Basketball Rules Officiating
History of Basketball RulesBasketball was created in 1891 by James Naismith, who devised a set of 13 rules to govern the game. In general, the rules established dribbling (throwing or batting the ball to the floor multiple times to move around the court), traveling (a player moving his feet a certain amount of times without dribbling) and fouling (striking or hitting an opponent with the hands, arms or body). Over time, these rules evolved and were expanded as the game gained popularity. Some of the rules Naismith invented, such as the ball going out of bounds and being awarded to the other team, live on. Other rules, such as three consecutive fouls counting as a goal for the other team, were abolished later as the rules were modified and expanded.
History of OfficialsWhen Naismith invented the game, one of the rules stipulated that one person was to be on the floor acting as the "umpire." This umpire was to specifically be in charge of fouls and disqualifications according to the rules. The other official, known as the "referee," was to be in charge of outofbounds calls, violations (such as traveling) and was also in charge of the clock. Over time, just as the rules changed, so did the roles of the officials. Today, both officials are charged with calling fouls and violations, and a separate person is charged with keeping the clock as well as keeping track of how many fouls and points each player has.
Basketball ViolationsThe rules are generally divided into two categories: violations and fouls. Violations include traveling (walking or running while holding the basketball), double dribble (ending one's dribble and beginning a new one without passing to a teammate) and allowing the ball to go out of bounds after touching it last. For the most part, violations are blackandwhite scenarios, and are not considered "judgment calls" for the officials, who are cheap nike nfl jerseys for sale charged with spotting and penalizing all violations.
FoulsFouls are, in general, contact made by a player against an opponent. As opposed cheap nfl jerseys free shipping to violations, fouls are considered to be judgment calls by the officials. Officials use the philosophy of "advantage/disadvantage" to call fouls. When there is physical contact, an official determines whether an advantage or disadvantage was gained by either the offensive or defensive player. If the official determines there was some sort of advantage or disadvantage gained, wholesale nfl jerseys he will call a foul. Fouls that are committed by the defense while a player is attempting a shot are penalized by giving the offended player two free throws. These are free shots at the basket with players lined up to collect the rebound if the shot misses. Players are disqualified after they receive five fouls in a game. In the NBA, players are allowed six fouls.
Officials and Their DutiesOfficials are in charge of making sure the rules are applied properly so everyone has an equal playing opportunity. Depending on the level of play, there are two or three officials on the court at all times. Each official has a designated "primary coverage area" they are responsible for to look for fouls and violations. Certain hand and arm signals are used, as well as a whistle, to communicate with coaches, players and fans to let them know what type of foul or violation has been called. For instance, when a violation occurs, officials are instructed to blow their whistle and raise their arm in the air to indicate to the clock operator to stop the clock. To call a foul, officials blow their whistle, hold their arm up in the air with a closed fist (to indicate a foul) and call the player who committed the foul by number and indicate the type of foul committed. It should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. LIVESTRONG is a registered trademark of the LIVESTRONG Foundation. Moreover, we do not select every advertiser or advertisement that appears on the web sitemany of the advertisements are served by third party advertising companies.