Battery monitoring is also important in hybrid vehicles

June 18 [Tue], 2013, 10:38
Coulomb counting should be self-calibrating, but in real life a battery does not always get a full discharge at a steady current. The discharge may be in form of a sharp pulse that is difficult to capture. The battery may then be partially recharged and be stored at high temperature, causing elevated self-discharge 42T5263 replacementthat cannot be tracked. To correct the tracking error, a “smart battery” in use should be calibrated once every three months or after 40 partial discharge cycles. This can be done by a deliberate discharge of the equipment or externally with a battery analyzer. Avoid too many intentional deep discharges as this stresses the battery.

Fifty years ago, the Volkswagen Beetle had few battery problems. The only battery management was ensuring that the battery was being charged while driving. Onboard electronics for safety, convenience, comfort and pleasure have added to the demands of the battery in modern cars. For the accessories to function reliably, the battery state-of-charge must be known at all times. This is especially critical with start-stop technologies, a future requirement in European cars to improve fuel economy.
When the engine of a start-stop vehicle turns off at a stoplight, the battery continues to draw 25–50 amperes to feed the lights, ventilators, windshield wipers and other accessories. The battery must have enough charge to crank the engine when the traffic light changes; cranking requires a brief 350A. To reduce engine loading during acceleration, the BMS delays charging for about 10 seconds.

Modern cars are equipped with a battery sensor that measures voltage, current and temperature. Packaged in a small housing and embedded into the positive battery clamp, the electronic battery monitor (EBM) provides a SoC accuracy of about +/–15 percent on a new battery. As the battery ages, the EBM begins to drift and the accuracy drops to 20–30 percent. This can result in a false warning message and some garage mechanics disconnect the EBM on an aging battery to stop annoyances. Disabling the control system responsible for the start-stop function immobilizes engine stop and reduces the legal clean air requirement of the vehicle.

Voltage, current and temperature readings are insufficient to assess battery SoF; the all-important capacity is missing. Until capacity can be measured with confidence on-board of a vehicle, the EBM will not offer reliable battery information. Capacity is the leading health indicator that in most cases determines the end-of-battery-life. Imagine measuring the liquid in a container that is continuously shrinking in size. State-of-charge alone has limited benefit if the storage has shrunk from 100 to 20 percent and this change cannot be measured. Capacity fade may not affect engine cranking and the CCA can remain at a vigorous 70 percent to the end of battery life. Because of reduced energy storage, a low capacity battery charges quickly and has normal vital signs, but failure is imminent. A bi-annual capacity check as part of service can identify low capacity batteries. Battery testers that read capacity are becoming available at garages.

A typical start-stop vehicle goes through about 2,000 micro cycles per year. Test data obtained from automakers and the Cadex laboratories indicate that the battery capacity drops to approximately 60 percent in two years when in a start-stop configuration. The standard flooded lead acid is not robust enough for start-stop, and carmakers use a modified AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) to attain longer life.
Automakers want to make sure that no driver gets stuck in traffic with a dead battery. To conserve energy when SoC is low, the BMS automatically turns unnecessary accessories off and the motor stays running at a stoplight. Even with this preventive measure, SoC can remain low when commuting in gridlock. Motor idling does not provide much charge and with essential accessories engaged, such as lights and windshield wipers, the net effect could be a small discharge.

Battery monitoring is also important in hybrid vehicles to optimize charge levels. The BMS prevents stressful overcharge above 80 percent and avoids deep discharges below 30 percent SoC. At low charge level, the internal combustion engine engages earlier and is left running for additional charge.

The driver of an electric vehicle (EV) expects similar accuracies on the energy reserve as is possible with a gasoline-powered car. Current technologies do not allow this and some EV drivers might get stuck with an empty battery when the fuel gauge still indicates reserve. Furthermore, the EV driver anticipates that a fully charged battery will travel the same distance, year after year. This is not possible and the range will decrease as the battery fades with age. Distances between charges will also be shorter than normal when driving in cold temperatures because of reduced battery performance.

Some lithium-ion batteries have a very flat discharge curve and the voltage method does not work well to provide SoC in the mid-range. An innovative new technology is being developed that measures 51J0497 replacementSoC by magnetic susceptibility. Quantum magnetism (Q-Mag?) detects magnetic changes in the electrolyte and plates that correspond to state-of-charge. This provides accurate SoC detection in the critical 40-70 percent mid-section. More impotently, Q-Mag? allows measuring SoC while the battery is being charged and is under load.

The lithium iron phosphate battery in Figure 3 shows a clear decrease in relative magnetic field units while discharging and an increase while charging, which relates to SoC. We see no rubber band effect that is typical with the voltage method in which the weight of discharge lowers the terminal voltage and the charge lifts it up. Q-Mag? also permits improved full-charge detection; however, the system only works with cells in plastic, foil or aluminum enclosures. Ferrous metals inhibit the magnetic field.

Laptops and other portable devices use coulomb counting for SoC readout

June 18 [Tue], 2013, 10:37
A critical concern among battery users is knowing “readiness” or how much energy a battery has at its disposal at any given moment. While installing a fuel gauge on a diesel engine is simple, estimating the energy reserve of a battery is more complex — we still struggle to read state-of-charge (SoC) with reasonable accuracy. Even if SoC were precise, this information alone has limited benefits L08S6D13 replacementwithout knowing the capacity, the storage capability of a battery. Battery readiness, or state-of-function (SoF), must also include internal resistance, or the “size of pipe” for energy delivery. Figure 1 illustrates the bond between capacity and internal resistance on hand of a fluid-filled container that is being eroded as part of aging; the tap symbolizing the energy delivery.

Most batteries for critical missions feature a monitoring system, and stationary batteries were one of the first to receive supervision in the form of voltage check of individual cells. Some systems also include cell temperature and current measurement. Knowing the voltage drop of each cell at a given load provides cell resistance. Elevated resistance hints to cell failure caused by plate separation, corrosion and other malfunctions. Battery management systems (BMS) are also used in medical equipment, military devices, as well as the electric vehicle.

Although BMS serves an important role in supervising of batteries, such systems often falls short of expectations and here is why. The BMS device is matched to a new battery and does not adjust well to aging. As the battery gets older, the accuracy goes down and in extreme cases the data becomes meaningless. Most BMS also lack bandwidth in that they only reveal anomalies once the battery performance has dropped to 70 percent. The all-important 70–100 percent operating range is difficult to gauge and the BMS gives the battery a good bill-of-health. This prevents end-of-life prediction in that the operator must wait for the battery to show signs of wear before making a judgment. These shortcomings are not an oversight by the manufacturers, and engineers are trying to overcome them. The problem boils down to technology, or the lack thereof. Over-expectation is common and the user is stunned when stranded with a dead battery. Let’s look how current systems work and examine new technologies.

The most simplistic method to determine end-of-battery-life is by applying a date stamp or observing cycle count. While this may work for military and medical instruments, such a routine is ill suited for commercial applications. A battery with less use has lower wear-and-tear than one in daily operation and to assure reliability of all batteries, the authorities may mandate that all batteries be replaced L09S6Y02 replacementsooner. A system made to fit all sizes causes good batteries to be discarded too soon, leading to increased operational costs and environment concerns.

Laptops and other portable devices use coulomb counting for SoC readout. The theory goes back 250 years when Charles-Augustin de Coulomb first established the “Coulomb Rule.” Coulomb counting works on the principle of measuring in- and out-flowing current of a battery. If, for example, a battery is charged for one hour at one ampere, the same energy should be available on discharge, but this is not the case. Internal losses and inaccuracies in capturing current flow add to an unwanted tracking error that must be corrected with periodic calibrations.

The hardest part was achieving mechanical stability

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 11:39
esearchers at Rice University have developed a lithium-ion battery that can be painted on virtually any surface.

The rechargeable battery created in the lab of Rice materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan consists of spray-painted layers, each repres L09M6Y02 brand newenting the components in a traditional battery. The research appears today in Nature’s online, open-access journal Scientific Reports.

“This means traditional packaging for batteries has given way to a much more flexible approach that allows all kinds of new design and integration possibilities for storage devices,” said Ajayan, Rice’s Benjamin M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and of chemistry. “There has been lot of interest in recent times in creating power sources with an improved form factor, and this is a big step forward in that direction.”

Lead author Neelam Singh, a Rice graduate student, and her team spent painstaking hours formulating, mixing and testing paints for each of the five layered components – two current collectors, a cathode, an anode and a polymer separator in the middle.

The materials were airbrushed onto ceramic bathroom tiles, flexible polymers, glass, stainless steel and even a beer stein to see how well they would bond with each substrate.

In the first experiment, nine bathroom tile-based batteries were connected in parallel. One was topped with a solar cell that converted power from a white laboratory light. When fully charged by both the solar panel and house current, the batteries alone powered a set of light-emitting diodes that spelled out “RICE” for six hours; the batteries provided a steady 2.4 volts.

The researchers reported that the hand-painted batteries were remarkably consistent in their capacities, within plus or minus 10 percent of the target. They were also put through 60 charge-discharge cycles with only a very small drop in capacity, Singh said.

Each layer is an optimized stew. The first, the positive current collector, is a mixture of purified single-wall carbon nanotubes with carbon black particles dispersed in N-methylpyrrolidone. The second is the cathode, which contains lithium cobalt oxide, carbon and ultrafine graphite (UFG) powder in a binder solution. The third is the polymer separator paint of Kynar Flex resin, PMMA and silicon dioxide dispersed in a solvent mixture. The fourth, the anode, is a mixture of lithium titanium oxide and UFG in a binder, and the final layer is the negative current collector, a commercially available conductive copper paint, diluted with ethanol.

“The hardest part was achieving mechanical stability, and the separator played a critical role,” Singh said. “We found that the nanotube and the cathode layers were sticking very well, but if the separator was not mechanically stable, they would peel off the substrate. Adding PMMA gave the right adhesion to the separator.” Once painted, the tiles and other items were infused with the electrolyte and then heat-sealed and charged.

Singh said the batteries were easily charged with a small solar cell. She foresees the possibility of integrating paintable batteries with recently reported paintable solar cells to create an energy-harvesting combination that would be hard to beat. As good as the hand-painted batteries are, she said, scaling up L09S6Y11 brand newwith modern methods will improve them by leaps and bounds. “Spray painting is already an industrial process, so it would be very easy to incorporate this into industry,” Singh said.

The Rice researchers have filed for a patent on the technique, which they will continue to refine. Singh said they are actively looking for electrolytes that would make it easier to create painted batteries in the open air, and they also envision their batteries as snap-together tiles that can be configured in any number of ways.

Two areas in which PNNL is focused are biological dark matter

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 11:26
Biological systems science encompasses the ability to measure, predict, design, and ultimately control multi-cellular biological systems and bioinspired solutions for energy, environment, and health. It involves fundamental research Presario V6000 brand newand technology development using a systems and synthetic biology approach of natural and engineered biological systems both in the laboratory and in the field.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is recognized internationally for our biological systems science capabilities, including leadership in proteomics and other 'omic technologies, environmental microbiology, systems toxicology, and biotechnology. Our expertise also includes cell biology and biochemistry, radiation biology, computational biology and bioinformatics, bioforensics, and biodetection.

The biological systems science performed at PNNL contributes to advances in bioenergy, biogeochemistry of inorganic contaminants and carbon, human health, and national security.

Two areas in which PNNL is focused are biological dark matter and engineered biosystems.

Biological Dark Matter. Scientists can access an ever-increasing number of organisms for which the complete DNA sequence—the genome—is known. While genome sequencing reveals the basic building blocks of life, a L08O6D13 brand new genome sequence alone is insufficient for determining biological function.

"Unknown genes" are those for which the encoded function is unknown. These genes are part of what scientists refer to as "biological dark matter." PNNL is at the forefront of proteomics and computational research directed toward understanding biological dark matter.

The graphene is hydrophobic or water fearing

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 11:07
Rechargeable lithium ion batteries, popular in cell phones, camcorders, and other devices, are based on the movement of a lithium ion—a lithium atom minus an electron. The lithium ion begins its journey attached to a metal cylinder or sheet, known as an electrode. The ion pushes off the electrode, moves through a liquid, and attaches itself to an electrode on the other side. The ion's movement genera Presario F500 brand newtes electricity, powering the battery. The researchers' new material, titanium dioxide crystals attached to a thin carbon sheet called graphene, is incorporated into the battery's negative electrode. The carbon/titanium material greatly improves the ion's ability to move in the electrode to provide a high capacity at high charge/discharge rate.

The challenge in designing this material was water. The researchers used water to reduce the cost of manufacturing. The precursors for the titanium dioxide crystals mixed well in water, easily dispersing. However, the graphene is hydrophobic or water fearing. Like oil or grease, it does not mix in water.

The solution? The active ingredient in many types of detergents: sodium dodecyl sulfate. This long, chain-like molecule contains a cluster of chemicals, or a head at one end, that mixes well with water. It has a long tail that grabs hold of hydrophobic materials. So, adding sodium dodecyl sulfate allows the graphene to evenly mix in the water with the precursors for the oxide crystals.

The sodium dodecyl sulfate not only solves the hydrophobic/hydrophilic incompatibility problem, it also provides a molecular template Presario F700 brand newfor the crystals to form and grow. Using the template, the titanium oxides form tiny crystals on the graphene sheets.

The researchers studied the resulting materials using transmission electron microscopy at the Department of Energy's EMSL, a national scientific user facility at PNNL. The resulting images showed the desired titanium dioxide crystals formed on the graphene sheets.

There are many other components that affects

March 18 [Mon], 2013, 16:58
Many laptop computer users don't realise that is quiet easy to increase battery running time via a couple of minor tweeks. Try to implement asreplacement 607763-001 many of the following ideas as possible to extend the battery lifetime of your laptop.


The biggest power saving could be quickly made by going to Windows Power Options usually found in the Control Panel. Set it to maximum energy saving. This is simple to do and may save plenty of power.

Just decreasing the brightness of the laptop screen will save a lot of battery power. So using the laptop in a darkened room at minimal brightness is certain to save extra power.

Often users have many unnecessary, maybe ineffective applications running in the background. These will waste power and slow down the laptop. It is generally tough to identify and remove them so a cleaner program may be required for this.

Use hibernate when turning off the laptop computer as it uses nearly no power in this mode and can quickly power up when required. Standby and shutdown ought to be avoided as both will use extra energy from the battery when off or entering Windows.

Adding additional RAM will assist by saving battery power. This can allow packages to run mostly from the RAM rather than from the hard drive. Additionally, almost all packages will run quicker and smoother.

If you have a WI-FI card enabled then power will likely be drained from the battery even if the laptop computer is not connected to the Web. Often it can easily be turned off via a switch or software program to save this power being wasted during battery operation.

The hard drive uses more power than RAM however makes use of significantly less than the CD or DVD drive. So attempt to install packages and data in order that they run from the hard drive rather than the CD or DVD drive. When installing a program it's often possible to instruct it to install all of the code on the hard drive so access to the CD or DVD drive is not required.

If sound is not actually necessary then muting the sound or significantly reducing the volume of the laptop audio system can reduce energy consumption. Typically users have music playing whilst operating their laptop, this is okay on mains, but on battery will in a short time discharge it.

If you hear the fan operating frequently or the entire time then battery energy is being wasted trying to cool an overheating laptop. The vent may be blocked or if you are using it on your knees you may be stopping air flow. In either case additional battery energy will be wasted and the laptop may finally be broken by the surplus heat.

Unfortunately, every battery will provide less and less charge the more times it's used and charged and discharged. Care should be taken to try and extend the battery life so long as is possible. Do not let the replacement probook 4510s batterybecome hot as this can shorten its life. Do not leave on charge for long periods as soon as fully charged. Attempt to almost fully discharge the battery before recharging.

There are many other components that affects the power drain from your laptop's battery, however the major causes of depletion have been considered. A battery will never be as good as the mains supply in operating your laptop computer however there's no other alternative if you are on the move.

Examine the battery yourself

March 18 [Mon], 2013, 16:53
Before you go shopping, you need to identify the type of battery that's currently in your car. The easiest way to find this information is byreplacement HSTNN-CB73 looking in your owner's manual. However, if you've misplaced your manual, you have a few other options:

Visit the manufacturer's website to see if they have an owner services department where you can download an electronic manual for your vehicles.

Visit the car dealership. Even if you don't plan to buy the battery there, you can find out exactly what kind of battery you need from someone in the service department.

Consult an expert at your favorite local auto parts store. Many parts stores employ knowledgeable individuals who can help replacement 516355-001 you identify your car's battery.

Examine the battery yourself. To do this, lift up your car's hood. The battery is the rectangular part with cables attached to it. Read the group size off of the label, and also look for specifications like "cold cranking amps" and "reserve capacity."

The boost feature applies a small charge current to first activate the protection circuit

November 15 [Thu], 2012, 15:51
Li-ion batteries contain a protection circuit that shields the battery against abuse. This important safeguard has the disadvantage of turning the high quality a1321 off if over-discharged, and storing a discharged battery for any length of time can do this. The self-discharge during storage gradually lowers the voltage of a battery that is already discharged; the protection circuit will eventually cut off between 2.20 and 2.90V/cell.

Some battery chargers and analyzers, including those made by Cadex, feature a wake-up feature or “boost” to reactivate and charge batteries that have fallen asleep. Without this feature, a charger would render these batteries as unserviceable and the packs would be discarded. The boost feature applies a small charge current to first activate the protection circuit and then commence with a normal charge.

Do not boot lithium-based batteries back to life that have dwelled below 1.5V/cell for a week or longer. Copper shunts may have formed inside the cells that can lead to a partial or total electrical short. When12 cells a1322 recharging, such a cell might become unstable, causing excessive heat or showing other anomalies. The “boost” function by Cadex halts the charge if the voltage does not rise normally.

The movement of the electrons flows opposite to the direction of the lithium ions

November 15 [Thu], 2012, 15:48
The anode and cathode of such a battery are made up of carbon and lithium oxide, respectively. The electrolyte is made up of lithium salts, which are dissolved in organic solvents. The anode material is mostly graphite and cathode material could be either one of these: lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), lithium iron replacement battery for rn873 A1309
phosphate (LiFePO4), or lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4).

The electrolytes that are commonly used are the salts of lithium such as lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), etc., which are dissolved in organic solvents such as ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, and diethyl carbonate. The electrolyte used in them is a non aqueous solution because, in aqueous solution (H2O), lithium (highly reactive alkali metal) reacts vigorously with water to form lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas, which is not at all desired.

During charging, the lithium ions from the cathode move to the anode and settle in the anode layer. The flow of the lithium ions is through the electrolyte. When this process takes place, the battery charges and stores the electrical energy in it. During the process of discharging, the lithium ions movern873 a1245 laptop battery back to the cathode from the anode.

When the battery is powered, the movement of the electrons flows opposite to the direction of the lithium ions, in the outer circuit. Due to this movement of electrons, electric current is produced. Basically, potential difference and resistance is created between the electrodes, which causes electric current to flow. When the battery is powered by an external source, ionic movement will take place.

There might be a agreement – easy often signifies a smaller screen

October 18 [Thu], 2012, 15:21
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