This is not possible and the range will decrease as the battery

July 03 [Wed], 2013, 11:25
Coulomb counting should be self-calibrating, but in real life a battery does not always get a full discharge at a steady current. The discharge may be in form of a sharp pulse that is difficult to capture. The battery may then be partially recharged and be stored at high temperature, causing elevated self-discharge 513775-001 high quality that cannot be tracked. To correct the tracking error, a “smart battery” in use should be calibrated once every three months or after 40 partial discharge cycles. This can be done by a deliberate discharge of the equipment or externally with a battery analyzer. Avoid too many intentional deep discharges as this stresses the battery.

Fifty years ago, the Volkswagen Beetle had few battery problems. The only battery management was ensuring that the battery was being charged while driving. Onboard electronics for safety, convenience, comfort and pleasure have added to the demands of the battery in modern cars. For the accessories to function reliably, the battery state-of-charge must be known at all times. This is especially critical with start-stop technologies, a future requirement in European cars to improve fuel economy.
When the engine of a start-stop vehicle turns off at a stoplight, the battery continues to draw 25–50 amperes to feed the lights, ventilators, windshield wipers and other accessories. The battery must have enough charge to crank the engine when the traffic light changes; cranking requires a brief 350A. To reduce engine loading during acceleration, the BMS delays charging for about 10 seconds.

Modern cars are equipped with a battery sensor that measures voltage, current and temperature. Packaged in a small housing and embedded into the positive battery clamp, the electronic battery monitor (EBM) provides a SoC accuracy of about +/–15 percent on a new battery. As the battery ages, the EBM begins to drift and the accuracy drops to 20–30 percent. This can result in a false warning message and some garage mechanics disconnect the EBM on an aging battery to stop annoyances. Disabling the control system responsible for the start-stop function immobilizes engine stop and reduces the legal clean air requirement of the vehicle.

Voltage, current and temperature readings are insufficient to assess battery SoF; the all-important capacity is missing. Until capacity can be measured with confidence on-board of a vehicle, the EBM will not offer reliable battery information. Capacity is the leading health indicator that in most cases determines the end-of-battery-life. Imagine measuring the liquid in a container that is continuously shrinking in size. State-of-charge alone has limited benefit if the storage has shrunk from 100 to 20 percent and this change cannot be measured. Capacity fade may not affect engine cranking and the CCA can remain at a vigorous 70 percent to the end of battery life. Because of reduced energy storage, a low capacity battery charges quickly and has normal vital signs, but failure is imminent. A bi-annual capacity check as part of service can identify low capacity batteries. Battery testers that read capacity are becoming available at garages.

A typical start-stop vehicle goes through about 2,000 micro cycles per year. Test data obtained from automakers and the Cadex laboratories indicate that the battery capacity drops to approximately 60 percent in two years when in a start-stop configuration. The standard flooded lead acid is not robust enough for start-stop, and carmakers use a modified AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) to attain longer life.

Automakers want to make sure that no driver gets stuck in traffic with a dead battery. To conserve energy when SoC is low, the BMS automatically turns unnecessary accessories off and the motor stays running at a stoplight. Even with this preventive measure, SoC can remain low when commuting in gridlock. Motor idling does not provide much charge and with essential accessories engaged, such as lights and windshield wipers, the net effect could be a small discharge.

Battery monitoring is also important in hybrid vehicles to optimize charge levels. The BMS prevents stressful overcharge above 80 percent and avoids deep discharges below 30 percent SoC. At low charge level, the internal combustion engine engages earlier and is left running for additional charge.

The driver of an electric vehicle (EV) expects similar accuracies on the energy reserve as is possible with a gasoline-powered car. Current technologies do not allow this and some EV drivers might get stuck with an empty battery when the fuel gauge still indicates reserve. Furthermore, the EV driver anticipates that a fully charged battery will travel the same distance, year after year. This is not possible and the range will decrease as the battery fades with age. Distances between charges will also be shorter than normal when driving in cold temperatures because of reduced battery performance.

Some lithium-ion batteries have a very flat discharge curve and the voltage method does not work well to provide SoC in the mid-range. An innovative new technology is being developed that measures battery SoC by magnetic susceptibility. Quantum magnetism (Q-Mag?) detects magnetic changes in the electrolyte and plates that correspond to state-of-charge. This provides accurate SoC detection HSTNN-IB75 high quality in the critical 40-70 percent mid-section. More impotently, Q-Mag? allows measuring SoC while the battery is being charged and is under load.

The lithium iron phosphate battery in Figure 3 shows a clear decrease in relative magnetic field units while discharging and an increase while charging, which relates to SoC. We see no rubber band effect that is typical with the voltage method in which the weight of discharge lowers the terminal voltage and the charge lifts it up. Q-Mag? also permits improved full-charge detection; however, the system only works with cells in plastic, foil or aluminum enclosures. Ferrous metals inhibit the magnetic field.

Laptops and other portable devices use coulomb counting for SoC readout

July 03 [Wed], 2013, 11:24
A critical concern among battery users is knowing “readiness” or how much energy a battery has at its disposal at any given moment. While installing a fuel gauge on a diesel engine is simple, estimating the energy reserve of a battery is more complex — we still struggle to read state-of-charge (SoC) with reasonable accuracy. Even if SoC were precise, this information alone has limited benefits without 607762-001 high quality knowing the capacity, the storage capability of a battery. Battery readiness, or state-of-function (SoF), must also include internal resistance, or the “size of pipe” for energy delivery. Figure 1 illustrates the bond between capacity and internal resistance on hand of a fluid-filled container that is being eroded as part of aging; the tap symbolizing the energy delivery.

Most batteries for critical missions feature a monitoring system, and stationary batteries were one of the first to receive supervision in the form of voltage check of individual cells. Some systems also include cell temperature and current measurement. Knowing the voltage drop of each cell at a given load provides cell resistance. Elevated resistance hints to cell failure caused by plate separation, corrosion and other malfunctions. Battery management systems (BMS) are also used in medical equipment, military devices, as well as the electric vehicle.

Although BMS serves an important role in supervising of batteries, such systems often falls short of expectations and here is why. The BMS device is matched to a new battery and does not adjust well to aging. As the battery gets older, the accuracy goes down and in extreme cases the data becomes meaningless. Most BMS also lack bandwidth in that they only reveal anomalies once the battery performance has dropped to 70 percent. The all-important 70–100 percent operating range is difficult to gauge and the BMS gives the battery a good bill-of-health. This prevents end-of-life prediction in that the operator must wait for the battery to show signs of wear before making a judgment. These shortcomings are not an oversight by the manufacturers, and engineers are trying to overcome them. The problem boils down to technology, or the lack thereof. Over-expectation is common and the user is stunned when stranded with a dead battery. Let’s look how current systems work and examine new technologies.

The most simplistic method to determine end-of-battery-life is by applying a date stamp or observing cycle count. While this may work for military and medical instruments, such a routine is ill suited for commercial applications. A battery with less use has lower wear-and-tear than one in daily operation and to assure reliability of all batteries, the authorities may mandate that all batteries be replaced soone hp mini 1000 high quality r. A system made to fit all sizes causes good batteries to be discarded too soon, leading to increased operational costs and environment concerns.

Laptops and other portable devices use coulomb counting for SoC readout. The theory goes back 250 years when Charles-Augustin de Coulomb first established the “Coulomb Rule.” Coulomb counting works on the principle of measuring in- and out-flowing current of a battery. If, for example, a battery is charged for one hour at one ampere, the same energy should be available on discharge, but this is not the case. Internal losses and inaccuracies in capturing current flow add to an unwanted tracking error that must be corrected with periodic calibrations.

This research brief details the state of the advanced battery

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 15:34
Lithium ion batteries, which currently lead the market for advanced batteries in applications ranging from consumer electronics to electrified transportation, represent a significant step beyond conventional lead-acid technology. The technology, however, still falls short of market needs in terms of both technical performance and cost. These shortcomings and potential future demand for energy storage are X100e bright driving innovation in the next generation of advanced battery energy storage.

The goal of this innovation is to find lower cost raw materials and increase lifecycle expectations – both of which, in turn, will enable lower capital costs and lower total cost of ownership across all battery applications. Both electrified transportation and stationary storage demand lower price points to enable full electrification.

Only through advances in materials science and manufacturing, delivering higher energy densities, using lower cost materials, producing systems that will last at least twice as long as commercially available battery products, can these cost reductions be achieved. Over the next 7 years, Pike Research forecasts, those advances will drive sharp increases in the installed capacity of advanced X120e brightfor grid-scale applications – growing from a few hundred megawatts (MW) in 2013 to more than 10,000 MW in 2020.

This research brief details the state of the advanced battery industry today and examines the materials and design innovations that have the potential to revolutionize the energy storage industry. Forecasts for total capacity of advanced batteries and for investment in grid-scale advanced batteries are included through 2020. In addition, the research brief profiles the key players in this rapidly evolving sector.

This leads to enhanced active-material utilization levels

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 15:33
Irefly’s technology is an innovative material science that removes almost all limitations of current lead-acid battery products. The materials also hold the promise of major simplification for manufacturing of lead-acid batteries and will potentially deliver more flexible form factors or configurations, which may be the T420 bright catalyst to change the entire distribution and profitability models of the battery industry.

As he began his research into lead acid battery chemistry and structure, Kurt Kelley discovered that much of the lead in the grid structure of conventional batteries can be replaced by a totally new type of grid material. Of course, once the basic material was determined to have the requisite physical and chemical properties, much subsequent research and testing was required to determine the optimum configuration and “architecture” within the battery itself. These results are confirmed in recently granted U.S. Patents.

In the advanced battery architectures that Firefly has perfected, the MicrocellTM composite foam “grids” are impregnated with a slurry of lead oxides which are then formed up to the sponge lead and lead dioxide in the normal fashion. Because of the foam structure, the resultant negative and positive plates have enormous surface-area advantages over conventional lead acid grid structures. This results in much-improved active material utilization levels (i.e. from the historical 20-50% up into the range of 70-90%) as well as enhanced fast-recharge capability and greater high-rate / low-temperature discharge times.

The signal advantage of Firefly’s Microcell Technology? is that it fundamentally changes the performance of active materials within the lead acid cell due to its unique architecture. Overall, the Firefly foam electrode structure results in a redistribution of most of the electrolyte (the biggest “resistor” in a lead acid battery) into the pores of the foam plate, in closer proximity to the lead chemistry. This is in contrast to a traditional lead acid battery, where most of the electrolyte is in the separator, more T420s bright distant from the plate’s chemistry. Each foam wafer contains hundreds or thousands of spherical microcells (depending on the foam pore diameters).

This leads to enhanced active-material utilization levels because each microcell has its full complement of sponge lead or lead dioxide and sulfuric acid electrolyte. Liquid diffusion distances are reduced from the traditional levels of millimeters over linear paths (the conventional “2D” diffusion mechanism) to the level of microns in the three-dimensional space within the discrete microcells that collectively comprise a totally new type of electrode structure (what Firefly calls a “3D” electrode). Such a structure results in much higher power and energy delivery and rapid recharge capabilities relative to conventional lead acid products. These foam electrodes can be used in either flooded or VRLA battery designs.

An additional limitation of the reusable alkaline system

April 02 [Tue], 2013, 17:05
The reusable alkaline was introduced in 1992 as an alternative to disposable batteries. The battery was promoted as a low-cost power source for consumer goods. Attempts were made to open markets for wireless communications, medical and defense. But the big breakthrough never came. Today, the reusable compatible VGP-BPS20/Salkaline occupies only a small market and its use is limited to portable entertainment devices and flashlights. The lack of market appeal is regrettable when considering the environmental benefit of having to discard fewer batteries. It is said that the manufacturing cost of the reusable alkaline is only marginally higher than the primary cell.

The idea of recharging alkaline batteries is not new. Although not endorsed by manufacturers, ordinary alkaline batteries have been recharged in households for many years. Recharging these batteries is only effective, however, if the cells have been discharged to less than 50% of their total capacity. The number of recharges depends solely on the depth of discharge and is limited to a few cycles at best. With each recharge, the amount of capacity the cell can hold is reduced. There is a cautionary advisory. Charging ordinary alkaline batteries may generate hydrogen gas, which can lead to explosion. It is not prudent to charge ordinary alkaline unsupervised.

The reusable alkaline is designed for repeated recharge. Also here,, there is a loss of charge acceptance with each recharge. The longevity of the reusable alkaline is a direct function of the depth of discharge; the deeper the discharge, the fewer cycles the battery can endure.

Tests performed by Cadex on 'AA' reusable alkaline cells showed a high capacity reading on the first discharge. In fact, the energy density was similar to that of nickel-metal-hydride. After the battery was fully discharged and recharged using the manufacturer's charger, the reusable alkaline settled at 60%, a capacity slightly below that of nickel-cadmium. Repeat cycling in the same manner resulted in a fractional capacity loss with each cycle. The discharge current in the tests was adjusted to 200mA (0.2 C-rate, or one fifth of the rated capacity); the end-of-discharge threshold was set to 1V/cell.

An additional limitation of the reusable alkaline system is its high internal resistance, resulting in a load current capability of only 400mA (lower than 400mA provides better results). Although adequate for portable radios receivers, CD players, tape players and flashlights, 400mA is insufficient to power most mobile phones and video cameras.

The reusable alkaline is inexpensive to buy but the cost per cycle is high when compared to other rechargeable batteries. Whereas nickel-cadmium checks in at $0.04US per cycle based on 1500 cycles, the reusable alkaline costs $0.50 based on 10 full discharge cycles. For many applications, this seemingly high cost is still economical when compared to primary alkaline that provides a one-time use. By only partially discharging the reusable alkaline, an improved cycle life is possible. At 50% depth of discharge, 50 cycles can be expected.

To compare the operating cost between the standard and reusable alkaline, a study was done on flashlight batteries for hospital use. The reusable alkaline achieved measurable cost savings in the low?intensity care unit in which the flashlights were used only occasionally. The high-intensity care unit, which used the flashlights constantly, did not attain the same result. Deeper discharge and morecompatible VGP-BPS20A frequent recharge reduced the service life and offset any cost advantage over the standard alkaline battery.

When considering reusable alkaline, one must realize that the initial energy is slightly lower than that of the standard alkaline. Each subsequent recharge/charge cycle causes the capacity to decrease. Cost savings are realized if the batteries are never fully discharged but have a change to be recharged often.

Edison’s battery was somewhat less powerful than conventional

April 02 [Tue], 2013, 17:01
As with several of Thomas Edison’s later projects, such as his effort to mine iron ore and his quest to create synthetic rubber, his attempts at improving the battery did not lead to the results he hoped for. Edison started his work on thecompatible VGP-BPS13Sin the 1890s, just after the automobile had been introduced.

At that time, the gasoline automobile was still unreliable, and steam and electric cars sold in larger numbers. One problem with electric cars, however, was that the lead-acid batteries that they used (similar to the batteries used to start gasoline-powered cars today) were extremely heavy. Another was that the acid corroded the lead inside the battery, shortening the useful life of the battery.

Edison began looking for a way to make batteries lighter, more reliable, and at least three times more powerful so that they could become the basis of a successful electric car. Edison and his team conducted tests of all sorts of metals and other materials, looking for those that would work best in batteries. The tests numbered in the thousands and lasted until 1903, when he finally declared his battery finished. The battery used potassium hydroxide, which reacted with the battery’s iron and nickel electrodes to create a battery with a strong output that was reliable and rechargeable.

As usual, Edison announced the new battery with great fanfare and made bold claims about its performance. Manufacturers and users of electric vehicles, which now included many urban delivery and transport trucks, began buying them. Then stories about battery failures started coming out. Many of the batteries began to leak, and others lost much of their power after a short while. The new nickel-graphite conductors were failing. Engineers who tested the batteries found that while lightweight, the new alkaline battery did not significantly out-perform an ordinary lead-acid battery.

Edison shut down the factory immediately, and between 1905 and 1908, the whole battery was redesigned. Edison came up with a new design, and although the new battery used more expensive materials, it had better performance and more power. By 1910, battery production was again underway at a new factory near the West Orange, NJ laboratory.

However, it was too late for the electric automobile. Edison’s friend Henry Ford had introduced the lightweight, inexpensive Model T car in 1909, which helped make the gasoline engine the standard for the automobile. The largest remaining market for the batteries was in special commercial vehicles, such as the small trucks and cars used in cities for deliveries, or inside factories to move materials around. Even here, however, Edison’s battery was somewhat less powerful than conventional lead-acid batteries. Around 1912, gasoline automobiles would actually begin to usecompatible VGP-BPS14B to run their starters, but Edison’s battery was not suitable for this use because its voltage was too low.

Its best feature was its reliability, which made it popular in other applications such as providing backup power for railroad crossing signals, or to provide power for the lamps used in mines. While it did not fulfill Edison’s dream of powering the automobile, at least it was profitable, and it became one of his biggest moneymakers in later years.

Most batteries are expected to last five to six years

January 29 [Tue], 2013, 15:05
Emergency batteries that are connected to the bus are constantly in charge and thus continuously evaporate water from the electrolyte. As the electrolyte level drops and the plate separator begins to be exposed (dried out in extreme cases), the separator material begins to deteriorate which results in cheap Presario CQ56 battery cell heating and shorts in extreme cases.

Batteries that are subject to continuous charging and have little or no opportunity to deliver power, need to be removed periodically, first to check the water level and second to check for capacity.

Water level checking cannot be performed on the aircraft. It can only be performed under bench test conditions with a constant current charger and only when the battery has reached full charge. Excessive water consumption can be indicative of overcharging (bus voltage too high) or infrequent servicing, or both. The time required for this test will range from one day for a "good" battery to several days for a "problem battery".

Since emergency batteries are basically in stand-by condition and are subject to continuous charging, their capacity to deliver current when needed slowly diminishes (capacity fading), so it is also necessary to periodically perform a capacity test. If this test is passed marginally, or not at all, the cells have to be deep cycled (total discharge) to restore the rated capacity. Depending on the severity of the fading, the total discharge and subsequent recharge must be performed several times before proper capacity restoration will occur. The time required for this type of testing will require from two days for a "good" battery to a full week for a "problem" battery.

Batteries that do not pass the required tests can be repaired by replacing the individual cells that fail the specific tests, but not more than 20% of the total number of cells in the battery (4 to 5 cells) should be replaced. If more than 20% of the cells need to be replaced, the entire battery needs to be replaced (this is done to minimize the mismatching between new cells and old cells).

Under normal conditions, most batteries are expected to last five to six years, provided that they are serviced properly (Including occasional cell replacement). This is true even for the larger batteries that are used to start engines or APU’s. But, with improper maintenance (basically infrequent maintenance) the life of the batteries will be significantly shorter. If servicing is infrequent, by the time that the cheap envy Presario CQ57 batteryare finally removed for testing, it may be too late.

Proper servicing is costly. Time to do it, proper personnel, availability of a replacement battery, service charges by the battery shop, etc. But, if as a result of inadequate servicing the battery must be replaced, its cost far exceeds the cost of proper servicing. This is also true if a battery failure results in a grounded airplane. Finally, the cost of an in-flight battery failure (Overheating, little or no capacity to provide power, etc.) could have more severe consequences.

A battery is like a piggy bank

January 29 [Tue], 2013, 14:59
If you have done any research on how batteries work or what you should look for when selecting a battery, you are probably buried in information, some of which is conflicting. At BatteryStuff, we aim to clear that up a bit.You have most likely heard the term K.I.S.S. (Keep It Simple, Stupid). I am going to attempt to explain how lead acid batteries work and what they need without burying you with a cheap Presario CQ45 batterybunch of needless technical data. I have found that battery data will vary somewhat from manufacturer to manufacturer, so I will do my best to boil that data down. This means I may generalize a bit, while staying true to purpose.

The commercial use of the lead acid battery is over 100 years old. The same chemical principal that is being used to store energy is basicly the same as our Great Grandparents may have used.

If you can grasp the basics you will have fewer battery problems and will gain greater battery performance, reliability, and longevity. I suggest you read the entire tutorial, however I have indexed all the information for a quick read and easy reference.

A battery is like a piggy bank. If you keep taking out and putting nothing back you soon will have nothing. Present day chassis battery power requirements are huge. Consider today’s vehicle and all the electrical devices that must be supplied. All these electronics require a source of reliable power, and poor battery condition can cause expensive electronic component failure. Did you know that the average auto has 11 pounds of wire in the electrical system? Look at RVs and boats with all the electrical gadgets that require power. It was not long ago when trailers or motor homes had only a single 12-volt house battery. Today it is standard to have two or more house cheap Presario CQ50 batterypowering inverters up to 4000 watts.

Average battery life has become shorter as energy requirements have increased. Life span depends on usage; 6 months to 48 months, yet only 30% of all batteries actually reach the 48-month mark. You can extend your battery life by hooking it up to a solar charger during the off months.

This is one way of describing how electrical potential

December 12 [Wed], 2012, 14:52
The chemical reactions in the battery causes a build up of electrons at the anode. This results in an electrical difference between the anode and the cathode. You can think of this difference as an unstable build-up of the electrons. The electrons wants to rearrange themselves to get rid of this difference. But they do9 cell U330 this in a certain way. Electrons repel each other and try to go to a place with fewer electrons.

In a battery, the only place to go is to the cathode. But, the electrolyte keeps the electrons from going straight from the anode to the cathode within the battery. When the circuit is closed (a wire connects the cathode and the anode) the electrons will be able to get to the cathode. In the picture above, the electrons go through the wire, lighting the light bulb along the way. This is one way of describing how electrical potential causes electrons to flow through the circuit.

However, these electrochemical processes change the chemicals in anode and cathode to make them stop supplying electrons. So there is aNotebook batteries U350 limited amount of power available in a battery.

When you recharge a battery, you change the direction of the flow of electrons using another power source, such as solar panels. The electrochemical processes happen in reverse, and the anode and cathode are restored to their original state and can again provide full power.

Repeated fast charges on a battery may overcharge a battery

December 12 [Wed], 2012, 14:49
If a battery is very discharged then it can take up to 12 hours or more to recharge it. While recharging a battery, if the battery becomes hot when you touch it then stop charging it.

Slow charge: It is best to slow charge theNotebook 6 cell U160. Slow charging rates vary depending on the battery's type and capacity. However when charging an automotive battery, 10-amps or less is considered a slow charge while 20-amps or above is generally considered a fast charge.

Fast charge: Repeated fast charges on a battery may overcharge a battery and reduce service life.

Step 1: Determine how long to recharge a battery by calculating how much capacity your battery has. For example, an Interstate battery with the part number MT-34 has 120 minutes reserve capacity. In order to calculate the amount of amp-hours in a battery, the rule of thumb method is to multiply the reserve capacity by 0.6. In the case of a MT-34, 120 minutes reserve capacity multiplied by 0.6 = approximately 72 amp-hours (at the 20-hour rate).

Step 2: Use a voltmeter to measure the remaining voltage in the battery. For example, if the voltmeter shows a voltage reading of 12.4 volts then the battery is approximately only 50% charged. Since the battery is 50% charged, then this means that there are approximately half of the 72 amp-hours in the battery. Therefore it is necessary to put about 36 amp hours plus 15% more to compensate for the internal resistance in the battery for a total of 36 amps + 36 x 0.15 = around 42 amp-hours back into the battery.

Step 3: Charge the battery at a 10-amp rate. 42 amp-hours needed by the battery divided by 10 amp charge = it will take around 4-1/2 hours to recharge the battery. (The best charger to use in order to charge a car battery for T410is a 3-stage automatic 12 volt /10amp charger.) However, the charger really doesn't output the entire 10 amps during the charge cycle because it automatically limits the voltage and the amperage during the charge cycle.

You may actually only see about 1/2 the output over the time period that you are actually charging the battery. For that reason, it can easily take 9 hours or more to fully recharge the battery. Even after 9 hours, because of the reduced voltage, the battery may require more charging to get it 100% charged.