The lead-antimony battery should be charged at 1415 volts 

July 11 [Thu], 2013, 15:00
To learn the proper maximum charging rate for your battery, look at the alphanumeric code printed across the case of the battery and you will usually find its Amp/Hour rating. If it's not obvious, check your owners manual. The proper trickle-charging rate for a motorcycle battery is one-tenth of the A/H rating for as long as 10 hours, depending on how discharged it is. Charging faster than 2.02.5 amps causes overheating which can warp and even melt the battery case if ignored. High-rate12 cells HSTNN-Q34C < charging also speeds up internal corrosion, and its visible sign is sediment buildup under the cells, which if it reaches high enough, will also permanently short out the battery.

Too high a charging rate can also result in a battery that does not hold a charge because too-rapid transformation of the lead sulfate may actually trap sulfate under a surface coating of rejuvenated lead, producing a battery that can test okay but fails quickly. Thankfully, this last effect can be reversed with a very slow charge of no more than 1/20 (yes, that's one-twentieth) of rated capacity for 25 to 30 hours.

Therefore, because we really don't want a powerful charger, a good battery charger for most purposes is the inexpensive low-output type. Typically selling for around $20, the so-called "trickle chargers" usually produce no more than 1.2 amps. They often incorporate a solid-state feedback circuit that will taper the charge down to even lower levels as the battery voltage comes back up, preventing overcharging. Most convenient are the quick-connect type that provide a pigtail connector that can be permanently attached to the battery. The trickle charger will also work on your car battery, but even more slowly, and produces the same battery-friendly results.

Both the taper-rate and trickle charger supply only a fixed voltage. However, the lead-antimony battery should be charged at 1415 volts, but the lead-calcium type needs l516 volts to reach full charge. What's the 12 cells HSTNN-C17C voltage of your charger? Does it match your battery type?

Constant current chargers like the Optimate or Battery Tender brands are called smart chargers because they can vary the charging voltage to keep current constant and charge a battery much more quickly. We'll cover their other advantages in a future article.

Of primary importance is to know the type of battery  

July 11 [Thu], 2013, 14:59
The question of extending laptop battery life is one of the most vexing concerns of many of those who take advantage of mobile computing. A laptop battery can be a very expensive component to replace, with most12 cells HSTNN-OB60 costing at least $100 US Dollars (USD) and some costing considerably more than that. Therefore, it is to the computer owner's advantage to follow a few simple steps to extend battery life.

Of primary importance is to know the type of battery you have. For example, lithium ion batteries work differently than NiCD or NiMH batteries. The latter two should be fully discharged to avoid a memory effect, which will work to deplete laptop battery life. The lithium ion battery should never be fully discharged.

Whenever possible, avoid needless recharge cycles. Any rechargeable battery has only so many of these. Discharging a 12 cells HSTNN-Q21C for a few minutes, then plugging it in could prematurely cause laptop battery life to decrease dramatically. Rather, if you do not need the battery and it is charged or even if it is not charged, take it out and run off the cord.

Most laptop computers have power saving settings. Use them. Nearly every computer expert will tell you this, for a good reason. It simply may be the best way to extend laptop battery life. Dimming the screen, hibernation, not running the CD/DVD drive any more than absolutely necessary when on the battery all will help.

we can expect to see more and more researches  

May 23 [Thu], 2013, 15:04
The group developed a new method for boosting battery efficiency, which relies heavily on the use of a bi-dimensional carbon compound called graphene. The material has a hexagonal structure, and boasts impressive mini 1000 compatiblechemical and physical properties.

Currently, graphene is not widely used because obtaining it is a very complex process. However, recent advancements in manufacturing techniques are bringing the material closer and closer to being available on a large scale.


As this happens, we can expect to see more and more researches based on its properties. For the latest one, NU experts decided to improve on past designs that called for graphene to be introduced in Li-Ion batteries. The team says that its new power storage devices recharge 10 times faster than any other.

Investigators published their research in the latest issue of the esteemed scientific journal Advanced Energy Materials. “We have found a way to extend a new lithium-ion battery’s charge life by 10 times,” reports the lead author of the new paper, Harold H. Kung.

“Even after 150 charges, which would be one year or more of operation, the battery is still five times more effective than lithium-ion batteries on the market today,” adds the expert, who is a professor of chemical and biological engineering in the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science.

The new batteries, he explains, feature anodes made up of silicon and graphene. The former is known for its ability to store 4 lithium atoms for each silicon atoms, but is highly unstable as a result. Graphene holds 1 lithium atom per six carbon atoms.

By combining the two chemicals, the research team managed to successfully obtain the best of both worlds. “We have much higher energy density because of the silicon, and the sandwiching reduces the capacity loss caused by the silicon expanding and contracting,” Kung says.

“Even if the silicon clusters break up, the silicon won’t be lost,” he goes on to say. The main issue silicone anodes have is that they 513775-001 compatibletend to contract and expand with each recharge cycle. This leads to fragmentation and loss of charge.

The NU team now plans to continue developing this new approach to manufacturing lithium-ion batteries. Experts hope to bring the approach to the market as soon as possible.

Brushett and Trahey started to channel their interest in chemistry 

May 23 [Thu], 2013, 15:02
Brushett is just one of many promising early-career scientists studying batteries at Argonne. Though they come from all over and have taken different paths to get to Argonne, these early-career investigators are now all part of the same dynamic fleet of battery researchers. Many of these scientists knew from 537626-001 compatible an early age that they wanted to study chemistry. Lynn Trahey, an assistant materials scientist, suggested that since chemistry is a notoriously difficult subject, students who enjoy and excel at it might develop a stronger sense of attachment.

“In high school, I felt really connected to chemistry class," she said. "I just had a natural inclination for the material. Realizing that most of my peers were less enthused about the subject, I thought chemistry might be my calling.” Brushett similarly discovered his love of chemistry in high school. Encouraged by his chemistry teacher, he was even able to do a research internship at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory during his junior year.

For others like Kevin Gallagher, a chemical engineer, and Kate Ryan, a postdoctoral appointee, science has been a life-long pursuit. Gallagher attributes this partially to his upbringing – his father, who was also a chemical engineer, encouraged him to focus on science. Ryan recalls being a curious child, and always wanting to learn the “why” behind things. “Science seemed to be the closest thing to real-life magic,” she said.

During college, Brushett and Trahey started to channel their interest in chemistry towards solving real-world problems. For his senior capstone project, Brushett designed and built a cheap, portable refrigeration unit that could be used in rural areas where electricity is scarce. Early in her college career, Trahey 572032-001 compatible wanted to solve human health problems.

Starting her sophomore year, she did research related to the development of AIDS medicine. She eventually realized, however, that she did not enjoy biochemistry research and turned instead towards her growing interest in solving environmental problems through energy innovations. Brushett, Trahey and Ryan all went straight from college to graduate school, where they studied energy technologies ranging from fuel cells and hydrogen storage materials to thermoelectric materials that can convert temperature gradients to electric currents.

The high-cost and low capacity of batteries  

May 23 [Thu], 2013, 14:53
The General Motors-backed Envia Systems has come up with a new process that creates a battery with an energy density of 400 watt-hours per kilogram. To put that in perspective, the lithium cells found in most electric cars today only pack about 100-150 Wh/kg. Even the batteries on Tesla's forthcoming Model S G72 compatibleonly pack in around 240Wh/kg. In terms of cost, when it was first produced, the Nissan Leaf's battery cost around $375 per kilowatt-hour. The Envia battery is projected to cost just $125 per kilowatt-hour.

The new magic comes from combining a "High Capacity Manganese Rich (HCMR)" cathode and a silicon-carbon nanocomposite anode, and then passing the lithium ions though a new, secret electrolyte formula (Powerade? Probably Powerade) that allows for increased voltage.

All of this isn't just lofty PR claims; they have already been independently tested by the Electrochemical Power Systems Department at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. So that's the good news. The bad news: they aren't likely Envy 14 compatibleto be commercialized and available to Terry T. Public until 2015.

I know, I know, I want it now, too. But at least these sorts of breakthroughs are being made. The high-cost and low capacity of batteries is one of the major impediments to adoption of electric cars. The idea that these problems will be greatly reduced within the next few years is a very, very good thing.

Secondary batteries have lower capacities 

March 28 [Thu], 2013, 15:48
The growth has been in secondary batteries (rechargeable) but non-rechargeable or primary batteries are equally important. They continue to fill an important niche market in applications such as wristwatches, remote12 cells 51J0497 controls, electric keys and children’s toys. Primary batteries also assist when charging is impractical or impossible, such as military combat, rescue missions and forest-fire services.

Other applications of primary batteries are tire pressure gauges in cars and trucks, transmitters for bird tracking, pacemakers for heart patients, intelligent drill bits for mining,as well as light beacons and remote repeater stations. High specific energy, long storage times and operational readiness make this battery well suited for such applications. The battery can be carried to remote locations and used instantly, even after long storage. Most primary batteries are inexpensive, readily available and environmentally friendly.

Carbon-zinc, also known as the Leclanché battery, is the least expensive battery and comes with consumer devices when batteries are included. These general purpose batteries are used for applications with low power drain, such as remote controls, flashlights, children’s toys and wall clocks. One of the most common primary batteries for consumers is the alkaline-manganese, or alkaline for short. Lewis Urry invented it in 1949 while working with the Eveready Battery Company Laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline delivers more energy at higher load currents than carbon-zinc. Best of all, alkaline does not leak when depleted, as carbon-zinc does. On the negative side, alkaline is more expensive than carbon-zinc.

Primary batteries have one of the highest energy densities. Although secondary batteries have improved, a regular household alkaline provides 50 percent more energy than lithium-ion. The most energy-dense primary is the lithium battery made for film cameras and military combat. It holds more than three times the energy of lithium-ion and comes in various blends, such as lithium-metal, lithium manganese dioxide, lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium oxygen and others. Figure 1 compares the typical gravimetric energy densities of lead acid, NiMH, Li-ion, alkaline and lithium primary batteries.


Specific energy indicates the energy a battery can hold. This, however, does not guarantee delivery. Primary batteries tend to have high internal resistance, which limits the discharge to light loads such as remote controls, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. Digital cameras are borderline — a power drill on alkaline would be unthinkable.

Manufacturers of primary batteries only specify specific energy; the specific power (ability to deliver power) is not published. While most secondary batteries are rated at a discharge current of 1C, the capacity of primary batteries is measured by discharging them at a very low current of 25mA, or a fraction of a C. In addition, the 12 cells 51J0499are allowed to go down to a very low voltage of 0.8 volts per cell. This evaluation method provides impressive readings on paper, but the results are poor under a more demanding load.

Figure 2 compares performance of primary and secondary batteries on a discharge of 1C. The results are indicated in Actual and Rated. Actual is the Wh/kg derived at a 1C discharge, Rated is the Wh/kg the manufacturer specifies when discharged at a much low current. While the primary batteries do well on a discharge representing entertainment device, secondary batteries have lower capacities but are more resilient at a load of 1C.

An additional limitation of the reusable alkaline system  

March 28 [Thu], 2013, 15:47
Introduced in 1992, the reusable alkaline serves as an alternative to disposable batteries; however, the anticipated breakthrough never occurred and today the reusable alkaline satisfies only a small market niche. The lack of consumer appeal is regrettable when considering the environmental benefit of having to discard fewer 12 cells L08S6D13. It is said that the manufacturing cost of the reusable battery is similar to that of a regular alkaline and the ability to recharge, although only for a limited time, offers definite advantages.

Recharging alkaline batteries is not new. Ordinary alkaline batteries have been recharged in households for many years, but manufacturers do not endorse this practice for safety reasons. Recharging is only effective if the alkaline is discharged to less than 50 percent before recharging. The number of recharges depends on the depth of discharge and is limited to just a few cycles at best. Each recharge stores less capacity until the battery is finally worn out. There is a cautionary advisory: charging ordinary alkaline batteries may generate hydrogen gas that can lead to explosion.

The reusable alkaline overcomes some of these deficiencies, but not all. With each recharge, the battery loses charge acceptance, and the longevity is in direct relationship to the depth of discharge. The deeper the discharge, the fewer cycles the battery can endure. At 50 percent depth of discharge, we can expect 50 cycles. The manufacturer may have overestimated the eagerness of the user wanting to recharge early; most users run a battery empty and recharge when necessary.

Tests performed by Cadex on “AA” reusable alkaline cells show a capacity reading on the first discharge that is similar to that of a regular alkaline. After the first recharge using the manufacturer’s charger, however, the reusable alkaline settles at only 60 percent, a capacity slightly below that of NiCd. Repeat cycling in the same manner resulted in further capacity losses. The discharge current was 200mA (0.2 C-rate, or one-fifth of the rated capacity) and the end-of-discharge threshold was set to 1V/cell.

An additional limitation of the reusable alkaline system is its low permissible load current of 400mA (lower than 400mA provides better results). Although adequate for flashlights and personal entertainment devices, 400mA is insufficient to power most digital cameras and communication devices.

Table 1 compares the specific energy, voltage, self-discharge and runtime of over-the-counter batteries. Available in AA, AAA and other sizes, these cells can be used in portable devices designed for these norms. Even though the cell voltages may vary, the end-of-discharge voltages are common, which is12 cells 42T5263 typically 1V/cell. Portable devices have some flexibility in terms of voltage range. It is important not to mix and match cells and to always use the same type of batteries in the holder. Safety concerns and voltage incompatibility prevent the sales of lithium-ion batteries in AA and AAA formats.

Recheck the level and add water if required 

January 24 [Thu], 2013, 14:48
The biggest single harm that can be done to the life expectancy of a new battery usually occurs when it's sold. In the rush to get a new machine set up for sale or to get the customer out the door with his new replacement battery, many replacement UM09A31are simply filled with electrolyte, installed and pressed into service within minutes of being unwrapped. Sound familiar? It's all wrong. What this procedure buys you is a battery that will never have more than 80% of its powerever! For this reason, many riders prefer to prep their new batteries themselves to make sure it's done correctly.

Here's the actual factory-recommended service procedure, and don't be too surprised if you've never heard it before.

First, unwrap the battery, unkink the vent tube and snip about a half-inch off the end, unless it's a maintenance-free type and doesn't have a vent tube. Next, fill it with electrolyte midway between the high and low level markings on the case. Next, let the battery sit for one or two hoursafter which the battery will still be at only 65% of full charge. Check the electrolyte level and add electrolyte if required. That's rightadd electrolyte. This is the only time in the life of your battery that you can ever add anything but water.

Nowsurpriseyou must still charge the battery. If it is a refillable lead-antimony type, it should be charged at one-third of its rated capacity in amp/hours for four to five hours to get it to full charge. Honda and Yuasa recommend that the maintenance-free type should be charged with a constant-current charger that can drive the charge with as much as 16.9 volts and closely monitored not to exceed replacement AS10D61full charge (another reason to buy a smart charger).

Afterwards, recheck the level and add water if required. Finally, let the battery cool so the case contracts enough to fit into its typically tight little holder, run the new breather tube (if it has one) carefully through the original factory routing, being sure that it's well away from your chain and you're ready to go.

Alternate between the two batteries 

November 07 [Wed], 2012, 14:46
There has been of great deal of ink spilled on the subject of prolonging your laptop's battery life, but what about caring for your battery? Over time, the capacity of any rechargeable battery diminishes, to the point at which it is no longer 12 cells 42T5263useful. However, with proper care, batteries can last a long time. Read this guide to make sure you get your money's worth out of your laptop's battery.

Most laptop batteries these days are lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are substantially better than either of their precursors, nickel cadmium (NiCad) and nickel metal hydride (NiMAH) batteries, in that they do not suffer from the "memory effect". This means that, contrary to popular belief, you do not need to let your battery run down all the way. In fact, it's better that you don't. Having said that though, I need to add that lithium-ion battery users should allow their batteries to fully discharge on the first two or three charging cycles. Beyond that, though, computers with lithium-ion batteries should be plugged in whenever they're not in use.

However, it is not good to leave your laptop constantly plugged in. Many people use their laptops largely as desktop replacements, using them on the desk and leaving them plugged in most of the time. These people would do well not what their laptop batteries charge constantly. Although there's no danger of "overcharging" lithium-ion batteries, leaving a laptop plugged in for months at a time will have a detrimental effect on its battery. If you use your laptop as a desktop replacement, try unplugging it when it's not in use. Take care to unplug the charger from the wall, too, as otherwise it consumes electricity. Better yet, leave the laptop plugged in all the time, but remove its battery. For long-term storage, lithium-ion batteries should be allowed to run down to little below half charge. Store them safely in a warm, dry location.

Despite your best efforts, laptop batteries will eventually die, and often before the laptop dies of natural causes. While this is not a major problem for people who use their laptops as desktop replacements, relying on AC Power all the time, this is a major issue for anyone who travels with their computer. If you've ever been in this situation, you know that replacement laptop batteries are expensive, often costing as much as $150. Next time you buy a computer, consider buying a second bright 51J0497 with it. This will also be helpful in the short term, as it will allow you to bring a second, fully charged battery with you, effectively doubling your laptop's runtime. Alternate between the two batteries, and you should be fine for the lifetime of your laptop.

If your laptop's battery has already run out, do not despair. If you ever thought that laptop batteries purchased from the manufacturer were ridiculously overpriced, you were right. In fact, the cells in your laptop's battery may only be worth about $20. If you are competent with this sort of thing, it is possible to rebuild your laptops battery. Engadget has a useful guide to this here.

NiCad batteries are exactly the opposite 

November 07 [Wed], 2012, 14:43
With so many different battery types, how do you know whether to recharge them or flatten them every time you use them, and does it matter?

It does matter. SomeWith so many different battery types, how do you know whether to recharge them or flatten them every high quality L08S6D13 time you use them, and does it matter?

It does matter. Some batteries can be damaged if you use them wrongly, others have a reduced life. Here’s a quick guide.

Lithium Ion Batteries (Li-ion) are found in all new Apple laptops and ipods. They are also in digital cameras and mobile phones. The more you keep them charged the better. It’s best to never let them run out. They only last about 300 full discharges, so if you let them run totally flat you have used 1/300th of their life. It’s best to charge them as often as you can. Whenever you are not using them put them on the charger. Keep them cool while charging.

NiCad batteries are exactly the opposite. It is best to let them run totally flat each time you use them. They are found in older cordless drills, older laptops and some cordless phones. If you recharge them before they are fully flat they will ‘remember’ where you discharged them to. So if you keep charging them when they are half empty, you’ll find they will stop working when they are half empty.

NiMH batteries are like Nicad batteries but the ‘memory’ effect is not as bad. You should still discharge them fully but it won’t hurt them quite as much if you don’t. If you cant’ do it every time, try to fully flatten them occasionally.

Car batteries (lead acid batteries – also in some camcorders) are the worst for being damaged when fully flat. Every time they go fully flat it does irreversible damage – 3 or 4 times and they will be totally wrecked. Like a lithium ion battery, it’s best to keep them as charged as fully you can.can be damaged if you use them wrongly, others have a reduced life. Here’s a quick guide.

Lithium Ion Batteries (Li-ion) are found in all new Apple laptops and ipods. They are also in digital cameras and mobile phones. The more you keep them charged the better. It’s best to never let them run out. They only last about 300 full discharges, so if you let them run totally flat you have used 1/300th of their life. It’s best to charge them as often as you can. Whenever you are not using them put them on the charger. Keep them cool while charging.

NiCad batteries are exactly the opposite. It is best to let them run totally flat each time you use them. They are found in older cordless drills, older laptops and some cordless phones. If you recharge them before they are fully flat they will ‘remember’ where you discharged them to. So if you keep charging them when they are half empty, you’ll find they will stop working when they are half empty.

NiMH batteries are like Nicad batteries but the ‘memory’ effect is not as bad. You should still discharge them fully but it won’t hurt 9cells L09S6Y02them quite as much if you don’t. If you cant’ do it every time, try to fully flatten them occasionally.

Car batteries (lead acid batteries – also in some camcorders) are the worst for being damaged when fully flat. Every time they go fully flat it does irreversible damage – 3 or 4 times and they will be totally wrecked. Like a lithium ion battery, it’s best to keep them as charged as fully you can.