The value of the resistance is adjusted so that the charge

July 26 [Fri], 2013, 16:54
Because of the memory effect, before charging Ni-Cads, it is wise to ensure that they are fully discharged to an end voltage of 1.0V/cell. This is why many chargers have a built in discharger. It would be as well for you to actually measure the appropriate voltages of your charger and battery combination. It is obvious, that since this discharge end voltage is so critical to the capacity of the Ni-Cad battery, that you should not just leave the battery connected to a load overnight, since it may go well lithium HSTNN-OB42 the desired 1.0V/cell. If the cell is completely discharged, then polarity reversal may occur, and electrolyte creapage takes place. Gas pressure increases inside the cell, and the cell will be permanently damaged.


For the same reason, it is essential you match the charger to the battery, in particular if you are using a fast charger. Fast chargers employ circuitry that detects the voltage decrease at the end of the charge cycle (negative delta V - the voltage peaks, and then falls slightly when the Ni-Cad battery is nearly fully charged) and switches to a lower current value. If this detection of negative delta V fails, then the second line of defence depends of detection of the increase in temperature of the battery pack, and if that fails it should finally time out if it has been giving a fast charge for too long a period of time. Before charging they measure the ambient temperature and the state of charge of the battery to calculate the charge rate and time required. These devices cost far more than a simple 0.1C charger.

If you have a number of different voltage/capacity Ni-Cad battery packs, then your charging situation may have to be more 'hands on', unless you have the associated expensive fast charger for each pack. The following notes should help.

The speed of charging is related to the speed of gas recombination at the negative plate and the rate of gas generation. For most cases that I am aware of a charge current of 0.1C for a period of 14 to 16 hours from complete discharge will bring the battery to full capacity, but check with your battery manufacturer to be safe. So, the first requirement is a means of discharging the battery to 1.0 V/cell.

A constant current charger is ideal, but not easy to achieve at low cost for high currents, so a quasi constant current charger is more usual. For the normal domestic UK electricity supply, this is simply a transformer/rectifier with a series resistor between the DC side of the rectifier and the battery . The value of the resistance is adjusted so that the charge current at the end of charging does not exceed the specified current value. This resistor control system is also easily employed if you wish to recharge your batteries from your car battery (assuming the Ni-Cads are less than 10V, say).

Some particular considerations with Ni-Cads: - do not mix old and new cells, or mix different manufacturers or different sized cells within alithium HSTNN-OB60 . Internal resistance and other features will be different and can lead to high current flows within the battery pack, and damage to individual cells. Do not overcharge or over discharge, or charge with poles inverted, which may damage the safety vent.

For storage longer than about three months, discharge the battery and ensure it is disconnected from any load. You will have to go through two or three charge/discharge cycles before reuse, to get the battery back to maximum capacity. The normal rate of self discharge is about 15% per month, increasing in warm temperatures. With proper attention to their use, it is quite feasible to have over 1000 charge/discharge cycles from Ni-Cad batteries.

A microprocessor is often incorporated within the battery case

July 26 [Fri], 2013, 16:53
These are of a comparatively modern chemistry, originally developed by the UK Atomic Energy Authority, and I believe this technology is licensed to various manufacturers. They do not contain Lithium metal, but they operate on the insertion and extraction of lithium ions into and out of their electrodes. They arlithium Aspire 5750 e becoming more popular, and are being sold on their only advantage of a very high energy density, but in reality, it is only marginally better than that obtained with Ni-MH. There are a number of features with Li-ion, that you need to be aware of, some of which I've listed below.

The nominal cell voltage is 3.6V. However, in practice the cell voltage will vary from 4.2V when fully charged to the usual end point voltage of 2.6V. How can this be tolerable? Today, electronic development has progressed rapidly from the 1960's, and high efficiency switching regulators are available at low cost. For example Micrel make a small unit that is 97% efficient, needs about 3 low cost external components, costs less than ?1.00 in quantities of 1000 and is rated at two amps. It contains all the protection that a power supply needs, without the necessity of fuses, etc. This and other similar devices allows the electronic designer to use, say, 3 Li-ion cells in series (Voltage range 12.6V to 7.8V) and the regulator to achieve a constant 5V with very little energy loss. If a linear regulator were used, say typical of the circuitry of fifteen years ago, then the losses would account for over half the energy stored in the battery.


The battery voltage can be monitored to give a fairly accurate estimate of the remaining operational time (assuming a constant load of course). Li-ion cells are normally used in a similar situation to that which I have just described by most manufacturers. They are used almost exclusively in the small pro-sumer video cameras, portable mini disc and CD players, but are generally specific to a particular device, and are kept that way for reasons of the manufacturer's profit requirements. For charging and other purposes they often have a microprocessor built into the battery, and manufacturers such as Sony are protective in the protocol that the battery uses when communicating to the charger and the camera, so it becomes very difficult to substitute another power source.

Li-ion batteries begin to fail as soon as they are made. When they are a year old, whether or not you have used them, they will have a reduced performance. They are very sensitive devices, - if you drop them on the floor, they may not work again. If you overcharge them slightly, or subject them to a slight over voltage when charging, they will never work again, and that is one reason a microprocessor is often incorporated within the battery case, to closely monitor the voltage. Another reason for the microprocessor is to lock the consumer into the manufacturer. Some Sony cameras will only work if you use a Sony battery for example, and I believe that some models require an expensive repair shop visit just to unlock the camera again. It is not recommended that Li-ion cells are used in equipment not designed for their use, for reasons which by now should be pretty obvious. Li-ion have no memory effect problems and may be stored in any state of charge, but storing at nominal voltage is recommended.

Finally, for comparison purposes, we can compare a Sony Info-Lithium NP-F550 7.2V 10.8Wh (1500mAh) battery (costing about ?50.00) with 6 of the Ni-MH cells mentioned earlier to give 7.2V at 1600mAh. (total cost ?20.00). The Sony battery weighs approximately 100gms, six of the Varta cells weigh a total of 160gms + wiring + case. The volume, but not the shape would be more or less equal. My personal view is that there is little benefit to the end user by specifying Li-ion batteries, other than a small saving in weight. There is a large financial benefit to the manufacturer of the equipment, however.

Well, I don't have much more I want to say, right now, but if you have access to the Internet, then I have a web site at http://www.rwc.yertiz.com which has some other information, and if you search for it, you can find my e-mail address. I also have a software related web site at http://raywest.com. I will normallylithium Aspire 5810T
respond to e-mails within a couple of days.

If you would wish for a more detailed explanation of any power supply system, then if you contact the editor, then I may be requested to write another article - unfortunately this was put together at the last minute, due to a complete failure of my filing systems - a sort of compost heap on the desk/floor.

Do not boot lithium-based batteries

June 08 [Sat], 2013, 10:01
Li-ion batteries contain a protection circuit that shields the battery against abuse. This important safeguard has the disadvantage of turning the battery off if over-discharged, and storing a discharged battery for any length of time can do this. The self-discharge during storage gradually lowers the voltage of a Aspire 1810T 9cellsthat is already discharged; the protection circuit will eventually cut off between 2.20 and 2.90V/cell.

Some battery chargers and analyzers, including those made by Cadex, feature a wake-up feature or “boost” to reactivate and charge batteries that have fallen asleep. Without this feature, a charger would render these batteries as unserviceable and the packs would be discarded. The boost feature applies a small charge current to first activate the protection circuit and then commence with a normal charge.

Do not boot lithium-based batteries back to life that have dwelled below 1.5V/cell for a week or longer. Copper shunts may have formed inside the cells that can lead to a partial or total electrical short. When recharging, such a cell might become unstable, causing excessive heat or showing other anomalies. The “boost” function by Cadex halts the charge if the voltage does not rise normally.


A study done by Cadex to examine failed Aspire 1830T 9cells reveals that three out of ten batteries are removed from service due to over-discharge. Furthermore, 90 percent of returned batteries have no fault or can easily be serviced. Lack of test devices at the customer service level is in part to blame for the high exchange rate. Refurbishing batteries saves money and protects the environment.

On the subject of buying batteries at the last minute

April 12 [Fri], 2013, 10:48

Alkaline batteries are used by many, many consumers the world over. They are non-rechargeable. Other commonly used terms for non-rechargeable are: single use and disposable. They’ve been around a good long time! Alkaline batteries are commonly used in today’s consumer electronics. Items like: digital Original X120ecameras, electronic games/toys, mp3 players, and GPS products just to name a few.

Although Alkaline chemistry is not a rechargeable technology, there is a version of 1.5 volt Alkaline cells that are rechargeable however it’s not a product that is available for consumer purchase so you won’t find them on the shelf at your local retailer. We can’t emphasize enough that the Alkaline batteries you see in stores (and online, from reputable battery sellers), are NOT rechargeable and absolutely NEVER EVER try to charge them. To do so, poses a very real fire hazard risk!

Alkaline batteries are made by leading battery manufacturers such as Duracell, Panasonic, and Energizer as well as others of course, and are available at most corner stores on blister cards, and of course, in bulk (much cheaper!) online. Cost for Alkaline batteries fluctuate from one seller to another but of course, buying them in bulk is always your best bet if you don’t need them in retail displays. You’d only need them carded like that if you yourself were a reseller of them. If you’re not a merchant, look for the best deals you can find online and stock up with a trustworthy battery supplier!

Something that’s important to note on the subject of battery suppliers is, it’s not only a matter about price. Great customer service is also a factor to measure before spending hard earned dollars on items you use everyday, such as batteries! A battery seller who has their own inventory, for example, and is not an affiliate for another distributer, is what you want. Also, you need someone who takes your calls, or at least returns your voice mails immediately and who answers emails promptly, is the ideal choice.

On the subject of shelf life: (Think about it – what good are dead batteries?), you must be stocked with batteries that have great date codes. Since these are not rechargeable, freshness is of utmost importance.

Alkaline batteries in sizes:AA, AAA,C, D and 9 Volt, typically have a shelf-life of roughly 7 years or so, so when you do find a good supplier for them, stock up for future use! It’s money saver to have enough stock for a while. In this way, you don’t have to pay higher prices because you ran out and had to source them at the last minute!

While on the subject of buying batteries at the last minute, consider your travel habits. If you need to replenish your alkaline battery supply while on the go away from home, you will be sure to pay higher prices for them at places like gas stations, airports, drugstores and other convenience stores. That’s justification right there for making sure you’re never left in the lurch because these types of places inflate their prices, knowing how much you need them. Supply and demand folks! Travellers must pay for the convenience of being able to find batteries at these “convenience locations” You’re not just paying for the batteries, don’t be fooled! You’re paying for the convenience to you to be able to get them there.

Always plan ahead and stock pile Alkaline batteries if you use them often and in many products!

Wherever you buy them, check to be sure that their date codes (expiration dates) are a good 5 years down the road.

If you happen to want to switch over to rechargeable batteries one day, consider NiMh rechargeable batteries as theOriginal X130e ideal replacement for them. NiMH stands for Nickel Metal Hydride. This type of chemistry is rechargeable.

To the right of this article, you’ll see our in-house inventory fresh Alkaline batteries. Browse around if you’re in the market to get some, and if you’ve got any questions about them that have not been discussed on this page, we invite you to contact us before you buy and we’ll give you all the technical assistance you require to make an informed decision.

Easily available on the internet as well as in the market

April 12 [Fri], 2013, 10:47
With electronic or electricity based items and objects greatly in use today, cells and batteries have become a household name. These are the two objects that are found in every household today and without which, life seems impossible. Be it toys, remotes of fans, television sets, air conditioners or DVD players, watches,Original T420s digital cameras, cell phones or any other daily use product, nothing can function without batteries.

Although there is a huge difference between the cells and batteries used by all of this gadgetry, the object known to us as a cell or battery has more or less similar functionality and mechanism. Whatever might be the type, mechanism or shape of the cell, it is something that we are using in our daily life and it has become a driver for our world since a great proportion of whatever this world contains today, is driven by electricity or some voltage, so to speak.

One of the major and most commonly used types of cells is the alkaline battery which is used in toys such as robots and cars as well as remotes, wall clocks and other light duty household items. This battery is one of the many rechargeable batteries that we have today and run on an electrochemical reaction.

Alkaline batteries run on the reaction that takes place between manganese oxide that is chemically written as MnO2 and zinc that is represented by a chemical symbol of Zn. When it comes to the mechanism and shape, alkaline batteries are very closely related to zinc-carbon batteries that run on the reaction between manganese oxide and carbon powder. In zinc-carbon batteries, the cell is packed in a can that is made up of zinc. This can not only makes up for the traditional cylindrical covering of the cell but also plays part as the negative terminal.

The positive terminal in this cell is the carbon rod that is surrounded by a mixture of powdered carbon and manganese oxide. The electrolysis of the two chemical compounds is aided by an electrolyte that is made using a mixture of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride dissolved in water. In comparison to zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline batteries have longer shelf lives and higher energy densities, given that that voltage is the same. Although there are batteries with higher capacity and energy density but they cost way more in price and hence become uneconomical for most buyers. These cells are known as button cell silver-oxide batteries. Hence, keeping in view the capacity, energy density, shelf life and cost effectiveness, an alkaline battery becomes the most feasible choice for most buyers.


The company, Everready Battery, is deemed to be the first producer of the alkaline batteries working for which, a Canadian engineer, invented it somewhere in the 1950s. The name of the engineer was Lewis Urry. However it was not until the 9th of October, 1957 that Lewis Urry, along with P. A. Marsal and Karl Kordesch filed the United States patent for alkaline batteries which finally got granted in the year 1960. Union Carbide Corporation was the first to be assigned the patent. That was a little account of alkaline batteries but talking chemically, the choice of zinc powder has been excellent for sure as it provides more surface area to the negative terminal and hence allows for sufficient amount of current.

The cathode or the positive terminal of the alkaline battery is composed of manganese oxide as discussed above. In this case, as opposed to the mechanism of zinc-carbon batteries, the electrolysis or the chemical reaction is aided by the electrolyte known as potassium hydroxide and not by ammonium chloride or zinc chloride dissolved in water. Voltage produce by a single of such batteries is around 1.5 volts, however a series of many alkaline batteries may allow for higher voltages to be achieved. Types of alkaline batteries have also been found whose voltage production ranges up to 1.65 volts. This would, most probably, be a non-discharged and zero-load battery.

The voltage however depends greatly on the chosen contents of the zinc oxide in the electrolyte or the manganese dioxide. Under load, an average alkaline cell would present a voltage of no more than 1.3 volts butOriginal X100e no lesser than 1.1 volts. Even when fully discharged, these batteries are left with a voltage of 0.8 to 1.0 volts.

Easily available on the internet as well as in the market, alkaline batteries can be bought for very cheap prices. Different brands produce varying qualities of the cell and as per the choice, consumers can buy the one they consider to be the best for their gadget.

Lithium Ion - LiON batteries are now used in most new laptops

February 22 [Fri], 2013, 11:51
Throughout the years there have been many technologies involved with notebooks, and laptop batteries are no different. There are actually three distinct notebook battery types on the market today. Knowing the difference original A32-U80between them will help you decide on exactly what to get when the time comes for a purchase.

In this article I will discuss the three different laptop battery types, as well as some of the advantages each one carries.

Nickel Cadmium - NiCd batteries were actually the first rechargeable laptop batteries ever. Manufactures loved them because their cost was relatively low and they had a high output. You won't find Nickel Cadmium batteries being used anymore, due to them being heavier and not as efficient as the newer laptop batteries.

Nickel Metal Hydride - NiMH batteries can still be found all over the place -- particularly for older model laptops. The rechargeable NiMH laptop battery was a big step up for notebook technology mostly in part because they were more reliable than the NiCd batteries, and they had an even higher output. The NiMH battery was also cheaper to produce, and safer to use.

The only issue with NiMH batteries is that they can have a memory effect. Basically, if you don't fully discharge the battery, it can remember this and leave you with a less than perfect battery output.

Lithium Ion - LiON batteries are now used in most new laptops. Unlike the NiMH battery, LiON laptop batteries have no memory effect. LiON batteries are also lighter than both NiCd and NiMH notebook batteries. Both of these advantages equal out to the Lithium Ion battery being the most popular and most expensiveoriginal A32-UL20 among the various notebook power sources.

You are probably wondering which type of battery to get. Getting a Lithium Ion battery would be the best solution, and if you have the money that is what I recommend. If you cannot afford a LiON battery or your notebook is not compatible with one, then getting a NiMH battery is the next best thing.

There's considerable controversy on this point

February 22 [Fri], 2013, 11:49
Laptop batteries are like people--eventually and inevitably, they die. And like people, they don't obey Moore's Law--You can't expect next year's batteries to last twice as long as this year's. Battery technology may improve a bit over time (after all, there's plenty of financial incentive for better batteries), but, while ioriginal A32-N82nteresting possibilities may pop up, don't expect major battery breakthroughs in the near future.

Although your battery will eventually die, proper care can put off the inevitable. Here's how to keep your laptop battery working for as long as possible. With luck, it could last until you need to replace that aging notebook (perhaps with a laptop having a longer battery life).

I've also included a few tips on keeping the battery going longer between charges, so you can work longer without AC power.

Squeezing every drop of juice out of a lithium ion battery (the type used in today's laptops) strains and weakens it. Doing this once or twice won't kill the battery, but the cumulative effect of frequently emptying your battery will shorten its lifespan.

(There's actually an exception to this rule--a circumstance where you should run down the battery all the way. I'll get to that later.)

The good news: You probably can't run down the battery, anyway--at least not without going to a lot of trouble to do so. Most modern laptops are designed to shut down before the battery is empty.

In fact, Vista and Windows 7 come with a setting for just this purpose. To see it, click Start, type power, and select Power Options. Click any one of the Change plan settings links, then the Change advanced power settings link. In the resulting dialog box, scroll down to and expand the Battery option. Then expand Critical battery level. The setting will probably be about 5 percent, which is a good place to leave it.

XP has no such native setting, although your laptop may have a vendor-supplied tool that does the same job.

Myth: You should never recharge your original A32-N71 all the way.

There's considerable controversy on this point, and in researching this article I interviewed experts both for and against. But I've come down on the side of recharging all the way. The advantages of leaving home with a fully-charged battery--you can use your PC longer without AC power--are worth the slight risk of doing damage.

Speed up this process would increase the overall performance of the battery

December 28 [Fri], 2012, 16:42
It's getting difficult to overstate the importance of battery technology. Compact, high-capacity batteries are an essential part of portable electronics already, but improved batteries are likely to play a key role in the autSatellite C670 compatible batteryo industry, and may eventually appear throughout the electric grid, smoothing over interruptions in renewable power sources.

Unfortunately, battery technology often involves a series of tradeoffs among factors like capacity, charging time, and usable cycles. Today's issue of Nature reports on a new version of lithium battery technology that may just be a game-changer.

The new work involves well-understood technology, relying on lithium ions as charge carriers within the battery. But the lithium resides in a material that was designed specifically to allow it to move through the battery quickly, which means charges can be shifted in and out of storage much more rapidly than in traditional formulations of lithium batteries. The net result is a battery that, given the proper electrodes, can perform a complete discharge in under 10 seconds—the sort of performance previously confined to the realm of supercapacitors.

This appears to be one of those cases where applications badly lagged theory. Since lithium ions are the primary charge carriers in most batteries, the rates of charging and discharging the batteries wind up proportional to the speed at which lithium ions can move within the battery material. Real-world Satellite P305 compatible batteryexperience would suggest that lithium moves fairly slowly through most types of batteries, but theoretical calculations suggested that there was no real reason that should be the case—lithium should be able to move quite briskly.

A number of recent papers suggested that, in at least one lithium battery class (based on LiFePO4), the problem wasn't the speed at which lithium moved—instead, it could only enter and exit crystals of this salt at specific locations. This, in turn, indicated that figuring a way to speed up this process would increase the overall performance of the battery.

Always remember that when it comes to agreements

November 22 [Thu], 2012, 11:58

First things first, believe it or not there are no warranties on batteries even in the international market so this means that you are at the mercy of what the manufacturers, distributors, resellers, consultants tell you while hoping for the very best. Hope is a good thing but it is usually not enough especially when you are9cells HSTNN-C17C paying for a service.

In reality, many manufacturers provide a few spares or extras based on the quantity of batteries ordered. For example, a container load of batteries could have 2, 5 or 10 extra batteries. This means that any dishonest person or importer can pay for and import substandard batteries into the country and sell them to unsuspecting buyers knowing fully well that the batteries would pack up sooner rather than later. Someone can ask for a reduction in quality just to make more profit.

Basically, the strength of a battery is based on the thickness of the plates inside (read the positive and negative terminals) and if the battery is a rechargeable one then the rate of discharge or generally cycling will determine how long the battery will last as you recharge and discharge the battery.

This means that a battery that is in use will ultimately get weaker and weaker until it can no longer receive charge or hold charge let alone deliver any power to any load. So, it is possible to have 2 different batteries installed the same day with the same load with performances that are as different as anything you can imagine.

Is there a way to tell how long a deep cycle battery will last in service? Unfortunately no, regardless of what you see printed on the specs as basically all the tests these figures are based on were carried out in lab conditions most times at 25 degrees centigrade.

In most cases, references and past experiences from friends and colleagues help or you simply have to trust what the manufacturer, distributor, reseller or consultant is saying, that’s a tough one though. However, there is one area you must not allow yourself to be short changed – manufacturer defects. While this type of problem would most likely be pushed to the end user I strongly believe that such should not be allowed to stand because only the manufacturer or its agents should be held responsible for such problems otherwise it would be criminal as that would amount to end users paying for the manufacturer’s mistakes, errors and incompetence.

Serious battery dealers have good plans in place to handle issues like these. Serious alternative energy consultants equally have good working arrangements with battery dealers to ensure that customers are insulated from manufacturer defects related problems.

My advice is this – if a battery dealer, service provider or manufacturer refuses to commit on manufacturer defects related problems then run fast and look for those that understand the need to handle these issues the way they should be handled. They are out there, just look hard.

A parting shot on inverter backup batteries. Avoid trailer batteries (generally call automotive batteries) as they are not designed for deep cycling and based on this fact would pack up faster than any good deep cycle battery unless you don’t see any problem in replacing your batteries in a matter of months. Sealed maintenance free (SMF) batteries are not deep cycle batteries even though deep cycle batteries are usually sealed and are maintenance free.

Chew on the difference, very important. I have seen SMF batteries deployed as deep cycle batteries and before you know it the clients begin to wonder why their backup time just went from say 10 hours to 2 hours in just a matter of months.

Perhaps, the issue of getting good 12 cells HSTNN-C51C is one area where the credibility of the seller or service provider determines the level of trust a prospective client will have in dealing with a completely unfamiliar terrain.

Always remember that when it comes to agreements that if it is not written down then it does not exists and that an agreement is only as good as the willingness of all parties to abide by the it.

And because traditional alkaline batteries can hold a charge for years

November 22 [Thu], 2012, 11:44
I realize many people want to convert to rechargeable batteries for environmental reasons, which is fair enough. But the truth of the matter is this: when cost is the primary discriminator, low current-draw devices simply don’t warrant the extra expense of rechargeable batteries. That’s because the replacement HSTNN-Q21C of low current-draw devices are typically changed so infrequently that the payback period for equivalent rechargeable batteries would be too far long to justify the investment!

For example, it makes much more sense to use traditional alkaline batteries for low-draw devices like your wall clocks, radios, smoke detectors, programmable thermostats, and remote controls because they lose power at a much slower rate than rechargeable batteries.

And because traditional alkaline batteries can hold a charge for years when not in use, they are also the better choice for items that may sit unused for long period of time, like your alarm clock back-up battery and high quality HSTNN-Q34Cemergency flashlights.

When it comes right down to it, these low current-draw and/or low-use devices make up the great majority of battery-driven products in the typical home.

P R
カテゴリアーカイブ
http://yaplog.jp/shicheng413/index1_0.rdf