Toyota says the new batteries would almost surely

June 21 [Fri], 2013, 10:52
The issue of limited range has been an impediment to EV sales since before such vehicles even went on sale. But as The Truth About Cars now reports, Toyota just might have the answer to this problem. The first steps have been Vostro 1320 laptop battery taken toward making a battery which uses sodium-ion compound as the positive electrode. This produces 30 percent more voltage than a lithium-ion battery, and it’s estimated that it could at least double the range of electric cars. It is even estimated that range to extend to 1,000 km (620 miles) with sodium batteries.

Toyota hasn’t said what we can expect for recharge times on these batteries, and a 600-mile range would be something of a mixed blessing if it also needed two days to recharge. But improvements are being made in the area of recharging as well, and sine Toyota has said that they don’t expect the sodium batteries to be ready until 2020, it’s still a bit early to say what conditions will be like when it comes time to actually charge the batteries. One thing we do know will get better along with range is price. Sodium is one of the most abundant elements on earth, and Toyota says the new batteries would almost surely be cheaper than the lithium-ion batteries we currently use.

This announcement came as a bit of a shock, as it was just a couple of months ago that Toyota announced they would be scaling back on EV building and that the technology just wasn’t ready for full-scale implementation. We can Vostro 1710 laptop battery only assume that this research is being conducted as part of Toyota’s desire to remain the world leader in hybrids.

Whatever their motivation, we’re marking off 2020 on our calendars. It should be fascinating to see how this impacts the market and even whether the technology will spread to other devices which use batteries as well.

It is also developing zinc-air batteries

June 21 [Fri], 2013, 10:49
The highlight of the video is a technician filling the test car with distilled water, while the projected range is shown rising on a display on the CEO's mobile phone. The water serves as a base for the electrolyte through which T117C laptop battery ions pass to give off the energy that powers the test vehicle's electric motor. In the test car, the water must be refilled "every few hundred kilometers"--perhaps every 200 miles.

Very simply, an aluminum-air battery uses an aluminum plate as the anode, and ambient air as the cathode, with the aluminum slowly being sacrificed as its molecules combine with oxygen to give off energy. The basic chemical equation is four aluminum atoms, three oxygen molecules, and six water molecules combining to produce four molecules of hydrated aluminum oxide plus energy.

Historically, aluminum-air batteries have been confined to military applications because of the need to remove the aluminum oxide and replace the aluminum anode plates. Phinergy says its patented cathode material allows oxygen from ambient air to enter the cell freely, while blocking contamination from carbon dioxide in the air--historically a cause of failure in aluminum-air cells.

It is also developing zinc-air batteries, which can be recharged electrically and do not sacrifice their metal electrode as the aluminum-air cells do.

In a 2002 study, researchers from the University of Rhode Island concluded that aluminum-air batteries were the only electric-car technology "projected to have a travel range comparable" to conventional cars. The study KY265 laptop battery said such batteries are the "most promising candidates...in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life-cycle cost" when compared to cars powered by internal-combustion engines.

Each aluminum plate, says Tzidon, has enough energy capacity to power the car for roughly 20 miles (we'd guesstimate it at perhaps 7 kWh), and the test car has 50 of those plates. The entire battery, he says, weighs just 55 pounds (25 kilograms)--apparently giving it an energy density more than 100 times that of today's conventional lithium-ion pack.

This is important in the distinction between a battery

April 26 [Fri], 2013, 11:11
Battery is a general intent offense. This means that the actor need not intend the specific harm that will result from the unwanted contact, but only to commit an act of unwanted contact. This also means that gross negligence or even recklessness may provide the required intent or (in criminal matters) mens rea to 537626-001 compatiblefind a battery.

The doctrine of transferred intent is also applicable. If one person intends to strike another, but the person moves out of the way to avoid being struck, causing the blow to hit a third person, both an assault (against the second person) and a battery (against the third person) have occurred, in both criminal and civil law.

This is important in the distinction between a battery and an assault. A battery involves actual contact. An assault is, in actuality, an incomplete battery; a person commits an assault if he or she intentionally places a person in apprehension of an impending battery. Conversely, if a persons intended only an assault (to cause apprehension of an imminent battery), and harmful or offensive contact actually occurs, the person has committed a battery as well as an assault.

This is also important in distinguishing accidental conduct. If a person violently slams into a fellow passenger on a moving public bus, there is no liability. But if, on the same public bus, there is only the slightest intentional touching of another, which is harmful or offensive and also non-consensual (such as reaching 572032-001 compatibleout and touching a woman's thigh), a battery has occurred.

Conversely, if there was only an intended assault, as in a person gesturing toward another in a menacing manner, and the person trips and actually crashes into the other person, both an assault and battery have occurred.

There are many reasons for this apparent lack of progress

March 08 [Fri], 2013, 11:51
Lithium-ion is the battery of choice for consumer products, and no other systems threaten to interfere with its dominance at this time. The lead acid market is similar in size to Li-ion. Here the applications are divided into SLI (starterreplacement 42T5263) for automotive, stationary for power backup, and deep-cycle for wheeled mobility such as golf cars, wheelchairs and scissor lifts. Lead acid holds a solid position, as it has done for the last hundred years. There are no other systems that threaten to unseat this forgiving and low-cost chemistry any time soon.

High specific energy and long storage has made alkaline more popular than carbon-zinc, which Georges Leclanché invented in 1868. The environmentally benign nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) continues to hold an important role, as it replaces many applications previously served by nickel-cadmium (NiCd). However, at only three percent market share, NiMH is a minor player in the battery world and will likely relinquish more of its market to Li-ion by 2015.

Developing nations will contribute to future battery sales, and new markets are the electric bicycle in Asia and storage batteries to supply electric power to remote communities in Africa and other parts of the world. Wind turbines, solar power and other renewable sources also use storage batteries for load leveling. The large grid storage batteries used for load leveling collect surplus energy from renewable resources during high activity and supply extra power on heavy user demand. Read more about Batteries for Stationary, Grid Storage.

A major new battery user might be the electric powertrain for personal cars. However, battery cost and longevity will dictate how quickly the automotive sector will adopt this new propulsion system. Energy from oil is cheap, convenient and readily available; any alternative faces difficult challenges. Government incentives may be provided, but such intervention distorts the true cost of energy, shields the underlying problem with fossil fuel and only satisfies certain lobby groups through short-term solutions.

During the last five years or so, no new battery system has emerged that can claim to offer disruptive technology. Although much research is being done, no new concept is ready to enter the market at the time of writing, nor are new developments close to breakthrough point. There are many reasons for this apparent lack of progress: few products have requirements that are as stringent as the battery. For example, battery users want low price, long life, high specific energy, safe operation and minimal maintenance. In addition, the battery must work at hot and cold temperatures, deliver high power on demand and charge quickly. Only some of these attributes are achievable with various battery technologies.

Most consumers are satisfied with the replacement 51J0497performance on portable devices. Today’s battery technology also serves power backup and wheeled mobility reasonably well. Using our current battery technology for electric powertrains on cars, however, might prove difficult because the long-term effects in that environment are not fully understood. The switch to a power source offering a fraction of the kinetic energy compared to fossil fuels will be an eye-opener for motorists who continually demand larger vehicles with more. Read more about the Cost of Power.

The installation involves placing the sensors

March 08 [Fri], 2013, 11:49
The potential of the Q-Mag? technology is multifold, and this essay addresses only the most basic functions. A key advantage is measuring SoC while the battery is being charged or is under load. In a charger, this allowsreplacement L08S6D13 optimal service under all conditions, including hot and cold temperature charging. Knowing the true SoC and tailoring the charge to best charge acceptance is of special interest to automotive and uninterruptible power supply (UPS) markets.

A Q-Mag-controlled charger can prolong the life of chronically undercharged lead acid batteries by applying maximum current when the opportunity arises without causing undue damage to the battery. Being relieved of voltage feedback, an intelligent charger based on Q-Mag? can balance the state-of-charge of a fully charged battery by only replenishing the current that is lost through loading and self-discharge. Maintaining a “neutral” charge state saves energy and prolongs battery life by eliminating sulfation or overcharge.


As battery supervisor, Q-Mag? can recognize sulfation and acid stratification on lead acid batteries. Coupled with an intelligent charger, the system can apply a corrective charge to fix the battery before the condition becomes irreversible. Furthermore, an imbalance between the terminal voltage and the Q-Mag-estimated SoC points to a battery with high self-discharge (partially shorted cell). Observing the SoC level during rest periods allows the assessment of self-discharge and the estimation of battery end of life.
The ability to measure SoC while a battery is on charge or on a load enables the estimation of battery capacity.

Several proprietary techniques are possible, all of which offer a critical improvement to present systems. The voltage and impedance methods used today reveal only an anomaly when the battery is failing, and coulomb counters lose accuracy as the battery ages. One of the most critical measuring requirements of a battery test system is to know the usable capacity between 70 and 100 percent capacity.


Battery monitoring without touching the poles of the individual cells makes Q-Mag? attractive for stationary batteries. The installation involves placing the sensors between the batteries and collecting SoC data, among other battery information, with the help of a controller on low voltage. It is conceivable that battery manufacturers in the future will include the sensors in the housing as part of production. Economical pricing at high volume and small size could make this feasible.


Q-Mag? works across several battery chemistries, and the magnetic measuring technique may one day solve the critical need for improved battery monitoring in hybrid and electric vehicles. Research engineers at Cadex will also examine nickel-based batteries; however, the ferrous enclosure of the cylindrical cells mayreplacement L09S6Y02 pose limitations. A solid aluminum enclosure on Li-phosphate does not inhibit the magnetic measurement, as the tests at Cadex are showing.

Q-Mag? may one day also assist in the consumer market to test batteries by magnetism. Placing the battery on a test mat, similar to charging a battery, may one day be possible.

The charger then uses this information to optimize energy flow

October 17 [Wed], 2012, 16:17
The new exclusive Bosch BlueCore? batteries provide up to 50-percent more cordless battery life, while new 30-minute single and dual-bay chargers cut charge times in half. Completely compatible with all current Bosch cordless high quality T112Cpower tools, the new system promises to further improve upon the industry leading cordless platform professionals depend on every day.

And supporting the new line is the Bosch guarantee that in the event any battery fails in two years or less, the company will replace it through its free PROVANTAGE? Tool Protection Plan.

Each new Bosch BlueCore NiCad battery — 9.6, 12, 14.4, 18 and 24 volt — integrates advanced cooling rods positioned between the pack's individual cells. While other batteries would normally build up hot spots, which speed up chemical breakdown, slow the recharging process and eventually damage individual cells, the BlueCore cooling rods absorb the heat to dissipate it away from the cells. This keeps the battery cool and functioning at optimal levels.

Further durability enhancement stems from a special sensor embedded within each battery pack designed to effectively measure internal conditions. When a BlueCore battery is placed into any Bosch charger, the sensor communicates its conditions to a microprocessor within the charger. The charger then uses this information to optimize energy flow and maximize battery charge capacity. Users can expect up to 50-percent or more battery life over previous Bosch batteries, an unprecedented increase.

"Bosch specifically designed the new BlueCore technology and 30-minute chargers to be compatible with our current cordless tool line," said Jeff Wilkison, director, Bosch cordless power tools. "Unlike other manufacturers' new battery technologies, our users will see a significant increase in life without the need12 cells T117C to buy all new tools, a cost savings that can reach into the thousands of dollars."

The two new 30-minute chargers not only speed up the charging process for the full range of Bosch batteries, but also allow users to better understand each battery's status. Two LED light indicators constantly report on the status of each battery charging. And with a dual-bay charger, work crews can be ready to go even quicker than before. The new chargers will also charge older generation batteries.

Li-ion batteries use various forms of carbon

October 17 [Wed], 2012, 16:16
Lead-acid batteries are used in gasoline-driven automobiles and in electric and hybrid vehicles. They have the best discharge rate of secondary rn873 Vostro 1720 batterytechnology, they are the cheapest to produce, and they are rechargeable. The chemical reactions are:

Cathode (+):

Anode (?):

The positive electrode is made of lead dioxide (PbO2) and is reduced to lead sulfate (PbSO4), while sponge metallic lead (Pb) is oxidized to lead sulfate at the negative electrode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which provides the sulfate ion (SO42?) for the discharge reactions.

The nickel-cadmium battery (Ni-Cd) is the most common battery used in communication satellites, in Earth orbiters, and in space probes. The chemical reactions are:

Cathode (+):

Anode (?):

Nickel hydroxide, NiO(OH), is the active cathode material, cadmium, Cd, is the active anode material, and aqueous potassium hydroxide, KOH, is the electrolyte.

There is considerable interest in the development of nickel-metal hybrid (Ni/MH) batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. These batteries operate in concentrated KOH electrolyte. The electrode reactions are:

Cathode (+):

Anode (?):

Ni/MH batteries use nickel hydoxide, NiO(OH), as the active material for the cathode, a metal hydride, MH, as the anode, and a potassium hydroxide, KOH, solution as the electrolyte. The metal hydride is a type of alloy (hydrogen absorption alloy) that is capable of undergoing a reversible hydrogen absorbing-desorbing process while the battery is discharged and charged. Current research is directed at improving the performance of the metal hydride anode and making the battery rechargeable.

Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries are environmentally friendly batteries that offer more energy in smaller, lighter packages and thus are promising candidates for electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The electrode reactions are:

Cathode (+):

Anode (?):

Li-ion batteries use various forms of carbon (C) as anode material because carbon can reversibly accept and donate significant amounts of lithium (as Lix C6. Li-intercalation compounds (such as LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and LiNiO2) are used as cathode materials. Electrolyte mixtures include a lithiated salt (LiPF6 or LiClO4) dissolved into a cheap Studio 1535 batterynonaqueous solvent (ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, or dimethyl carbonate).

Because Li is a highly reactive metal in aqueous solution , Li-ion batteries are constructed to keep Li in its ionic state, and nonaqueous solvents are used. The next step in lithium-ion battery technology is believed to be the lithium polymer battery, in which a gelled or solid electrolyte will replace the liquid electrolyte.

The power generation efficiency of 43.6% under the rated operation

May 30 [Wed], 2012, 10:34
Developed countries will be the development of large-scale fuel cells as a key research project, the business community have also invest heavily in research and development in fuel cell technology has now taken [1] had a number of important results, makes the fuel cell will replace the conventional power generation machines and internal combustion engines are widely used in power generation and automotive.

It is noteworthy that this important new power generation can significantly reduce air pollution and solve the power supply, the problem of peaking power, 2MW, 4.5MW, 11MW complete fuel cell power generation equipment has entered the commercial production of various grades of fuel cell power plant in some developed countries have built.

The development of innovative fuel cell caused by the industrial revolution such as the internal combustion engine technology breakthrough in a hundred years ago to replace human universal replace the human operator graphics and word processing computer revolution, like the invention of computers, and if the development of network communications to change the information revolution of the people's living habits .

The high efficiency of fuel cells and pollution-free, short construction period, the potential for easy maintenance and low cost will detonate the green revolution of the 21st century energy and environmental protection.

Today, in North America, Japan and Europe, the fuel cell power generation to catch up momentum walked into the stage of industrial-scale applications, the 21st century, the fourth generation of thermal power, hydropower, nuclear power generating methods. The rapid development of fuel cell technology in foreign countries must be enough to arouse our attention, now it has the energy and power industry had to face the subject.

Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC)

By 1973 world oil crisis and the impact of the PAFC development, Japan has decided to develop all types of fuel cells, of PAFC developed by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) as a large-scale energy generation technologies. Since 1981, research and development of the of 1000kW site PAFC power generation devices. 1986 to carry out the development of a 200kW-site power generation device, and to apply to remote areas or commercial PAFC power generation device.

Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. is Japan's largest PAFC cell stack supplier. As of 1992, the company has domestic and international supply 17 sets of PAFC demonstration unit, Fuji Electric decentralized the 5MW equipment running research was completed in March 1997. Equipment has been used as a field 50kW, 100kW and 500kW total of 88 kinds of equipment put into use. The table below shows the delivery Fuji Electric power generation device operation ended in 1998, and some have been more than the target life of 40,000 hours.

Toshiba, start from the latter half of the 1970s, the dispersion-type fuel cell development center will be forming a series of scattered power 11MW machine and 200kW machine. 11MW machine is the world's largest fuel cell power generation equipment from 1989 to start construction within the Goi power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, and generation after the success of early March 1991 until May 1996, more than five years of field trials, the total running time over 20,000 hours, the power generation efficiency of 43.6% under the rated operation.

In the field of small-site fuel cell, Toshiba and IFC in 1990 to make the scene, set up a fuel cell commercialization ONSI company, later sold to the world scene type 200kW device "PC25" series. PC25 series of fuel cells running from the end of 1991, April 1998, a total of 174 sales to the world. Which is installed in a machine of a company in the United States and installed in the center of Umeda, Osaka, Japan Osaka Gas Company on the 2nd machine, the total running time have broken through the 40,000 hours. From the fuel cell life and reliability in terms of total running time is 40 000 h is the long-term goal of the fuel cell.

Toshiba ONSI has completed the development of formal commercial the machine PC25C type, which has long been on the market. PC25C type as a pioneer of new energy for the 21st century, the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry Award. Starting from the fuel cell commercialization, the equipment has been evaluated as having a high advanced, reliable and superior environment equipment. The manufacturing cost is $ 3000/kW, and will soon launch commercial the PC25D type equipment costs will decrease to $ 1500/kW, a decrease of 1/4 volume ratio PC25C type, quality is only 14t. The next year ie, 2001, in China, will usher in the first PC25C fuel cell power plant, which is mainly funded by the of MITI, Japan (NEDO), it will be China's first fuel cell power plants.

PAFC fuel cell as a low temperature (operating temperature of 180-210 ° C), not only has high power generation efficiency and clean, no noise characteristics, but also the form of hot water to recover most of the heat. The following table shows the main technical indicators of the advanced ONSI company PC25C type 200kWPAFC. Originally developed for the PAFC is in order to control the balance of the power plants of the peak and valley electricity, recently focused on as the site to provide electricity and heat to the apartments, shopping centers, hospitals, hotels and other places centralized power system.

PAFC is used to power plants, including two cases: decentralized power plant capacity of between 10-20MW installed in a power distribution station; central station power plants, the capacity of 100MW above can serve as a medium scale thermal power plants. PAFC power plant compared to the general power plant has the following advantages: Even in the power generation load is relatively low, maintaining a high power generation efficiency; a modular structure, site installation, provincial, and power plant expansion easy.


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Projects and programs through expert assessment and risk assessment

May 30 [Wed], 2012, 10:30
China as early as the 1950s to carry out the fuel cell research. In fuel cell materials, the key technological innovation has made many breakthroughs.

The Chinese government attaches great importance to the development of fuel cell research, have developed a one hundred watt class-level 30kW hydrogen fuel electrodes, fuel cell electric vehicles.

Fuel cell technology, especially proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology has been rapidly developed a variety of specifications of 60kW, 75kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell, developed electric car with a net output of 40kW, the city bus with a net output of 100kW fuel cell engines, fuel cell technology into the ranks of the world's most advanced countries.

Tension in today's global energy, the era of high oil prices, to find new energy alternatives to fossil fuels is a priority. Because of the obvious advantages of hydrogen energy, clean, efficient, and the strong support of the Governments, plus a variety of energy and power companies confidence in the development of fuel cells, fuel cell market will have a huge room for growth.

Despite the current market demand for fuel cells is quite small, is expected in the next decade, as technology advances and economies of scale, production costs and the use of cost of fuel cells will drop and improved competitiveness, fuel cells, the potential market will be gradually developed up. Demand for portable fuel cell is quite small, portable fuel cell market will be from now to 2011 or even longer, the fastest growing market. Fuel cell systems for consumer electronics products in recent years will be commercialized.

Innovation capacity-building projects to revitalize the northeast old industrial base, the fuel cell and hydrogen technology National Engineering Research Center in February 2004, the National Development and Reform Commission approved the project. In 2005, projects and programs through expert assessment and risk assessment.

In October 2006, the project was the formal awarding of the National Development and Reform Commission. Project as a construction unit to a new source of power companies, the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, the support unit. The project is located in Dalian High-tech Park, Chinese Academy of Science and Technology Innovation Park R & D Incubation Park, about 2.7 hectares of land planning, construction area of ​​19,000 m have been put into use in June 2008.

Fuel cell national engineering research centers to the Academy of Sciences DICP and the new source for company use in fuel cell and hydrogen technology over 40 years of research and development results and more than six years of industrial accumulation, according to the development needs of countries and industrial strategy and market demand, the core of the common problems of life, cost, performance for the fuel cell industry, concentrated in the automotive, small power stations, and mobile power applications such as target areas, is committed to achieve the technological breakthroughs of the core industries, enhance the core competitiveness of China in the fuel cell industry capacity.

Completion of the fuel cell and hydrogen technology National Engineering Research Center will strengthen the innovation capacity platform construction, and improve the innovation system of China's fuel cell technology and hydrogen technology has become a source of fuel cell technology innovation, technology transfer center, personnel training center and an international fuel cell technology exchange center, thus speeding up the process of China's fuel cell technology industry, the promotion of fuel cell and related industries by leaps and bounds, in order to alleviate China's energy pressures and environmental protection pressure, to achieve the goal of China's 11th Five-Year Plan, " building a resource-saving and environment-friendly society "to make a positive contribution.

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This technology can assist certain sectors

May 30 [Wed], 2012, 10:27
The world's first ship to ship pilot project of fuel cell power systems "Fellow Ship", recently in Norway and Germany, with financial support from the smooth implementation of safety and risk of the fuel cell has been verified by the DNV (Det Norske Veritas) andidentified, but also to work out the world's first marine fuel cell into the class certification standards.

At present, the 320 kW of power at full-size fuel cell power system has been installed on a marine engineering operations in the North Sea supply vessel "Viking Lady", which is also the world's first ship through the fuel cell technology, turbine pilot on board the operation of ships, it is learned that this ship during the climate summit in Copenhagen arrived in Denmark, Copenhagen Mayor will be invited to the distinguished guests aboard this ship deviation one week, and feel the ship clean energy power innovation.

"Fellow Ship" project was launched in 2003, was first carried out a feasibility study completed the basic design and development of fuel cells; 2005; 2006 researchers began the development of liquefied natural gas fuel cell power systems and the final completion. The device is installed in September of this year in the "Viking Lady".
The ship is the Total Rental of a marine engineering supply vessels. "Fellow Ship project is expected to fuel cell electrical system testing, acceptance and demonstration runs in the third and final phase, the installed capacity of 1 MW range -4 MW.

U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) research report: Merchant Shipping particulate pollutants emissions to the atmosphere almost equivalent to half of the global automotive emissions, and 70 percent of marine transportation from the coast within 400 km, and its pollution emissions pose a serious threat to the health of coastal residents. "

DNV pointed out that, although not rely solely on fuel cell technology to solve the power problem, but this technology can assist certain sectors, such as offshore and local port traffic, ferries, yachts, offshore operations. Using the technology during the ships stay in port will also make full use of shore-based clean energy.

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