Lithium-ion batteries are the leading chemistry for EVs today

June 28 [Fri], 2013, 15:45
The lithium-ion battery industry is dominated by the consumer electronics industry but the forthcoming wave of EVs is changing the game. Made from nontoxic materials, today’s lithium-ion batteries have unprecedented safety. Today’s lithium-ion battery has high abuse tolerance, low heat evolution, stable cathode material, and an intelligent pack design that ensure consumer safety. A lithium-ion RM791 rn873 can also be recycled with minimal environmental impact. More than 95% of the battery materials can be recovered and reused. Despite some concerns of availability of lithium, the industry universally accepts that lithium supplies will continue to be abundant, especially if recycling infrastructure is scaled up.

The billions of dollars invested into lithium-ion battery research and development, with a focus on automotive EV applications, will lead to further advances in battery performance (including power, range, charge time, lifetime, and cost). Better Place is chemistry-agnostic and willing to adopt new battery technologies as they emerge; however, lithium-ion batteries are the leading chemistry for EVs today.

The billions of dollars invested into lithium-ion battery research and development,with a focus on automotive EV applications,will lead to further advances in battery
performacne .Better Place is chemistry -agnostic and willing to adopt new battery technologies as they emerge;however lithium-ion batteries are the leading chemistry for EVs today.


Performance & range

Older generations of EV batteries were characterized by two major problems - providing short driving range and offering limited performance. Today's lithium-ion batteries can store significantly more energy than and generate twice the power per unit volume as older battery technologies. These improvements Vostro 1310 rn873 in storage capacity and power availability are critical in maximizing the range of a vehicle. Now, a 24 kWh lithium-ion battery (about 200 kg/440 lbs) in a competitively priced medium-sized sedan provides a range of about 160 kilometers (100 miles) on a single charge.

Testing all four batteries is a good idea

June 28 [Fri], 2013, 15:44
The "self-recharging" features of batteries is most noticeable in a car battery. In some cases you can crank the engine until the Latitude E6400 rn873 seems totally dead, then come back an hour later and crank it again. The higher the drain on the battery (a car's starter motor is an incredibly high-drain device!), the greater the effect.

To understand why this happens, it is helpful to understand what's going on inside the battery. Let's take the simplest zinc/carbon battery as an example. If you take a zinc rod and a carbon rod, connect them together with a wire, and then immerse the two rods in liquid sulfuric acid, you create a battery. Electrons will flow through the wire from the zinc rod to the carbon rod. Hydrogen gas builds up on the carbon rod, and over a fairly short period of time coats the majority of the carbon rod's surface. The layer of hydrogen gas coating the rod blocks the reaction occurring in the cell and the battery begins to look "dead". If you let the battery rest for awhile, the hydrogen gas dissipates and the battery "comes back to life".

In any battery, be it an alkaline battery found in a flashlight or a lead acid battery in a car, the same sort of thing can happen. Reaction products build up around the two poles of the battery and slow down the reaction. By letting the battery rest, you give the reaction products a chance to dissipate. The higher the Studio 1555 rn873 drain on the battery, the faster the products build up, so batteries under high drain appear to recover more.

Many battery-operated appliances use two or four cells in series to create higher voltages. If one of the cells has a problem (for example, it does not dissipate reaction products as well as the other batteries), it can make all of the batteries appear to go dead. If you test the batteries individually, however, three of the four may be fine. If the batteries seem to go dead too quickly, testing all four batteries is a good idea. Throw out the bad one and re-use the other three.

The finished battery must undergo electrical and mechanical

May 10 [Fri], 2013, 12:15
Reputable battery manufacturers do not supply lithium-ion cells to uncertified battery assemblers. This precaution is reasonable when considering the danger of explosion and fire when charging and discharging a Li-ion Aspire 1810T bright pack beyond safe limits without an approved protection circuit.

Authorizing a battery pack for the commercial market and for air transport can cost $10,000 to $20,000. Such a high price is troubling when considering that obsolescence in the battery industry is common. Manufacturers often discontinue a cell in favor of higher capacities. The switch to the improved cell will require a new certification even though the dimensions of the new cell are the same as the previous model.

Cell manufacturers must comply with their own vigorous cell testing and we ask, “Why are additional tests required when using an approved cell?” The cell approvals cannot be transferred to the pack because the regulatory authorities do not recognize the safety confirmation of the naked cell. The finished battery must be tested separately to assure correct assembly and is registered as a standalone product. Read about Safety Concerns with Li-ion.

As part of the test, the finished battery must undergo electrical and mechanical assessment to meet the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods on lithium-ion batteries for air shipment, rules set by the United Nations (UN). The electrical test stresses the battery by applying high heat, followed by a forced charge, abnormal discharge and an electrical short.

During the mechanical test, the battery is crush-tested and exposed to high impact, shock and vibration. The UN Transport test also requires altitude, thermal stability, vibration, shock, short circuit and overcharge checks. The UN Transport works in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration(FAA), the US Department of Transport (US DOT) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA).

The authorized laboratory performing the tests needs 24 battery samples consisting of 12 new packs and 12 specimens that have been cycled for 50 times. IATA wants to assure that the batteries in question are airworthy and have field integrity. Cycling them for 50 times before the test satisfies this requirement.

The high certification costs make many small manufacturers shy away from using Li-ion for low-volume products; they choose nickel-based systems instead. While strict control is justified, an uncertified Li-ion kept in the hands of the expert and out of aircraft would be acceptable, but controlling such movement in the public domain is next to impossible. This makes it hard for the hobbyist who wants to Aspire 1830T brightwin a race with a high-powered Li-ion battery but is bogged down by many rules.

With recurring accidents while transporting lithium-based batteries by air, regulatory authorities will likely tighten the shipping requirements further. However, anything made too cumbersome and difficult will entice some battery manufacturers to trick the system, defeating the very purpose of protecting the traveling public. Read about How to Transport Batteries.

The court hears many legal cases involving laptops and other batteries

May 10 [Fri], 2013, 12:13
A concern also arises if static electricity or a faulty charger has destroyed the battery’s protection circuit. This can fuse the solid-state AS10D51 bright switches into a permanent ON position without the user’s knowledge. A battery with a faulty protection circuit may function normally but fail to provide the required safety.

Low price makes generic replacement batteries from Asia popular with cell phone users. While the quality and performance of these batteries is improving, some do not provide the same high safety as the original branded version. A wise shopper spends a little more and replaces the battery with an approved model.

I receive many questions on www.BatteryUniversity.com from visitors wanting to know why the aftermarket does not provide low-cost laptop batteries as readily as cellular batteries. This is mainly due to safety. While a 1,400mAh cellular battery stores only 4Wh of energy, a laptop battery holds about 60Wh, 15 times more. Many manufacturers of consumer batteries protect the batteries with a security inscription that very few can break. Although aftermarket batteries are available, many do Aspire 1410T bright not offer all the functions of the branded version. Typical problems are fuel-gauge errors and not being able to charge correctly.

Manufacturers of lithium-ion batteries do not mention the word “explosion” and refer to “venting with flame” or “rapid disassembly.” Although seen as a slower and more controlled process than explosion, venting with flame, or rapid disassembly, can nevertheless be violent and inflict injury to those in close proximity. The court hears many legal cases involving laptops and other batteries that are said to have caused property damage, fire and personal injury. This is also a large concern in the aviation industry. Most of the batteries for consumer products are shipped by air just in time for improved inventory control.

The configuration or price is not yet known

March 21 [Thu], 2013, 14:34

According to foreign media reports, China Taiwan region website DigiTimes quoted industry sources as saying reports that Google plans to develop a 10-inch Android tablet computer, the display will be Wintek and AU Optronics.

Wintek chairman said the company is Nexus 7 Tablet PC touch panel supplier, has about 500,000 Nexus 7 touch panel orders from 12 cells HSTNN-CB73Google.

At present, Google 10 inches Android Tablet PC release time, the configuration or price is not yet known.

Google Android executive Patrick Brady seems to reduce the possibility of the company launched 10 inches Android Tablet PC. Brady said in an interview with CNET News.com that Google choose seven inches because of its better portability, “in order to better meet user needs, software and hardware design considered many factors. For example, we believe that games and reading e-books, 10 inches12 cells 516355-001 seems too large. we hope that the products have higher portability, ideal for reading e-books, magazines, play games, watch movies.

Of course, if the Nexus 7 in the market with great success, Apple may think that the 10-inch tablet PC will attractive to consumers.

Consider the cost savings and the convenience

January 18 [Fri], 2013, 15:15
There have been many more failures than successes along the road to developing a good charger. Products were announced, and then you didn't see any more of them. The reason is simple -- they didn't work. One came close to working, the Buddy-L SuperCharger, announced in 1993. Popular Science magazine bright AS07B72named it as one of the 100 top scientific achievements of the year. But it did not live up to expectations.

Apparently, the product was launched into production too quickly, and sub-standard operation resulted. Fortunately, the problems did not hurt the batteries. The batteries simply switched off prematurely before charging was complete, and the users had to restart the charging process several times. Also, it was not designed for easy battery insertion, always requiring two hands and a struggle. Eleven years later, many people are still using their SuperChargers and are reluctant to part with them.

All the background information was absorbed and a totally re-engineered product emerged, the Battery Xtender ? Tests have shown that it does live up to expectations, and that the claims of ten times life extension for ordinary alkaline batteries are not exaggerated. The case has been redesigned to allow easy one-handed access to the batteries, and it occupies much less space on a desk, table top or counter.


Consider the cost savings and the convenience
If your buying and collecting habits are typical, you will have drawers full of batteries of unknown status and age, and more non-functional chargers lying about than you would like to admit. If you switch to alkaline batteries in as many devices as possible, and charge them as well as NiMH and NiCad bright AS10B31 side-by-side in the Battery Xtender ? you will have the opportunity to clean up the disorganization and start saving money.

The convenience of having newly-recharged alkalines in that drawer means not having to rush to the store to equip a flashlight when a storm approaches, or other sudden requirement. If you want to find the best deals on new batteries, as some of the old batteries will be too far gone to reuse, please check out the Recommended Sources on the Battery economy page.

The state of charge is normally extrapolated from a simple measurement of the cell voltage

December 20 [Thu], 2012, 12:06
For high power applications which require large high cost batteries the price premium of Lithium batteries over the older Lead Acid best Vostro 1710 battery becomes a significant factor, impeding widespread acceptance of the technology. This in turn has discouraged investment in high volume production facilities keeping prices high and has for some time discouraged take up of the new technology. This is gradually changing and Lithium is also becoming cost competitive for high power applications.

Stability of the chemicals has been a concern in the past. Because Lithium is more chemically reactive special safety precautions are needed to prevent physical or electrical abuse and to maintain the cell within its design operating limits. Lithium polymer cells with their solid electrolyte overcome some of these problems.


Measurement of the state of charge of the cell is more complex than for most common cell chemistries. The state of charge is normally extrapolated from a simple measurement of the cell voltage, but the flat discharge characteristic of lithium cells, so desirable for applications, renders it unsuitable as a measure of the state of charge and other more costly techniques such as coulomb counting have to be employed.

Although Lithium cell technology has been used in low power applications for some time now, there is still not a lot of field data available about long term performance in high power applications. Reliability predictions based on accelerated life testing however shows that the cycle life matches or exceedsbright Vostro 1400 battery that of the most common technologies currently in use.

These drawbacks are far out weighed by the advantages of Lithium cells and are now being used in an ever widening range of applications.

There are a number of facilities that recycle Lithium Ion batteries

December 20 [Thu], 2012, 12:05
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not regulate the disposal of batteries in small quantities; large quantities are regulated under the Universal rules of Hazardous Waste regulations (40 CFR PART 273). Lithium batteries are not currently being collected by manufacturers for recycling. Lithium 6 cellT117C Notebook KY265 batteries are currently disposed of after their use. While there are no federal regulations for disposal of lithium batteries, individual states or localities can establish their own guidelines for battery disposal, and should be contacted for any disposal guidelines that they may have.

Batteries for commercial use should be in a discharged condition prior to their disposal. Generally, a primary lithium cell is considered to be discharged once its voltage reaches 2 volts or less under a current of C/100 (C is the rated capacity of the battery in ampere-hours). Once discharged, large quantities of lithium batteries can be shipped to a hazardous waste facility for incineration. There are a few companies that recycle Lithium Batteries. The cost is quite significant to do this compared to incineration.

The shipment of live or discharged lithium batteries is governed by the Department of Transportation (DOT) in their Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR), paragraph 173.185(j).

Incineration of lithium cells and batteries by consumers is not recommended. Incineration should be done at a properly permitted facility that can handle this waste. Contact you waste handler if you are unsure whether or not a facility can handle the batteries.

Lithium ion Batteries

Regulations and laws pertaining to the recycling and disposal of lithium ion batteries vary from country to country as well as by state and local governments. The European governments have more strict regulations on the disposal of rechargeable batteries than the USA and Canada. You will need to check the laws and regulations where you live.

The following is a recommendation of BiPOWER for the US customers:

There are a number of facilities that recycle Lithium Ion batteries. The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation's web site, www.rbrc.org, is an excellent source for finding a facility to handle these types of batteries.

Remember that before any type of disposal the batteries should be discharged completely. Tape the contacts with electrical tape and package so as to prevent contacts accidentally coming together at any time. These batteries can be incinerated if you have a large quantity and they will need to be packaged as lithium ion batteries. Incineration must be performed by an approved and permitted wastehigh quality Vostro 1320 battery treatment facility that handles lithium ion batteries. If you are not sure if your waste facility can handle lithium ion batteries, contact them and verify if they are permitted or not.

For home disposal, many stores offer free recycling of rechargeable batteries. If no outlet is available in your area, it is safe to dispose of these batteries in your regular trash. As always, check with your local laws to make sure that this is acceptable.

The alkaline-manganese battery

November 14 [Wed], 2012, 10:36
Why was a battery required 2000 years ago?
In June, 1936, workers constructing a new railway near the city of Baghdad uncovered an ancient tomb. Relics in the tomb allowed archeologists to identify it as belonging to the Parthian Empire. The Parthians, although illiterate and nomadic, were the dominating force in the Fertile Crescent area between bright 607762-001190 BC to 224 AD. It is known that in 129 BC they had acquired lands up to the banks of the Tigris River, near Baghdad.

Among the relics found in the tomb was a clay jar or vase, sealed with pitch at its top opening. An iron rod protruded from the center, surrounded by a cylindrical tube made of wrapped copper sheet. The height of the jar was about 15 cm, and the copper tube was about 4 cm diameter by 12 cm in length. Tests of replicas, when filled with an acidic liquid such as vinegar, showed it could have produced between 1.5 and 2 volts between the iron and copper. It is suspected that this early battery, or more than one in series, may have been used to electroplate gold onto silver artifacts.

A German archeologist, Dr. Wilhelm Konig, identified the clay pot as a possible battery in 1938. While its 2000-year old date would make it the first documented battery invention, there may have been even earlier technology at work. Dr. Konig also found Sumerian vases made of copper, but plated with silver, dating back to 2500 BC. No evidence of Sumerian batteries has been found to date.

1747 -- Principle of the telegraph discovered, but not battery-powered.
In 1747 Sir William Watson demonstrated in England that a current could be sent through a long wire, using the conduction through the earth as the other conductor of the circuit. Presumably the current was from an electrostatic discharge, such as from a Leyden jar charged with high voltage. People at that time knew how to generate electrostatic voltages by rubbing dissimilar materials such as glass and fur together.

Then in 1753 a certain C.M. in Scotland devised a signaling machine that used an insulated wire for each letter of the alphabet. At the sending end an electrostatic charge was applied to the selected wire, and a pith ball jumped at the receiving end in response to the voltage.

1786 -- Luigi Galvani notices the reaction of frog legs to voltage
He was remarkably close to discovering the principle of the battery, but missed it. He thought the reaction was due to a property of the tissues. He used two dissimilar metals in contact with a moist substance to touch dissected frog legs. The resulting current made the muscles in the frog legs twitch. Luigi Galvani made many more important discoveries later, when the relationship between magnets and currents became known. The galvanometer is named for him. It is a moving coil set in a permanent magnetic field. Current flowing through the coil deflects it and an attached mirror, which reflects a beam of light. It was the first accurate electrical measuring instrument.

1800 -- Alessandro Volta publishes details of a battery
That battery was made by piling up layers of silver, paper or cloth soaked in salt, and zinc. Many triple layers were assembled into a tall pile, without paper or cloth between zinc and silver, until the desired voltage was reached. Even today the French word for battery is ‘pile' (English pronunciation "peel".) Volta also developed the concept of the electrochemical series, which ranks the potential produced when various metals are in contact with an electrolyte. How handy for us that he was well known for his publications and received recognition for this through the naming of the standard unit of electric potential as the volt. Otherwise, we would have to ask "How many galvans does your battery produce?" instead of asking "how many volts does your battery produce?"

1820 -- The Daniell Cell
The Voltaic Pile was not good for delivering currents for long periods of time. This restriction was overcome in the Daniell Cell. British researcher John Frederich Daniell developed an arrangement where a copper plate was located at the bottom of a wide-mouthed jar. A cast zinc piece commonly referred to as a crowfoot, because of its shape, was located at the top of the plate, hanging on the rim of the jar. Two electrolytes, or conducting liquids, were employed. A saturated copper sulphate solution covered the copper plate and extended halfway up the remaining distance toward the zinc piece. Then a zinc sulphate solution, a less dense liquid, was carefully poured in to float above the copper sulphate and immerse the zinc. As an alternative to zinc sulphate, magnesium sulphate or dilute sulphuric acid was sometimes used. The Daniell Cell was one of the first to incorporate mercury, by amalgamating it with the zinc anode to reduce corrosion when the batteries were not in use. We now know better than to put mercury into batteries. This battery, which produced about 1.1 volts, was used to power telegraphs, telephones, and even to ring doorbells in homes for over 100 years. The applications were all stationary ones, because motion would mix the two electrolyte liquids. The battery jars have become collectors items, with prices ranging for $4 to $44. Check them out on ebay.com.

1859 -- Lead Acid -- the Planté Battery
Raymond Gaston Planté made a cell by rolling up two strips of lead sheet separated by pieces of flannel, and the whole assembly was immersed in dilute sulphuric acid. By alternately charging and discharging this cell, its ability to supply current was increased. An improved separator was obviously needed to resist the sulphuric acid.

1866 -- The Leclanché carbon-zinc battery
The first cell developed by Georges Leclanché in France was a wet cell having its electrodes immersed in a liquid. Nevertheless, it was rugged and easy to manufacture and had a good shelf life. He later improved the battery by substituting a moist ammonium chloride paste for the liquid electrolyte and sealing the battery. The resulting battery was referred to as a dry cell. It could be used in various positions and moved about without spilling. Carbon-zinc dry cells are sold to this day in blister packages labeled "heavy duty" and "transistor power". The anode of the cell was zinc, which was made into a cup or can which contained the other parts of the battery. The cathode was a mixture of 8 parts manganese dioxide with one part of carbon black, connected to the positive post or button at the top of the battery by a carbon collector rod. The electrolyte paste may also contain some zinc chloride. Around 1960 sales of Leclanché cells were surpassed by the newer alkaline-manganese batteries.

1881 -- Camille Faure's Lead Acid Battery -- suitable for autos
Camille Faure's acid battery used a grid of cast lead packed with lead oxide paste, instead of lead sheets. This improved its ability to supply current. It formed the basis of the modern lead acid battery used in autos, particularly when new separator materials were developed to hold the positive plates in place, and prevent particles falling from these plates from shorting out the positive and negative plates from the conductive sediment.

1898 to 1908 -- the Edison Battery
Thomas Edison, the most prolific of all American inventors, developed an alkaline cell with iron as the anode material (-) and nickelic oxide as the cathode material (+). The electrolyte used was potassium hydroxide, the same as in modern nickel-cadmium and alkaline batteries. The cells were well suited to industrial and railroad use. They survived being overcharged or remaining uncharged for long periods of time. Their voltage (1 to 1.35 volts) was an indication of their state of charge.

1893 to 1909 -- the Nickel-Cadmium Battery
In parallel with the work of Edison, but independently, Jungner and Berg in Sweden developed the nickel-cadmium cell. In place of the iron used in the Edison cell, they used cadmium, with the result that it operated better at low temperatures, self-discharged itself to a lesser degree than the Edison cell, and could be trickle-charged, that is, charged at a much-reduced rate. In a different format and using the same chemistry, nickel-cadmium cells are still made and sold.

1949 -- the Alkaline-Manganese Battery
The alkaline-manganese battery, or as we know it today, the alkaline battery, was developed in 1949 by Lew Urry at the Eveready Battery Company Laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries could supply more total energy at higher currents than the Leclanché batteries. Further improvements since then have increased the energy storage within a given size package.

1950 -- The zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline cheap 572032-001 by Ruben
Samuel Ruben (an independent inventor) developed the zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline battery, which was licensed to the P.R. Mallory Co. P.R. Mallory Co. later became Duracell, International. Mercury compounds have since been eliminated from batteries to protect the environment.

1964 -- Duracell is formed (incorporated)

The battery's voltage depends on the chemicals

November 14 [Wed], 2012, 10:35
Any of a class of devices, consisting of a group of electrochemical cells (see electrochemistry), that convert chemical energy into electrical energy; the term is also commonly applied to a single cell of this kind. A wet cell (e.g., a car battery) contains free liquid electrolyte; in a dry cell (e.g., a flashlight 9cells Pavilion Envy 14 battfery) the electrolyte is held in an absorbent material. Chemicals are arranged so that electrons released from the battery's negative electrode flow (see electric current) through a circuit outside the battery (in the device powered by it) to the battery's positive electrode.

The battery's voltage depends on the chemicals used and the number of cells (in series); the current depends on the resistance in the total circuit (including the battery—and thus on electrode size).

Multiple batteries may be connected in series (the positive electrode of one to the negative electrode of the next), which increases total voltage, or in parallel (positive to positive and negative to negative), which increases total current. Batteries that are not rechargeable include standard dry cells used in flashlights 12 cells 537626-001 and certain wet cells for marine, mine, highway, and military use.

Car batteries, many kinds of dry cells used in cordless appliances, and batteries for certain military and aerospace uses may be recharged repeatedly.
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