of global competencies in Arab women, but female leadership has been identified as a priority in the Middle East and many companies are seeking to develop and promote leadership roles for women in science and technology.

Dr Turnbull said: "The use of the GCI index enables organisations to assess the global competencies of individuals and is valuable in nurturing the development of cultural diversity and global leadership.

"Our work in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates will investigate developing Arab women and explore the wider implications for women working in the life sciences and engineering professions.

"The results of the workshops will help us measure predispositions associated with effective inter-cultural behaviour and leadership. Crucially, they will also help us identify to the women who take part any barriers they might have and help them find ways around them.”

The project is a new collaboration between the University’s Business School and its science faculty. Dr Jan Shute, a Reader in Pharmacology in the science faculty, is delivering a keynote speech at the workshops in which she will share her own experiences and strategies to overcome challenges she has faced in making a career in science. Astronomer Dr Karen Masters, of the University’s Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, will also be a keynote speaker discussing her own career experiences as well as strategies to overcome the challenges faced.

The four researchers hope their work helps them win accreditation from Athena Swan which lobbies for the advancement of women in careers in science, engineering and technology.

The results of the study will be hp Pavilion Envy 13 battery
presented at conferences in the Middle East in 2013.

Drs Howe-Walsh and Turnbull presented their initial research at the Gulf Education Agenda in London in May to an audience of politicians, ambassadors, educators and fellow researchers from the Middle East.

Cadex Electronics is making critical progress in measuring battery

October 08 [Mon], 2012, 16:24
Battery voltage, current and temperature alone are not sufficient to provide accurate SoC estimations, much less state-of-health (SoH). Early Li-ion correlated the rising internal resistance with SoH. This no longer works because most modern Li-ion replacement Pavilion dm1 batterymaintain low resistance as the battery ages.

When designing a BMS, one also must consider how the battery serves the host. In an iPhone and most EVs, for example, the battery is “married” to the host. This enables collecting data for learning. The battery and device co-habitat in a similar way to partners in a good marriage. Batteries for two-way radio, on the other hand, are picked from a common charger and returned to a pool for recharging after use. Learning is difficult and a different method must be used to track battery health.

Cadex Electronics is making critical progress in measuring battery SoC with magnetism. Quantum magnetism (Q-Mag™) could provide the most accurate battery SoC readings ever achieved. Q-Mag™ makes use of the magnetic property relating to SoC, which changes as much as three-fold between empty and full charge on some battery systems. A coil generates an AC field and a sensor reads the magnetic susceptibility, which is linear to SoC.

There are several choices of sensors and because of availability and low price Cadex conducts the research with the GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance) sensor. It consists of ferromagnetic alloys that are sandwiched on an ultrathin nonmagnetic conducting layer. Applying a magnetic field lowers the resistance; removing the force increases it. The principle is known as electron scattering, which is also used on hard drive read/write heads. Figure 2 illustrates the function of a GMR sensor.

Q-Mag™ has successfully been tested with Li-ion-cobalt, NMC, lithium iron phosphate, as well as several types of lead acid batteries. The system is immune to most outside interference and does not rely on voltage for SoC estimations. This allows reading SoC while the battery is on charge or a load. Q-Mag™ works with prismatic and cylindrical cells in aluminum and stainless steel casings, but not in ferrous material. The accuracy on lithium-based chemistries is +/-5%, lead acid is +/-7%. This high accuracy should be retained as the battery ages. Calibration occurs by applying a full charge.

With voltage and current references, Q-Mag™ is able to calculate SoC and SoH. The BMS can also detect micro-shorts by observing the self-discharge of a faulty cell, a feature that enhances battery safety. Furthermore, Q-Mag™ can be used for load leveling. This eliminates the rubber-band effect that complicates SoC estimationsbattery for Pavilion Envy 17 battery through voltage. Figure 3 shows Q-Mag as key contributor to BMS.

Q-Mag can be made small and sandwiched between cells. A multi-cell battery may have one sensor for an overall assessment or several to enable diagnostics to cell level. An ASIC containing Q-Mag™ could also include temperature sensing and digital processing. At high volume, low price would make this technology available for big and small batteries, including consumer products. Displaying precise energy reserve, as is possible with a liquid fuel system, may be closer than we think.

Keep battery connectors like the wire clean

August 08 [Wed], 2012, 12:20
Some Useful Tips to Keep Your Car Battery Healthy and Durable

To keep ourselves energized we need food, the fact is almost same with our favourite vehicle, our car. It needs fuel and also a strong suitable replacement VGP-BPS9A for proper functioning. Battery is an essential part of a car, which assists from starting of the car to comfortable cooling. For that reason, it is very important to take good care of your car battery.

Maintenance and periodic check-ups of car battery are very essential as it helps in improving the performance of the battery and thus helps in smooth functioning of your car. You do not need a complete knowhow to keep the battery in the best shape without any kind of disturbance. Just follow some simple tips to make sure your battery lasts long and doesn’t make you stand in the middle of the road.

Here we will discuss some important tips for improving the performance of your car battery and how you can maintain it in best possible manner.

Q. How do I know my car battery is failing?
Ans: There are few signs, which tell you that your car battery is getting old and need a replacement. Some useful signs that reflect the low or failing car battery are:

? Inappropriate functioning of various electrical devices of the car

? Problem in the ignition/starting

? Your headlights look dim at idle and then brighten when you rev the engine

? Improper cooling in the car cabin

Q. What are the causes of weak car battery?
Ans: There are several causes, which can cause weakening of car battery. If you know these and maintain your car battery, it can improve the battery life. Things that cause battery weakening or failure are like:

? Massive use of battery power for lightning, air-conditioning, music system can make your battery weak

? Rash driving

? Low charge and acid stratification

? Using air-conditioner, lights and music system, when car is in idle condition

? Factory/manufacturing defects

Q. How can I maintain my car battery?
Ans: Proper maintenance of your car battery can increase it’s life and performance. Just follow some simple but vey useful tips to maintain your car batteries are:

a. Clean the dust from your car battery on regular intervals, because it can cause corrosion

b. If you find any kind of corrosion in your car battery, use solution of baking soda to wipe it out

c. Clean the battery surface or case on regular intervals

d. Periodically inspect the battery for several types of damages like fluid leaks, shell cracks, etc

e. Keep you carrn873 VGP-BPL18always fully charged

f. Keep battery connectors like the wire clean

g. Keep terminals and cables tight to prevent entry of toxins in the battery and also ensure proper flow of electricity

h. To lubricate cables of the battery use Vaseline and petroleum jelly on regular intervals

i. Switch off music system, air-conditioner and lights, when it is in idle condition

j. Check the fluid level of the car battery on regular intervals to ensure full fluid level

However, we recommend that you take proper caution while following any of the above tips as battery is an acidic and electrical device which may cause injuries if not handled properly.

Rechargeable batteries are really intended for moderate

August 08 [Wed], 2012, 12:18
I was standing in line at a local electronics store the other day when I struck up a conversation with the guy ahead of me who had a basket full of battery chargers and AA rechargeable batteries. It turns out he had decided to replace all of the batteries in his house with the rechargeable kind. Between the cheap VGP-BPS20 and the chargers this guy plunked down over a hundred bucks!

He was so proud, telling me about all the money he was going to save.

I didn’t have the heart to ask him if he had the same typical electronic devices found in most homes, because if he did then he probably ended up spending a lot more money than he should have.

Rechargeable Batteries Aren’t Always Cost Effective!

I realize many people want to convert to rechargeable batteries for environmental reasons, which is fair enough. But the truth of the matter is this: when cost is the primary discriminator, low current-draw devices simply don’t warrant the extra expense of rechargeable batteries. That’s because the batteries of low current-draw devices are typically changed so infrequently that the payback period for equivalent rechargeable batteries would be too far long to justify the investment!

For example, it makes much more sense to use traditional alkaline batteries for low-draw devices like your wall clocks, radios, smoke detectors, programmable thermostats, and remote controls because they lose power at a much slower rate than rechargeable batteries.

And because traditional alkaline batteries can hold a charge for years when not in use, they are also the better choice for items that may sit unused for long period of time, like your alarm clock back-up battery and emergency flashlights.

When it comes right down to it, these low current-draw and/or low-use devices make up the great majority of battery-driven products in the typical home.

Okay. So When Do Rechargeable Batteries Make Sense?

Rechargeable batteries are really intended for moderate to high current-draw devices that get at least moderate use. Typically, these are devices that require a battery change every 30 to 60 days.

In my house the only item that clearly met that criteria and, therefore, justified the added up-front costs of rechargeable batteries, was the kids’ Wii gaming system. That is a perfect example of a high-use device where rechargeable batteries will save you a lot of money in the long run.

But for my household those are the only items where rechargeable batteries make sense.

“But, Len, what about my wireless keyboards and mice? Those get a lot of use!”

Well, as my article on the practicality of wireless mice and keyboards noted, rechargeable batteries didn’t even make financial sense for those devices, based upon my battery usage over an 18-month period – I only spent a little over $18 on replacement batteries during that period. But a set of eight good rechargeable AA batteries (five for the mouse and keyboard plus three spares) would set me back roughly $24. Add in the cost of the charger (a good one can run upwards of $40) and you can see that the payback period on the rechargeable batteries becomes a real issue. Remember, rechargeable batteries eventually go bad too, so you’ll need your batteries and charger to last at least until the payback period is reached if you want to recoup your costs in a reasonable amount of time.

How Do I Know Which Type of Rechargeable Battery to Buy?

If and when you decide you want to buy rechargeable batteries, you’ll need to know that there are essentially four types to choose from: nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), nickel cadmium (NiCad), rechargeable alkaline, and lithium ion.

NiMH rechargeable batteries typically perform better than NiCads and are free of toxic heavy metals. Generally speaking, NiMH is the best all-around choice for most rechargeable battery applications. As an added bonus, most NiMH battery charger systems can accommodate NiCad batteries too (although the opposite is not true).

NiCads are being phased out in favor of NiMHs not only because they are losing the performance war, but also because of their inconvenience; the heavy metals used within the NiCad are toxic and require special disposal needs.

Rechargeable alkaline batteries have only two real advantages over NiMHs and NiCads: low cost and no need for special recycling. Otherwise, their long-term performance and recharge characteristics make these batteries a poor choice. Rechargeable alkaline batteries also require a special charger, which reminds me: don’t ever confuse rechargeable alkalines with the typical disposable alkaline high quality VGP-BPS13B that are sold everywhere from 99-cent stores to the local grocery market – although some people do it, those batteries cannot be safely charged.

Lithium Ion batteries have great performance and can go unused for long periods without losing their charge. The big drawback is their price; not only are lithium ion batteries much more expensive than other types of rechargeable batteries, but they also require a special charger. Use them for rarely-used or high-drain devices like laptop computers, digital cameras, cell phones or portable televisions.

Two measurement problems

April 26 [Thu], 2012, 12:08
In the design of mobile devices, the battery operation time is an important factor. Many mobile devices add more functionality, these new features will quickly shorten the running time. The engineer must take advantage of the complex power management solutions in order to enable the battery to get the longest run time.

Engineers need to use the battery consumption analysis to assess the battery run time, this analysis needs to separate and integrated in both cases among the system down description of equipment, firmware / software and its sub-circuit. Analysis techniques including a description of the battery current consumption, as well as how to by a variety of operating modes and the use of profile. With this analysis, engineers can make power management design tradeoffs to maximize battery life.

Most of the power management system through on the sub-millisecond time scale is not in active use of the subsystem into sleep mode to save battery power. As a result, with the rapid changes in current equipment on / off events occurred in less than 1s. For example, the GSM mobile phone transmission can have the pulse of 560μs, 2A, and then when in standby mode, the current level in the sleep cycle may fall to the mA level.

Verify that the battery time-tested

Battery run-time method is to use the voltage drop test, using a fully charged battery to be verified, in the work mode of the device under test (DUT) power supply, no electricity until the battery. This test may be relatively time-consuming because it requires the whole process run is completed to determine the voltage is switched off point to determine the working hours. Similarly, the results depend on the initial state of the battery, but the latter may vary.

Another method is the implementation of current consumption measurement, it can provide higher working time measurement credibility. DUT is placed in the running for a short time in the work mode to be assessed, and measure the current consumption in this particular mode of operation. Then, the nominal battery capacity divided by the measured current consumption to calculate the working hours. Using this method, the designer need not wait for the battery to fully discharge can determine the running time.

Measurements take into account factors

The battery consumption of the power used in the analysis must be independent of the battery to describe the DUT. The power supply must have a rapid response to minimize the transient voltage drop caused by the DUT switching mode or transmit pulse rapid rotary current pulse.

Under these conditions, many common power supply may be a transient drop of up to 1V, so should be used can tolerate these conditions without a dedicated power supply voltage drop (sometimes referred to as battery simulation power).

Two measurement problems: the current waveform from the battery flows to mobile devices rapidly changing the scope and speed. First, the dynamic range of the current over a 1000:1 or even 1000, 000:1. Full power activities current in the order of magnitude of 1 ~ 3A, low sleep mode levels of current in the tens of microampere order of magnitude, so the choice of the scope of the test current to current converter has a problem. Here you can use the current perception of the resistor or shunt, but the choice of the appropriate size of the shunt may be quite difficult. If the size of the shunt is suitable for measuring the minimum current, then in the high-current events will be a large voltage drop across the shunt, which give the circuit to bring the burden of unsustainable voltage. If the size of the shunt is suitable for the measurement of large currents, when microamp current flows out of date, it is very likely not a large enough voltage available for measurement. With several shunts for different current size measurements, engineers can solve the problem of signal level, but this time switching shunt means interrupting the measurement.

Measurement speed digitizer for measuring current shunt voltage and mobile devices bias voltage should be 50kHz or higher sampling rate, in order to capture the sub-millisecond pulse, which is the complex power management program features .

Simplify the analysis

Such as 3G communication systems using complex modulation formats, which is characterized by the transmission of high data rates required for high-level amplitude modulation. Judging from the time domain, the current consumption waveform generated is complex and random.

And different operations run in a long time, the use of three data channels for transmission of a cdma2000 mobile phone RF power amplifier current consumption - time graph becomes complex and unpredictable. For battery run-time test, the situation is very common and difficult to observe the effect of changing the design of current consumption.

By looking at the statistics are taken from the current size distribution, the designer can quickly see the equipment the frequency of each current state. For the different design options, and compare these CCDF graphics, can be seen when the devices consume more energy (ie, increase in the proportion of their time in the high-current state), or when to consume less energy (that is, The said increase in the proportion of their time in the small current state). Therefore, engineers can evaluate when designing better (less energy) or to find a design flaw (unexpected need for more energy).

Off-the-shelf solutions

Several products produced by the test equipment vendors can handle different parts of the target test system. Power can be provided by the supplier to provide a stable in the extraction of fast current pulse, similar to the output of the battery.

The entry-level solution is the Agilent mobile communications DC source 66300 series. This series is specially customized for mobile devices, power supply and at the same time measure the current consumption. It integrates the battery simulation of power and similar high-speed digital oscilloscope measurement system can provide accurate current measurement device activity, standby and off mode.

This DC source and supporting turnkey software allows users without any programming, similar to the view of the oscilloscope, and data loggers view and the CCDF chart to see the current waveform. If higher accuracy and sampling rate, you can also choose other solutions provided by the company.

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