The ink of the solar panels on the glass 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 17:23
Many of my friends talk about the glass ink mind first thought nowadays more common to use the glass printing ink industry, such as: touch-screen glass, household appliances, glass, glassware, decorative glass and so on. A lot of people will not ink and solar glass up, in fact, our company has solar panels, glass ink has been for two years, the quality of the ink has been very mature.

In the past, glass ink, the quality of the adhesion recoating, leveling, hiding power, printing, consider Haojiu Hang up, causing the resistance to acetone are very easy to do. The solar panels of glass above the glass printing ink, in addition to the above simple basic questions, and many more, higher, more complex performance requirements.

First of all, the glass of the solar panels is not an ordinary glass, but glass surface plated layer of anodized aluminum, or nickel, glass, ink is printed on the surface of the coating, and the oil can not with any acid or alkaline, otherwise it will corrode coating.

Second, the ink of the solar panels on the glass, it is not from the logo or decorative, but has its own special function: to protect the function of the coating, to promote the conversion of energy to prevent the loss of energy.

Therefore, in the development of solar panels, glass ink can not be based solely on the performance of ordinary glass ink to consider. Flow leveling, one-thousandth of silicone anti-foaming leveling agent will cause problems. When the four corners of the product installed Epoxy, silicone defoamer, leveling agent will make the point? Is not strong, thus affecting the quality of the board. Resistance in the water resistance, the vast majority of companies do the glass ink only requires resistance to cold water till a day or hot boiled two hours, up to cook for four hours beyond recognition.

This ink requirements Baidu water and cook for 72 hours, not color, not falling. In acid and alkali required is more high requirements in five percent hydrochloric acid solution soak for five hours non-strange, soak for five hours in 15 per cent of sodium hydroxide (alkali), discoloration, off oil, blistering, printed products go through a three-month outdoor test. In terms of printing, according to the requirements of the production line, the ink scraping down after not back to the oil, stencil exposure placed in three minutes and then printed on a piece of glass in the air, glass length is one meter two wide and is 60cm in light of this point, many suppliers prohibitive.

With the national energy saving, environmental protection policies step by step, the solar photovoltaic industry as the key industries of the national energy saving, get strong support in the country's policy, the industry has been the development of the vitality of the solar panel glass ink extensive use of leading enterprises in this industry, the outlook is very worth the wait, we also take pride in being able to make its own contribution for the country's energy saving and environmental protection undertakings.

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he SMCS focus on the advantages of lithium batteries  

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 17:01
U.S. the Ohio Nanotek instruments researchers use lithium-ion fast shuttle movement of a large number of features, developed a new type of energy storage devices can recharge time reduced to hours at a time from the past between the graphene surface and electrodeless than a minute. The study, published in "Nano Letters".

The study through the use of the Graphene this magical materials, to avoid a power density of the lithium ion battery and increase the super capacitor energy storage density of these two huge challenge, developed a new energy storage devices, also known as graphene the surface of lithium-ion exchange batteries, referred to as surface-mediated cell (SMCS).

The SMCS focus on the advantages of lithium batteries and super capacitors, and both high power density and high-capacity storage density characteristics. Although the storage device is not optimized materials and structures, but the performance has been more than a lithium ion battery and super capacitor. The new equipment of the power density of 100 kW / kg, 100 times higher than that of commercial lithium ion battery, super capacitor 10 times higher.

High power density, high energy conversion rate, the charging time will be shortened. In addition, the new battery energy storage density of 160 W / kg, with commercial lithium equivalent to 30 times higher than the traditional super capacitor. Energy storage density, the more stored energy.

Studies have shown that, in the same weight, only the not yet optimized SMC alternative to lithium ion battery, the same driving distance of the SMC or lithium ion battery electric vehicles, but the SMC charge time of less than 1 minute, while the lithium ion battery you need hours. The researchers believe that SMC performance will be better optimized.

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A bad electric vehicle batteries 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 16:57
Length of life of a group of electric vehicle batteries, not only with the system configuration of the production factory battery product quality and electric cars, and consumer use, routine maintenance has a great relationship. So, how to identify old and new lead-acid batteries of electric cars?

According to industry experts, consumers in the purchase of the battery, first look at the electric car battery packaging is broken or open traces, and then open the packaging to see the appearance of the battery, pay attention to check the appearance of surface wear flowers, scratch traces and the battery positive and negative metal terminal parts are rust.

In addition, many brands of electric vehicle batteries at the factory will be at the butt of the battery casing labeled anti-counterfeit labels, pay attention to see whether this security label, if necessary, can scratch the coating of anti-counterfeit labels password to verify the authenticity. Finally, look at the date of manufacture of batteries to play above.

A bad electric vehicle batteries, which I want to just replace the bad one battery, whether the old and new batteries of electric cars and? "A lot of consumers have such doubt.

It is understood that the old and new batteries can not be strung together and used, old battery string to the new battery with the shortcomings, is like trying to work fast and work very slow with work work slow exhausted can not keep hands make quick work, to work fast and will be working slow agonizing death. Original new battery in the production with a group before packaging factory, mixed with the old battery with the use, will affect the performance of the new battery, but also make new premature battery deterioration.

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Lee found that the electric car vendors 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 16:46
Ban freshly charged battery, when the work suddenly no electricity. Winter, many people are complaining about the poor quality of their own electric vehicle batteries.

Ms. Lee, who lives in the Railway Gardens Community in Zijingshan near a commercial building work. To facilitate early as six months ago, bought an electric car. Anything wrong with the electric car had never been out on a single charge, can ride for two days.

Since last week, Ms. Lee into a confusion: charge a good call before going to work, left the office less than half-way to no electricity. Is now the electric car battery quality is so bad? Push electric car to go twice Road, Lee found that the electric car vendors, staff told his battery is low, cold winter of reasons. Ms. Lee still do not believe, thinking that this is just the shop to a subterfuge.

East Third Street, an electric car repair shop, the shop owner Chen told her answers with the electric car vendors say: are the cold weather to blame.

Chen's car repair shop, the last few days there is often a public pushing electric car charging. People to repair electric vehicles, more than half say the battery problem, want to change the battery, "has changed my battery, and even suspect that is not what I sold him a used battery." Mr. Chen straight laugh at yourself is very odd, because the battery is not durable in fact, with the weather too cold related.

Chen explained that he had also thought it was a battery problem, opened five years after the repair shop know, now the vast majority of electric vehicles use lead-acid batteries. Lead-acid battery performance related to temperature, compared to summer, winter, battery performance decreased about 40%, Zhengzhou two days the morning temperature dropped to minus 8 degrees Celsius even in this case, one charge mileage, have 40% of the summer. "

Accustomed to ride electric vehicles, the public how to deal with this situation? Mr. Chen suggested that the best appropriate increase in the number of charge cycles. Recharge a battery in a day or two before, now increased to once a day, even twice a day; In short, once the battery is running out of power is necessary to immediately charge do not recurrent teeth, ride a little electric.

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Price bottomed stabilized 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 16:41
According to DigiTimes web-site reports, the solar cell from the fourth quarter began cuts, seems to gradually play to the overall production effect in the near future, prices began to climb the trend, customer inquiries signed a year about the frequency of the phenomenon of increased, but the solar industry, said because the price has been close to the low-grade level price contract to worry about the price rebound in 2009, but in a wait-and-see attitude.

Solar cells by the Spain subsidy strategy in exchange and financial turmoil in September, the two sides of solar cells both firms face the dilemma of orders instantly shrink in the fourth quarter of an unprecedented high inventory and the proportion of discontinued, many small solar cell plant in November and December revenue contribution is negligible, while the other side lay off more sharply cut the noise is non-stop.

Enlarge sustained pressure on the environment, coupled with the financial turmoil caused by the financing of the price of solar cells presents a rare huge decline from the peak in August cried 3.5 ~ $ 3.8 per watt, to the outcry since December spacing is continually expanding, the water level of 2.1 to $ 3 per watt has a turnover of examples, highlighting the market conditions, degree of confusion.

But 2.1 ~ $ 2.2 per watt low price of water level, the majority of solar-cell factory bottom price, if the source material procurement costs are not competitive, are more likely to lose money the price of water level, taking into consideration new polysilicon material sources out of the situation is still poor and limited source material prices fell by another space, the bottom price of solar cells have recently attracted a lot of module plant the initiative to ask, signed in 2009 in a single year at this price contracts.

Motech opinion in late December, the price drop of the battery does have stabilized the trend, but Motech price level is still maintained at 2.4 to $ 3 per watt, is still unable to accept the price is too low water level, especially about itself signed many, in fact, the price of the water level is quite good, client quality requirements higher than the price gap.

Ton noted that the battery price declines in late December has stabilized the phenomenon, which should be due to cross-strait solar cell factory in the production capacity due to the rapid adjustment of the recent client requested to sign a short about the frequency does increase but the 2009 price of considerations have a chance to rebound, still waiting to see, do not intend to rush signing, resulting in the loss of future unnecessary post.

The solar energy industry, said the price bottomed stabilized, but demand has yet to wait and see, therefore, estimated the cross-strait industry will continue, as the hands of orders to determine the capacity utilization rate, estimated the short term will help to increase the degree of price stability.

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The selection and specification of the battery 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 15:12
Make the battery system with higher reliability, we must first correct choice of battery, UPS and communication with the battery in the design: Some batteries have good cycle characteristics; some battery suitable start; some battery suitable for low-temperature environment; Some battery suitable for small discharge current. In the selection of battery it is necessary to understand the difference between the process and the use of a variety of battery to fully understand the electrical properties of the battery and user demand on product performance.

User demand for the product. Such as back-up power system capacity requirements, the frequency of use, the environment, the main purpose, life, reliability requirements, the instantaneous discharge rate, the specifications of the rectifier and other battery related performance requirements.

Commitment of vendors' products. Product design parameters (battery model, appearance, size, rated capacity, rated voltage, weight, weight ratio of energy, the volume ratio of the energy, design life, positive and negative plate number, the type of positive and negative plate thickness ratio, electrolyte density, plate grid materials, etc.), the product electrical performance parameters, the product of the actual life of the installation environment, performance and price of different models, different types of product warranty.

Calculated discharge capacity when the state of the whole power outage, select the appropriate battery model:

Cc = Kk Cs / Kc

Kk - capacity reserve coefficient, taking 1.25.

Kc - volume conversion factor corresponds to a discharge voltage of 1.8V, check the design manual battery discharge capacity and discharge time curve.

Cc - accident full stop state, the discharge capacity for a long time.

Battery specifications in the IEEE Std.485 accordingly, the user in determining the cycle life of the system, they can be more easily selected battery specifications. Batteries suitable for use, but also consider the following several factors:

Kt - temperature correction factors, so that the battery can work properly in the lowest expected temperature environment.

Kd - design margin factors, so that battery can compensate for the additional load.

Ka - aging factors, so that the battery be able to meet its service life.

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The use of batteries 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 15:09
First, the influence of temperature:
(1) capacity and temperature: the ambient temperature, battery capacity within a certain range will increase. Temperature is too low will result in loss of the negative sulfate, and high temperature will accelerate battery grid corrosion and battery water.

(2) the relationship between the float voltage and temperature: the temperature float voltage formula VT = (2.2 - 2.27) - (T-25) × 0.03. Float voltage is too high, the float current increases, and accelerate the corrosion rate of the grid, and reduce the battery life; float voltage is too low, the battery can not maintain the state of charge, causing sulfate reducing capacity, reducing battery life .

(3) charging pressure and temperature: different temperatures are charging pressure is calculated using the VT = (2.30 ~ 2.35) - (T-25) × 0.05. Charge voltage needs to be adjusted with the ambient temperature. The specific charge voltage manufacturers prevail.

(4) the relationship between life and temperature: T25 = T design × 2 (T actual -25) / 10. The temperature may damage the battery, reducing battery life.

Second, the valve-regulated battery charging and discharging system

(1) constant-current voltage limited charging

I10 current constant current charging, the battery pack terminal voltage rises to (2.30 ~ 2.35V) × N pressure limiting value, automatically or manually converted to constant voltage charging.

(2) constant voltage charging

(2.30 to 2.35V) × N constant voltage charging, I10 ~ 2I10 charging current gradually decreases when the charge current is reduced to 0.1 I10 current, the countdown began to start charging device, setting the countdown to the end, the charge device will automatically or manually into the normal float charge operation float voltage should be controlled (2.23 ~ 2.28 V) × N.

(3) supplementary charge

To make up for the run due to improper adjustment of the float current is caused by charge less, compensation can not valve-regulated batteries self-discharge and creepage leakage caused by the loss of battery capacity. According to the need to set the time (usually three months) the charging device will automatically or manually to a constant current limiting pressure charging constant voltage charging, float charging process. Battery pack to full capacity at any time, to ensure safe and reliable operation.

Check the discharge of the three, valve regulated batteries

Long-term use of the limited pressure-limiting floating charge operating mode or only pressure open-flow operation mode, unable to determine the existing capacity of the valve-regulated batteries, Internal whether dehydration or dry, and only check the discharge, in order to find out the battery presence problem.

(1) a set of valve-regulated battery

When the system is only one set of batteries can not be out of operation, nor for the discharge of the whole check, can only release 50% of the rated capacity of the terminal voltage of the battery pack during the discharge process, shall not be less than 2V × N. Discharge immediately after I10 ~ 2I10 current constant current voltage limited charging constant voltage charging floating charge. Repeatedly put to charge 2 or 3 times the capacity of the battery pack can be restored. Battery defects can identify and deal with. If the standby valve regulated battery pack as a temporary alternative, the group of valve-regulated battery can be used for the discharge of the whole check.

(2) two sets of valve regulated batteries

When the system has two sets of valve-regulated batteries, the first one set of valve-regulated battery pack for the discharge of the whole check. I10 constant discharge current when the battery pack terminal voltage down to 1.8V × N, to stop the discharge. Every 1 to 2 h, and then I10 ~ 2I10 current constant-current voltage limited charging constant voltage charging, float charging. Charge repeatedly put 2 or 3 times the battery problems can be detected, the capacity can be restored. If after 3 check the resistance put charging, the battery capacity were less than 80% of the rated capacity may be that this group valve-regulated battery useful life should arrange replacement.

(3) check valve-regulated battery discharge cycle

Valve-regulated battery pack after a new installation or overhaul should be carried out a full check discharge test. Every 2 to 3 years after the first check test. Run of six years after the valve-regulated batteries, each year for the first check discharge test.

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Mean in the end - oil extraction from the display for the laptop battery 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 15:03
One of the standard measure of notebook portability is the only way of battery life for users, in the case of a certain power supply in order to get a longer life time is saved. On the introduction of energy saving techniques are endless, here to introduce a very simple operation of several power consumption from the display. Fowling play head to the butcher to kill the strong, the display is the first power-hungry laptop parts, do not squeeze it virgin who?
(1) to reduce the height, of course not suggesting that the height of the display to the minimum and hence affect the degree of brightness to the extent that you think fit, so you can save considerable power. Said that the battery manufacturers announced in the screen brightness is the darkest circumstances, but not to curse at the profiteers, because that is "normal state", where you can see: brightness and power consumption is very a relationship. In addition, it is appropriate to reduce the brightness to reduce the load on the screen can also increase the life of the display.

Lower the resolution (see also hate his book's resolution is not high enough users as did not see), notebook screen resolution 1024 * 768 or more generally, in normal circumstances such as dealing with documents in look at the news online, 800 * 600 resolution is enough, especially for users who like a reporter, secretary of these notebooks are mostly used to record, are worth recommending to do so, the low resolution is not only energy saving, and greater the font back to work convenience.

Listen to music and do not need to use the screen for video coding, the screen turned off, the operation can turn off the screen time in the power options set to the shortest, after a while the system will automatically turn off the screen, or can be set in the Power Options "Advanced" option to turn off the screen but the machine continues to run when closing the screen, if IBM users can also manually turn off the screen.

Do not set the screen saver, because the machine running the screen saver when the load on the processor and display little different than normal operation when the load, or even to be slightly larger than in normal runtime, the power consumption is certainly better than the normal operation of when. Want to protect the screen of your machine and prolonging life, believe what the screen saver can not match the screen turn off, turn off the display using the above method, set the Turn off monitor power scheme inside to protect the power-saving kill two birds with one stone.

The above operation is very simple, it seems worth mentioning, but in practice you have to do so?

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Recycling of waste nickel-metal hydride battery 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 14:55
A failure Anode Powder recycling
Failure of MH / Ni battery shell peel, carve elected from the battery cell negative film, using ultrasonic vibration and other physical methods, the failure of the cathode powder, and then be dealt with after the cathode powder chemically treated, this negative pink tablet repeated in the non-consumable vacuum arc furnace smelting of 3 to 4 times. Remove the oxide layer melting the ingot surface, broken, mixed with ICP method measured the percentage content of each element of the mixed rare earth, nickel, cobalt, manganese, aluminum, depending on the loss of hydrogen storage alloy elements of nickel the element content to supplement other necessary elements, and then smelting, and ultimately get the excellent performance of the recycled alloy.

Second, the failure of the recovery of MH / Ni Battery Anode

Failure of the cathode powder chemical treatment methods, the use of the processing solution on the alloy surface erosion, destruction of the oxides of the alloy surface to minimize erosion impact of other elements and the conductive agent is not but make the alloy oxidation. 0 of 5mol · L-1 acetic acid solution, the failure of the alloy powder handled at room temperature for 0.5h, and then distilled water, dried under vacuum conditions. Be seen, the main structure of the AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy has not changed, still belong to the the CaCu5 type hexagonal structure, anode powder of Al (OH) 3 and La (OH) 3, the impurity phase completely disappear, indicating that these oxides by chemical treatment, the surface of the oxide is almost completely dissolved. Cathode powder to make batteries with the chemical treatment after the failure of the original alloy powder and without chemical treatment failure alloy powder, to do the performance comparison of the charge and discharge capacity after the failure of the discharge of the cathode powder chemical treatment than failure than the untreated The anode powder high 23mAh · g-1, chemically treated later, the surface oxide was largely removed, so that the failure of the active ingredients of the hydrogen storage alloy anode powder increases.

The XPS results show that the concentration of negative powder surface nickel atoms increases to 9.30% from 6.79% of the chemical treatment, indicating that after chemically treated alloy formed on the surface has a higher electro-catalytic activity of nickel-rich layer, which not only improve the electrocatalytic activity of the hydrogen electrode, but also provides a hydrogen atom diffusion paths, thus making the electrode discharge performance. But compared to the failure of the cathode powder used to make batteries chemically treated alloy powder, discharge capacity is still low 90mAh · g-1, on the one hand, may be due to oxidation of the alloy is not just confined to the surface, may also go deep into the internal alloy, chemical treatment is only the surface of the oxide is removed to the deep oxidation of the particles inside and have not been completely removed; the other hand, may be affected by the alloy powder specific surface area increases, while making the alloy reacts with O2 and electrolyte corrosion is easier, for two reasons together result in the discharge performance of the alloy. Therefore, only by the chemical treatment does not make the failure of negative recovery functions, the need for smelting processing.

The cathode powder chemically treated, for the first time in the non-consumable arc furnace smelting. The obtained alloy ingot polishing to remove surface impurities, to analyze the element content, element content in the alloy results can be seen to deviate from the original alloy, the nickel content is much larger than the nickel content in the original alloy powder, it is because in the production of electrodes nickel powder in the process of doing the conductive agent, in order to effectively use it, it as a benchmark, adjust the content of other elements to make it comply with the composition ratio for the various elements of the MmNi3.5Co0.7Mn0.4Al0.3, a second smelting. Alloy ingots after smelting, will be crushing, grinding, measure the structure CaCu5 type, no other impurity phases generated.

Alloy powder recovered charge and discharge performance test can be seen that the recovery of the discharge capacity of alloy powder than the failure of the cathode powder of about 100mAh g-1 compared with the discharge capacity of the alloy powder is basically the same, and recycling of alloy powder The discharge plateau pressure, the pressure is higher than the original alloy powder discharge platform around about 20mV, which may be due to alloy recovery process after several melting the alloy composition and microstructure have been the reasons for the improvement.

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The structure is simple and smooth operation 

May 14 [Mon], 2012, 14:51
(1) energy efficiency, conversion efficiency, no petroleum-based fuels
Addition to the gasoline reforming to produce hydrogen, the other (methanol, hydrocarbons, etc.) fuel basically no petroleum-based fuels. To the overall efficiency of the wheels by the engine by the drive system, the internal combustion engine vehicle for about 11% hydrogen FCEV fuel efficiency by 50% to 70% methanol as a fuel after reforming to produce hydrogen FCEV, the actual efficiency of 34% , the FCEV the actual efficiency significantly higher than the internal combustion engine vehicles.

Have maximum efficiency the A internal combustion engine in the near rated power, in the part of the power output under the conditions of operation, and quickly lower the efficiency. Fuel cell efficiency at rated power can reach 60%, and the operation conditions of the part of the power output, efficiency can reach 70%, the operation efficiency can reach 50% ~ 55% in power output overload conditions. A wide range of high efficiency with the power change in the low-power operation, high efficiency, particularly suitable for vehicle dynamic performance. B internal combustion engine overload, overload operation is easy to "turn off". Short time overload capacity of the fuel cell can reach 200% of rated power. Very suitable for the performance characteristics of the car when acceleration and climbing power.

The above points, the energy saving of the fuel cell, far more than the internal combustion engine, and the stability and reliability is higher than the internal combustion engine.

(2) emissions reach zero pollution

Internal combustion engine emissions of harmful gases, the environmental pollution caused by the fatal shortcomings of the internal combustion engine vehicles, despite a variety of inside and outside of the technical measures, can only reach the "low pollution" level due to the internal combustion engine The huge number of cars, even the "low pollution" a tremendous impact on the Earth's environment. Using hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell engines generate material for water and CO2, a "zero pollution". Hydrocarbons as the fuel of fuel cell engine to generate material for water and CO2, CO, belonging to the "low pollution". For the global environment and to seek new sources of energy, fuel cell engine is an ideal power unit, and likely to gradually replace oil as a vehicle of energy.

(3) vehicle performance close to the internal combustion engine vehicles

The internal combustion engine the power to approximately 300W/kg, currently power the fuel cell body 700W/kg power density of 1000W / L. If you include a reformer of the fuel cell, purification and ancillary devices, including power 300 ~ 350W/kg power density of 280W / L. Energy close to the fuel cell and internal combustion engines, hence the dynamic performance can reach the level of the internal combustion engine vehicles.

(4) The structure is simple and smooth operation

(1) fuel cell engine energy conversion is completed in a static structure construct the processing accuracy requirements are much lower than the internal combustion engine. In particular, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell energy conversion efficiency is high, and can start and operate at low temperatures, the heat resistance of the structure requirements. The structure of the majority of plate and pipe fittings, no moving parts and a variety of friction pairs, failure is not caused due to parts wear, maintenance, and easy maintenance.

A fuel cell engines by more than one single fuel cells in series, can be configured into a variety of different specifications of the series of fuel cell engine blocks can be assembled in different uses and different types of vehicles. On the vehicle according to the specific circumstances of the vehicle axle load distribution of vehicle effective space utilization, flexible, mobile and general arrangement.

B fuel cell engine during operation, noise, vibration, cooling system is much simpler than the internal combustion engine, the thermal management system is also more simple. The output material without purification and silencer processing, the entire fuel cell system is easy to implement automated systems management.

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