Developed countries will be the development of large-scale fuel cells as a key research project, the business community have also invest heavily in research and development in fuel cell technology has now taken  had a number of important results, makes the fuel cell will replace the conventional power generation machines and internal combustion engines are widely used in power generation and automotive.
It is noteworthy that this important new power generation can significantly reduce air pollution and solve the power supply, the problem of peaking power, 2MW, 4.5MW, 11MW complete fuel cell power generation equipment has entered the commercial production of various grades of fuel cell power plant in some developed countries have built.
The development of innovative fuel cell caused by the industrial revolution such as the internal combustion engine technology breakthrough in a hundred years ago to replace human universal replace the human operator graphics and word processing computer revolution, like the invention of computers, and if the development of network communications to change the information revolution of the people's living habits .
The high efficiency of fuel cells and pollution-free, short construction period, the potential for easy maintenance and low cost will detonate the green revolution of the 21st century energy and environmental protection.
Today, in North America, Japan and Europe, the fuel cell power generation to catch up momentum walked into the stage of industrial-scale applications, the 21st century, the fourth generation of thermal power, hydropower, nuclear power generating methods. The rapid development of fuel cell technology in foreign countries must be enough to arouse our attention, now it has the energy and power industry had to face the subject.
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)
By 1973 world oil crisis and the impact of the PAFC development, Japan has decided to develop all types of fuel cells, of PAFC developed by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as a large-scale energy generation technologies. Since 1981, research and development of the of 1000kW site PAFC power generation devices. 1986 to carry out the development of a 200kW-site power generation device, and to apply to remote areas or commercial PAFC power generation device.
Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. is Japan's largest PAFC cell stack supplier. As of 1992, the company has domestic and international supply 17 sets of PAFC demonstration unit, Fuji Electric decentralized the 5MW equipment running research was completed in March 1997. Equipment has been used as a field 50kW, 100kW and 500kW total of 88 kinds of equipment put into use. The table below shows the delivery Fuji Electric power generation device operation ended in 1998, and some have been more than the target life of 40,000 hours.
Toshiba, start from the latter half of the 1970s, the dispersion-type fuel cell development center will be forming a series of scattered power 11MW machine and 200kW machine. 11MW machine is the world's largest fuel cell power generation equipment from 1989 to start construction within the Goi power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, and generation after the success of early March 1991 until May 1996, more than five years of field trials, the total running time over 20,000 hours, the power generation efficiency of 43.6% under the rated operation.
In the field of small-site fuel cell, Toshiba and IFC in 1990 to make the scene, set up a fuel cell commercialization ONSI company, later sold to the world scene type 200kW device "PC25" series. PC25 series of fuel cells running from the end of 1991, April 1998, a total of 174 sales to the world. Which is installed in a machine of a company in the United States and installed in the center of Umeda, Osaka, Japan Osaka Gas Company on the 2nd machine, the total running time have broken through the 40,000 hours. From the fuel cell life and reliability in terms of total running time is 40 000 h is the long-term goal of the fuel cell.
Toshiba ONSI has completed the development of formal commercial the machine PC25C type, which has long been on the market. PC25C type as a pioneer of new energy for the 21st century, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry Award. Starting from the fuel cell commercialization, the equipment has been evaluated as having a high advanced, reliable and superior environment equipment. The manufacturing cost is $ 3000/kW, and will soon launch commercial the PC25D type equipment costs will decrease to $ 1500/kW, a decrease of 1/4 volume ratio PC25C type, quality is only 14t. The next year ie, 2001, in China, will usher in the first PC25C fuel cell power plant, which is mainly funded by the of MITI, Japan (NEDO), it will be China's first fuel cell power plants.
PAFC fuel cell as a low temperature (operating temperature of 180-210 ° C), not only has high power generation efficiency and clean, no noise characteristics, but also the form of hot water to recover most of the heat. The following table shows the main technical indicators of the advanced ONSI company PC25C type 200kWPAFC. Originally developed for the PAFC is in order to control the balance of the power plants of the peak and valley electricity, recently focused on as the site to provide electricity and heat to the apartments, shopping centers, hospitals, hotels and other places centralized power system.
PAFC is used to power plants, including two cases: decentralized power plant capacity of between 10-20MW installed in a power distribution station; central station power plants, the capacity of 100MW above can serve as a medium scale thermal power plants. PAFC power plant compared to the general power plant has the following advantages: Even in the power generation load is relatively low, maintaining a high power generation efficiency; a modular structure, site installation, provincial, and power plant expansion easy.
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