Manufacturers are constantly improving lithium-ion 

2013年07月18日(木) 10時34分
Pioneer work with the lithium battery began in 1912 under G.N. Lewis but it was not until the early 1970s when the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available. lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the Brand new T116C greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest energy density for weight.

Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries failed due to safety problems. Because of the inherent instability of lithium metal, especially during charging, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions. Although slightly lower in energy density than lithium metal, lithium-ion is safe, provided certain precautions are met when charging and discharging. In 1991, the Sony Corporation commercialized the first lithium-ion battery. Other manufacturers followed suit.

The energy density of lithium-ion is typically twice that of the standard nickel-cadmium. There is potential for higher energy densities. The load characteristics are reasonably good and behave similarly to nickel-cadmium in terms of discharge. The high cell voltage of 3.6 volts allows battery pack designs with only one cell. Most of today's mobile phones run on a single cell. A nickel-based pack would require three 1.2-volt cells connected in series.

Lithium-ion is a low maintenance battery, an advantage that most other chemistries cannot claim. There is no memory and no scheduled cycling is required to prolong the battery's life. In addition, the self-discharge is less than half compared to nickel-cadmium, making lithium-ion well suited for modern fuel gauge applications. lithium-ion cells cause little harm when disposed.

Despite its overall advantages, lithium-ion has its drawbacks. It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation. Built into each pack, the protection circuit limits the peak voltage of each cell during charge and prevents the cell voltage from dropping too low on discharge. In addition, the cell temperature is monitored to prevent temperature extremes. The maximum charge and discharge current on most packs are is limited to between 1C and 2C. With these precautions in place, the possibility of metallic lithium plating occurring due to overcharge is virtually eliminated.

Aging is a concern with most lithium-ion batteries and many manufacturers remain silent about this issue. Some capacity deterioration is noticeable after one year, whether the battery is in use or not. The battery frequently fails after two or three years. It should be noted that other chemistries also have age-related degenerative effects. This is especially true for nickel-metal-hydride if exposed to high ambient temperatures. At the same time, lithium-ion packs are known to have served for five years in some applications.

Manufacturers are constantly improving lithium-ion. New and enhanced chemical combinations are introduced every six months or so. With such rapid progress, it is difficult to assess how well the revised battery will age.

Storage in a cool place slows the aging process of lithium-ion (and other chemistries). Manufacturers recommend storage temperatures of 15°C (59°F). In addition, the battery should be partially charged during storage. The Brand new Vostro 1720 manufacturer recommends a 40% charge.

The most economical lithium-ion battery in terms of cost-to-energy ratio is the cylindrical 18650 (size is 18mm x 65.2mm). This cell is used for mobile computing and other applications that do not demand ultra-thin geometry. If a slim pack is required, the prismatic lithium-ion cell is the best choice. These cells come at a higher cost in terms of stored energy.

The team’s given no timetable for when this technology 

2013年05月31日(金) 10時14分
Lithium-ion battery technology has made it so that portable devices can be used for a good portion of a day before needing more juice. Even then, I find myself wanting more. Maybe it’s because I’ve been spoiled by my iPad’s amazing 636631-001 laptop batteryy life, but I wish that both my smartphone and my laptop could hold at least half a day’s worth of charge without me having to shut off absolutely every useful function on either electronic.

It looks like my hopes and dreams for my electronics might be fulfilled in the near future.

A team of Stanford researchers have found the solution to make lithium-ion batteries hold ten times the charge they currently can. How? By replacing the battery’s anode, usually constructed out of graphite, with silicon. It sounds like a simple fix, but scientists haven't been able to do so until now because the silicon would be quickly destroyed in a process called decrepitation. Even though silicon atoms would allow more lithium ions to bind than carbon atoms, therefore allowing the battery to store more charge, the silicon would expand and retract as ions flowed through the battery. These expansions and retractions caused cracks in the silicon. Another problem is that the lithium ions would sometimes react with the silicon, removing the battery’s ability to charge.

The Stanford team has developed a technique to strengthen the silicon anodes by making them out of nanowires and hollow nanoparticles. The anode is also coated with an outer layer of silicon oxide, a ceramic material that prevents the silicon from expanding.

For now, these batteries are able to HSTNN-OB80 laptop battery operate for more than 6,000 cycles, well beyond current lithium-ion battery cycle life standards.

The team’s given no timetable for when this technology will be commercialized. For now, they’re working on simplifying the process of creating the new silicon anodes and creating better cathodes to match the new silicon anodes on lithium-ion batteries. I can only hope that such technology will trickle down to the consumer level soon.

This is why the Department of Energy has decided to take matters 

2013年05月31日(金) 10時07分
The company is relying on a buyer for its battery maker, A123 Systems, which filed for bankruptcy earlier this year and is up for auction Pavilion dv2 laptop batterynext week, with companies like Johnson Controls (NYSE: JCI) and Wanxiang vying for ownership.
But Fisker only has a limited supply of electric vehicles, and it will run out of its product by spring if buyers don't come through.

It's not alone in the problems caused by A123's bankruptcy; the battery company also supplied companies like GM (NYSE: GM), which just this week debuted its new electric vehicle: the Chevy Spark.
A spokesman for GM told USA Today the car would maintain production levels, but there's no denying this incident is an example of a larger problem.
The tech and electric vehicle industries depend on batteries. And consumers are constantly demanding improvements, particularly in three categories: longer life, more power, and faster charging.

When it comes to electric vehicles, longer battery life is in high demand. Since EV charging infrastructure is few and far between, drivers want their EV to go further on one charge. Fifty miles will no longer cut it. 150 and up is more like it.

And charging time is another issue with these vehicles. No one has six hours to wait for a charge in the middle of a road trip. Companies that have that half hour-long – or even hour-long – charging technologies are going to be the winners.

This is why the Department of Energy has decided to take matters into its own hands. The Department announced today that it would be opening a battery and energy storage research facility at the Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, Illinois, investing $120 million in the venture over five years.

When Energy Secretary Steven Chu took office, he came up with a plan for what he called “innovation hubs,” where research would take place for energy advancement.
Out of the eight he had originally 487296-001 laptop batteryproposed, five have been approved by Congress and only three are in operation, according to the New York Times.

The three currently operating include a lab for energy efficient building designs, one for fuels from sunlight, and one for light-water nuclear reactors.

Expansion of Community bus service  

2013年02月01日(金) 14時57分
A major report looking into the travel habits, needs and issues surrounding driving in old age has found that older people have a mixed range of views to changing their habits and or opting to use other modes of transport. The report reaches some predictable conclusions about loss of independence and worries 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Aspire 7741about isolation if people live in remote areas. However it examines the potential of an about turn in travel habits earlier in life that could help people avoid some of the ‘withdrawal’ symptoms like depression and loneliness.

A thinkpiece written by Dr Charles Musselwhite from UWE Bristol for the International Longevity Centre and the British Society of Gerontology has already started to make waves in the right places.

The report published in November will be highlighted on the International Longevity Centre website from 15 December and has already been launched at a debate at the House of Lords by representatives from the Department for Transport, RoSPA, Parliamentary Council for Transport Safety, Age UK and the Driving Standards Agency.

Lead researcher Dr Charles Musselwhite from UWE Bristol says, "People need to be mobile accessing daily services and shops and to socialise. But travel is also about maintaining independence, status and image, access to life beyond the home, a way of engaging with nature and seeing the world.

"The car has become the dominant vessel of use for people from all walks of life, allowing these needs to be met with perceived minimal hassle and financial commitment. But as some older people give up driving for health or safety reasons, if not properly prepared they can face depression and a poorer quality of life. However, this is not the case amongst all older people.

"The challenge to society is how we can help older people maintain a good quality of life while reducing car use or indeed eliminating the need to drive altogether. And an important key to this is to start preparing for the changes by altering travel habits whilst still young.”
The report found that people who do well when giving-up the car are those who have practical and emotional support but it highlighted that society as a whole has a role in taking responsibility in helping older people when they have to give-up driving.

Successful giving-up driving is also characterised by those who have spent a long time over the process, gradually reducing driving and trialling different modes.
Dr Musselwhite continues, "There is a need to raise awareness of the potential need to give-up driving at an earlier stage of later-life because individuals who reduced car use from much earlier in life and were multi-modal found giving up less painful.

"We believe that the government should continue efforts aimed at reducing our dependence on use of cars. The raising of the retirement age and changes in working practices will mean future generations of this age group are more likely to work than ever before bringing to the fore a need for early contemplation and trial of alternative transport.”
Some ideas that help in the process of giving up driving include refocusing on the good social activities that can be enjoyed in local communities yet the researchers concede that a society that champions hypermobility prizes it above non-movement and its associations with old age, depression and death is counterproductive in this sense.

People are moving to promote their vitality, their youthfulness and to show to others they’re not dead yet! But, those that re-discover a life closer to home tend to be more satisfied than those who are still looking further afield.

Other findings point to the importance of older people being connected and using technology and computers to fulfil some tasks like ordering heavy shopping items over the internet.
The free bus pass in the UK for over 65s has allowed greater use of the bus but service reductions for those in rural areas in particular have alienated some people from public transport.

Other ideas include Buddy systems where experienced public transport users accompany less experienced travellers should be established. Expansion of Community bus service should be to a wider group of older people.

Dr Musselwhite concludes, "What is really important is to recognise this as a problem and creating a transport environment conducive to older people including measures to encourage cycling and walking amongst older 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Aspire 7745 people.

Older people may actually be just be the first group in society who are responding to similar issues that wider society will need to address in terms of reduced travel in light of the challenges of peak oil, rising fuel costs and climate change. Hence, there is a need to assess what works well for older people and how far this might be further applied to other age groups and generations.

It’s impossible to judge exactly  

2013年02月01日(金) 14時55分
TOYOTA Racing made its debut with the innovative TS030 HYBRID in the Le Mans 24 Hours in June, causing a stir by leading its very first r 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Aspire 5820Tace before an accident and technical issue respectively eliminated both cars.

At Silverstone, the team will be present with one car; the #7 driven by Alex Wurz, Nicolas Lapierre and Kazuki Nakajima. Anthony Davidson, who is recovering well after his Le Mans accident, will lend his support to the team during the weekend.
Alex and Nicolas got ready for the WEC Six Hours of Silverstone with a two-day testing session (14-15 August) at MotorLand Aragon in Spain, where an updated aerodynamic package was put through its paces.

This update has been developed using a combination of simulation technology and the state-of-the-art wind tunnels at TOYOTA Motorsport GmbH (TMG); the team’s home base in Cologne, Germany.

It features modified aerodynamics more suited to Silverstone’s 5.891km Grand Prix circuit, delivering more downforce compared to the Le Mans specification.
Alex and Nicolas fine-tuned the revised TS030 HYBRID’s handling on the 5.891km Silverstone Grand Prix track during sessions in TMG’s driving simulator, which accurately recreates car behaviour.

There will be four designated braking zones at Silverstone, where the TS030 HYBRID can recover up to 500Kj of energy, stored in super capacitors for automatic release as a power boost later in the lap.
Action at Silverstone begins on Friday 24 August with two 90-minute practice sessions (11.30 and 16.00). Final practice is on Saturday morning (11.00-12.00) before qualifying for LMP1 and LMP2 cars (15.20-15.40). Following Sunday morning warm-up (08.55-09.15) the six-hour race begins at midday with a rolling start.

Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Team President: "We are looking forward to returning to racing following a long break after Le Mans. As well as recovering our energies after a very tough build-up to Le Mans, we have used this time to prepare an update to the TS030 HYBRID and this ran well in last week’s test. We learnt a lot from our Le Mans experience which showed we have the potential to fight at the front of the WEC field. So we travel to Silverstone highly motivated to deliver a strong result; we’re ready to race again and can’t wait to see how our hybrid technology performs on this track.”

Alex Wurz, Car #7: "This is a learning season for TOYOTA Racing and we hope to take more steps in the right direction at Silverstone. We had an encouraging test in Spain last week which gave us plenty of data about the revised aerodynamic package. We have used this data, plus the experiences we had on the TMG driving simulator, to prepare for Silverstone. But there is no substitute for practice time so we must make the most of the sessions on Friday and Saturday.
We know we face some very tough opposition so it will not be easy but we will continue pushing and hopefully we can stand on the podium on Sunday.”

Nicolas Lapierre, Car #7: "It seems a long time since Le Mans but my memories of taking the lead are still very vivid. That was a great experience and this can inspire us to give everything we have at Silverstone as well. From the work I have done in the TMG driving simulator, plus our test at Aragon, I think we can be really competitive. It’s impossible to judge exactly where we are compared to our main rivals but we are constantly learning and improving. We aim to continue our progress this weekend and hopefully again give the fans some exciting moments.”

Kazuki Nakajima, Car #7: "Silverstone used to be my home track and it’s one of my favourite circuits, although I haven’t raced there since the big development was completed in 2010. It will be interesting to experience the new lay-out but I’m most excited about driving the TS030 HYBRID through Maggotts and Becketts on the old part of the track. These fast, sweeping corners should suit our car and I’m expecting it to be really good fun. Of course it was disappointing not to finish the race at Le Mans after we looked so strong but Silverstone is another race and we go there in an optimistic mood.”

About TOYOTA Racing in the FIA World Endurance Championship:
TOYOTA first competed in the FIA World Endurance Championship in 1983, marking the start of a long period of participation in endurance racing which included several editions of the Le Mans 24 Hours. TOYOTA cars have raced in 13 Le Mans 24 Hours races, with a total of 36 vehicles taking part. For 2012, TOYOTA returns to endurance racing and the FIA World Endurance Championship as a full-time entrant with a hybrid LMP1 car, the TS030 HYBRID. The chassis has been designed and built by11.1v 5200mah 9cells Aspire 7551 TOYOTA Motorsport GmbH (TMG), where the race team is based.

TMG is the former home of TOYOTA's World Rally and Formula 1 works teams, and was responsible for design and operation of TOYOTA's TS020 (GT-One) Le Mans car in 1998-99. TMG now combines works motorsport participation with a new direction as a high-performance engineering services provider to third party companies, as well as the TOYOTA family

These methods will go a long way to extending the amount of time  

2012年12月19日(水) 17時06分
This one is only for those who must squeeze as much runtime out of the laptop battery as possible. Every system has a lot of programsOEM Studio 1535 battery running in the background, and these programs hit the CPU for processing power.

This results in a power hit, and while it is very small everything has an impact. If it’s vital to get maximum runtime, turn off any background apps that are not actively needed for the work session. If there are programs you have installed that run in the background, such as desktop widgets, turn them off manually for the session. You should be able to do this safely for anything on a temporary basis, and save power by doing so.

These methods will go a long way to extending the amount of time that can be spent working on battery power. Hours of runtime can be added by aggressive power management obtained by these 5 steps. Some laptops, ThinkPads in particular, have a Battery Stretch setting which should also be used.

This monitors the system aggressively when running on the battery, and when the battery starts getting low the system starts shutting down components to “stretch” more runtime. This utility is user configurable and shouldbright T112C certainly be used for those extended times away from an outlet.

I also advocate getting a second battery for laptops, especially those who travel a lot. The cost can be significant, with some laptop batteries costing up to $200, but it is an instant doubling of run time.

A study done by Cadex to examine failed batteries reveals that three out of ten batteries  

2012年12月19日(水) 17時04分
Li-ion batteries contain a protection circuit that shields the battery against abuse. This important safeguard has the disadvantage of turning the battery off if over-discharged, and storing a discharged battery for any length of time can do this. The self-discharge during storage gradually lowers the voltage of a 9cells rn873 T116Cthat is already discharged; the protection circuit will eventually cut off between 2.20 and 2.90V/cell.

Some battery chargers and analyzers, including those made by Cadex, feature a wake-up feature or “boost” to reactivate and charge batteries that have fallen asleep. Without this feature, a charger would render these batteries as unserviceable and the packs would be discarded. The boost feature applies a small charge current to first activate the protection circuit and then commence with a normal charge.

Do not boot lithium-based batteries back to life that have dwelled below 1.5V/cell for a week or longer. Copper shunts may have formed inside the cells that can lead to a partial or total electrical short. When recharging, such a cell might become unstable, causing excessive heat or showing other anomalies. The “boost” functionlithium Vostro 1720 battery by Cadex halts the charge if the voltage does not rise normally.

A study done by Cadex to examine failed batteries reveals that three out of ten batteries are removed from service due to over-discharge. Furthermore, 90 percent of returned batteries have no fault or can easily be serviced. Lack of test devices at the customer service level is in part to blame for the high exchange rate. Refurbishing batteries saves money and protects the environment.

Lithium-ion batteries are nearing their theoretical energy density  

2012年11月14日(水) 15時16分
When Sony introduced the first lithium-ion battery in 1991, they knew of the potential safety risks. A recall of the previously released rechargeable metallic lithium 11.1v 5200mah 9cells A32-U80was a bleak reminder of the discipline one must exercise when dealing with this high energy-dense battery system.

Pioneering work for the lithium battery began in 1912, but is was not until the early 1970's when the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available. Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the eighties. These early models were based on metallic lithium and offered very high energy density. However, inherent instabilities of lithium metal, especially during charging, put a damper on the development. The cell had the potential of a thermal run-away. The temperature would quickly rise to the melting point of the metallic lithium and cause a violent reaction. A large quantity of rechargeable lithium batteries had to be recalled in 1991 after the pack in a cellular phone released hot gases and inflicted burns to a man's face.

Because of the inherent instability of lithium metal, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions. Although slightly lower in energy density, the lithium-ion system is safe, providing certain precautions are met when charging and discharging. Today, lithium-ion is one of the most successful and safe battery chemistries available. Two billion cells are produced every year.

Lithium-ion cells with cobalt cathodes hold twice the energy of a nickel-based battery and four-times that of lead acid. Lithium-ion is a low maintenance system, an advantage that most other chemistries cannot claim. There is no memory and the battery does not require scheduled cycling to prolong its life. Nor does lithium-ion have the sulfation problem of lead acid that occurs when the battery is stored without periodic topping charge. Lithium-ion has a low self-discharge and is environmentally friendly. Disposal causes minimal harm.

Long battery runtimes have always been the wish of many consumers. Battery manufacturers responded by packing more active material into a cell and making the electrodes and separator thinner. This enabled a doubling of energy density since lithium-ion was introduced in 1991.

The high energy density comes at a price. Manufacturing methods become more critical the denser the cells become. With a separator thickness of only 20-25μm, any small intrusion of metallic dust particles can have devastating consequences. Appropriate measures will be needed to achieve the mandated safety standard set forth by UL 1642. Whereas a nail penetration test could be tolerated on the replacement A32-UL20 older 18650 cell with a capacity of 1.35Ah, today's high-density 2.4Ah cell would become a bomb when performing the same test. UL 1642 does not require nail penetration.

Lithium-ion batteries are nearing their theoretical energy density limit and battery manufacturers are beginning to focus on improving manufacturing methods and increasing safety.

The most economical lithium-ion battery in terms of cost-to-energy ratio  

2012年11月14日(水) 15時14分
Pioneer work with the lithium battery began in 1912 under G.N. Lewis but it was not until the early 1970s when the first non-rechargeable lithium bright A32-N82became commercially available. lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest energy density for weight.

Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries failed due to safety problems. Because of the inherent instability of lithium metal, especially during charging, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions. Although slightly lower in energy density than lithium metal, lithium-ion is safe, provided certain precautions are met when charging and discharging. In 1991, the Sony Corporation commercialized the first lithium-ion battery. Other manufacturers followed suit.

The energy density of lithium-ion is typically twice that of the standard nickel-cadmium. There is potential for higher energy densities. The load characteristics are reasonably good and behave similarly to nickel-cadmium in terms of discharge. The high cell voltage of 3.6 volts allows battery pack designs with only one cell. Most of today's mobile phones run on a single cell. A nickel-based pack would require three 1.2-volt cells connected in series.

Lithium-ion is a low maintenance battery, an advantage that most other chemistries cannot claim. There is no memory and no scheduled cycling is required to prolong the battery's life. In addition, the self-discharge is less than half compared to nickel-cadmium, making lithium-ion well suited for modern fuel gauge applications. lithium-ion cells cause little harm when disposed.

Despite its overall advantages, lithium-ion has its drawbacks. It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation. Built into each pack, the protection circuit limits the peak voltage of each cell during charge and prevents the cell voltage from dropping too low on discharge. In addition, the cell temperature is monitored to prevent temperature extremes. The maximum charge and discharge current on most packs are is limited to between 1C and 2C. With these precautions in place, the possibility of metallic lithium plating occurring due to overcharge is virtually eliminated.

Aging is a concern with most lithium-ion batteries and many manufacturers remain silent about this issue. Some capacity deterioration is noticeable after one year, whether the battery is in use or not. The battery frequently fails after two or three years. It should be noted that other chemistries also have age-related degenerative effects. This is especially true for nickel-metal-hydride if exposed to high ambient temperatures. At the same time, lithium-ion packs are known to have served for five years in some applications.

Manufacturers are constantly improving lithium-ion. New and enhanced chemical combinations are introduced every six months or so. With such rapid progress, it is difficult to assess how well the revised battery will age.

Storage in a cool place slows the aging process of lithium-ion (and other chemistries). Manufacturers recommend storage temperatures of 15°C (59°F). In addition, the battery should be partially charged duringhigh quality A32-N71 storage. The manufacturer recommends a 40% charge.

The most economical lithium-ion battery in terms of cost-to-energy ratio is the cylindrical 18650 (size is 18mm x 65.2mm). This cell is used for mobile computing and other applications that do not demand ultra-thin geometry. If a slim pack is required, the prismatic lithium-ion cell is the best choice. These cells come at a higher cost in terms of stored energy.

This utility supports all HP notebook PCs manufactured in 2006 

2012年09月12日(水) 16時35分
Use the following steps to download, install and use the HP battery check. This utility supports all HP notebook PCs manufactured in 2006, 2005, most of the system.

DownloadCheck (SP41862), and then select Run and follow the onscreen instructions.
Into a notebook computer AC power adapter, put it into the wall outlet directly.
Click Start, All Programs, and then clickreplacement 485041-001 Hewlett-Packard, HP Battery Check.
The test results will be submitted immediately. A detailed description of the results provided.

For more information about using the HP Pavilion dv2000 Battery test, including a list of notebook computers, support, see HP Notebook PCs – HP Battery Check Frequently Asked Questions

Note: If you see a warning cheap rn873 480385-001 message stating "The system is not supported by the HP Battery Check tool during the installation of", your system may not be the battery status of testing technical support.