The photo is the fixed point of a broadening scale voltmeter

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 17:00
The LM3914 is developed by the United States NS points / display driver IC. Containing the input buffer, 10 precision voltage comparator, 1.25V reference voltage source and the point / display selection circuit and so on. Voltage comparator 10 connected to the inverting input and resistor divider resistor divider is composed of 10 1kΩ precision resistors in series, at all levels weighted value equal to constitute 10 linear display driver applies to the LED ( can also drive the LCD, VFD) level meter linear scale devices.

The operating voltage of 3V to 25V (up to 48V), output current 2 to 30mA range adjustable, output bearing capacity of ± 35V, maximum output limit of 30mA. Input buffer connected as a follower in the form, input impedance, and measurement accuracy. The LM3914 has a hysteresis circuit within not immediately jump to the men and an LED from a LED, but gentle and excessive, eliminate noise, improve the rapid changes in the input signal caused by the flicker. Since the internal resistor divider is floating, the voltage measurement range is very wide.

The photo is the fixed point of a broadening scale voltmeter, can be used for continuous measurement of car 12v battery status. The LM3914 C, E The feet of low and high end of the 10 resistor divider, R2, RP2 used to initialize the output current of the voltage comparator, that is, the current through LED1 ~ LED10, the current benchmark reference voltage ( 1.25v) the source of the current 10 times. Such as RP2 raised to the top, the preset resistor is 1.2kΩ (R2), and on-chip voltage divider 10kΩ total resistance of the parallel equivalent resistance C, E The foot 1.07kΩ, 1.25V reference voltage reference provide current, 1.25V, 1.07kΩ ≈ 1.2μA, each LED through the current of 1.2mA × 10 = 12mA. F, G pin internal 1.25V reference voltage, 2.50V to 3.75V DC basic measuring range due to R2, RP2, and the input signal from the power supply through R1 to obtain the RP1. Therefore, the reading should be multiplied by a predefined multiple basic range. The monitor uses red, green two kinds of LED, when Vcc 12v ~ 14v normal range, the green LED light; Vcc 10V ~ 12V or 14V ~ 15V, red LED light.

The LM3914 has a logical control network, by the H pin different signals to select the moving dot or bar display. H, (11) feet connected to the fixed point display; H, B The bar display (Vcc) pin is connected.

Can this table until all components installed and check the correct implementation of calibration. As follows:

A. Vcc will then 15.0v DC voltage. Tune the RP1 make LED10 just luminous.

Two. Vcc will then 10.0V DC voltage. - The RP2 so that LED1 just luminous.

3. Repeatedly adjust several times. This form can be connected between the ground and the ignition switch 12v DC contacts.

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Note that the sun exposure

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:58
Nowadays, the electric car because of its advantages of light pollution-free, and favored by consumers. Consumers to buy electric car, the general length of the mileage as one of the main criteria to measure the quality of electric cars good or bad. It is worth mentioning is that the quality complaints in a large number of electric vehicles, battery problems accounted for more than 95%, because the battery is to determine the electric vehicle to exercise an important factor in mileage length. Maintenance of electric vehicle batteries, spring and summer should pay attention to what issues? Below, Aucma electric cars Xiaobian to help you answer.
Note: Do not store electricity loss

The state of the loss of electricity means no timely charge the battery after use. Electric vehicle batteries in the storage is prohibited in the state of the loss of electricity, it is easy to sulfate, lead sulfate crystals attached to the pole plate, plug the electric ion channels, resulting in insufficient charging, battery capacity decline. Loss of electricity the state the longer the idle time, the heavier the battery is damaged. Therefore, Aucma electric cars Xiaobian recommended that your battery is left unused, a monthly supplement to power once, so better to keep the battery healthy state.

Note two: regular inspection

Electric vehicles in the course of continued mileage in a short time a sudden drop in more than ten kilometers, most likely at least one battery in the battery pack off grid plate softening, the electrode active material shedding short-circuit phenomenon. Then check the store should be approaching electric car, repair, or with a group. This relatively prolonged the life of the battery pack to maximize savings.

Note: to avoid the instantaneous discharge

Electric cars at the start, manned, uphill, with pedal power to avoid the momentary high-current discharge. The large current discharge easily lead to produce lead sulfate crystals, to the detriment of the physical properties of the battery plates.

Note 4: strict control of the charging time

Accurately grasp the charging time should be based on the actual situation, the reference to usual frequency of use and mileage situation, but also pay attention to the size of the battery manufacturers to provide instructions, and supporting the performance of the charger, the charging current size and other parameters to grasp the charging frequency. General battery charging at night, the average charging time in about eight hours. If the shallow discharge (charge mileage is very short), electric vehicle batteries will soon be full, continue charging will overcharge phenomenon, leading to cell dehydration, fever, lower battery life. Therefore, the battery depth of discharge for one charge 60% -70% of the best riding mileage can be converted into actual use, charging based on actual conditions necessary to avoid harmful charge.

Note 5: Note that the sun exposure

Electric vehicles is prohibited in the sunlight. Temperature environment causes the battery internal pressure increases the pressure limiting valve is forced to open automatically make electric car batteries, a direct consequence of increased loss of water of the battery, the battery excessive water loss will inevitably lead to the battery activity accelerated plate soften, charging fever, when the shell casing from the drum, deformation fatal injury.

Note 6: pay attention to charging plug is heat

The charger output plug loose contact with the surface oxidation phenomena will lead to electric car charging plug fever heat for too long will lead to short-circuit of the charging plug, direct damage to the charger, and lead to unnecessary losses. Found out that the situation should be promptly removed the oxide or replace the connector.

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The hydrothermal method of production of high-power electrolytic manganese

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:55
Potassium content and pH potentiometric studies have shown that a EMD want to have the high power discharge performance, must have the following two conditions: First, the potassium content is low; First, the potentiometric pH. The so-called potentiometric pH refers to the voltage of the EMD measured at pH = 6. Want to emphasize is that this pH potentiometric determination of specialized methods (including impurities in potassium also have unique methods of measurement). PH potentiometric, a special article described [6], EMD's potential is divided into the the pH6 potentials, alkaline potentials and initial potential, in a different electrolyte, reference electrode and cathode composed of a different value.
In order to improve the potentiometric pH, are known to have three possible ways: (1) change of EMD electrolysis conditions, such as raising the acid concentration in the electrolyte; (2) electrolytic pickling of EMD; (3) the mother in the electrolyte solution is preferred raw materials, mainly to reduce the potassium content. Reduce the amount of potassium and also can increase the pH potentiometric

EMD in the potassium content of impurity into the crystal structure refers to the electrolysis process, the EMD crystal pores or adsorbed on the EMD surface potassium ions, without including electrolysis and in order to join, or with the cathode mixture or battery pack divided into contact with the potassium ion.

The results showed that EMD for high-power discharge in potassium content must be less than 2.510 ", preferably less than 1.510" or 310 "5; the pH6 potential should be greater than 0.86V (2.510" and 1.510 " potassium content of four different methods of measurement).

1A or 1.5A with these two conditions, EMD made LR6 batteries discharge, the discharge capacity is more commonly used EMD's battery can be increased by 15%, the results shown, such as 2. Visible, the potential of the high potassium content of low pH, high potassium, high pH potential, low potassium low pH potentiometric samples are not appropriate for high-power discharge.

Electronic paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR) parameter method EMD in electronic paramagnetic (EPR) spectra of two kinds of signals A and B, respectively, the width of the two signal parameters-g factor and signal DB0. Of EMD different DB0 DB0 the greater, then the EMD of Mn3 + / Mn4 + and the greater; OH group is more, the defect structure, the greater the disorder, that is suitable for embedded in alkaline solution of H + [7] .

The hydrothermal method of production of high-power electrolytic manganese dioxide by hydrothermal method is essentially an autoclave method, at higher pressure electrolyzer temperature higher than 100 electrolysis. Hydrothermal method and control of certain electrolysis conditions to produce a certain porosity of the high power electrolytic manganese dioxide. Its best electrolysis conditions shown in Table 1. Electrolysis from the conditions in table 1 of EMD characteristics shown in Table 2.

It can be seen from Table 2, the characteristics of the sample in line with the 1.2 HPEMD should be with the features. BET surface area greater than 20m2 / g, microporous surface area greater than 8m2 / g, porosity of greater than 0.035%, the average radius of the large and medium-sized hole is greater than 3.2nm. LR6 batteries made with this sample is even put to 0.5A and 1.5A, closing voltage of 1.1V with a capacity of 500 $ 680mAh; cut-off voltage of 0.9V, the discharge capacity of 1500mAh and 1200mAh.

If the electrolyte solution is Mn2O3 as raw materials for the hydrothermal electrolysis [8], Mn2O3 acid in the formation of Mn2 + by disproportionation of dissolved precipitate MnO2. Will be different crystal samples at different temperature and different concentration of H2SO4.

To get the g-crystalline MnO2 was the following tends to: increase in temperature (1) reduce the concentration of H2SO4, can Dewolff defect structure increases; (2) lowering the temperature, but also reduce the concentration of H2SO4, can improve the g-MnO2 of Mn3 + Score (y); (3) lowering the temperature, increase the concentration of H2SO4, the vacancy fraction (x) allows g,-MnO2 was to improve.

Thus, the quality g-MnO2 stable phase is obtained under conditions of low temperature, low concentration of H2SO4, corresponding to the smallest vacancy fraction (x) the medium Dewolff structural defects (Pr) and twin (Tw ) values. This hydrothermal method under low temperature and acid concentration, the equipment likely to corrode, so it is safer.

Preparation of a suitable particle size, high power EMD conditions [4] To prepare a suitable particle size suitable for high power discharge of EMD, the key is to control the electrolysis conditions. Ti plate anode, cathode, graphite plates do electrolysis conditions shown in Table 3. Can be seen from the table, a $ 6 the nature of the sample are in line with the high power EMD of the two conditions: alkaline potentials above 270mV, while the density of more than 3.1g/cm3 density is the maximum diameter of 100mm below 1mm or smaller particle content of less than 15%, average 20 to $ 60mm in diameter, consistent with a high discharge potential, and high loading rates, and thus suitable for making high-power discharge battery. Sample 7 $ 8 do not comply with these conditions.

Change the regular electrolysis parameters Anderson et al [9,10] proposed a change often electrolysis parameters so that the EMD suitable for high power discharge method. The main measures are: use of high purity of the electrolyte solution; select the best electrolysis conditions: (1) Temperature: 95 $ 98; (2) current density J / (Acm "2): 26.9% J 37.7; (3) c (H2SO4) c (of MnSO4) is greater than 2, in order to obtain the best EMD crystal structure (g-e type), the surface area of ??the pore structure (balanced pore volume), suitable for the highest open circuit voltage (OCV). usual electrolytic the anode current density of 20 $ 100A/m2, bath temperature 90 to $ 99, c (of MnSO4) is approximately 1mol / L, and c (H2SO4) is about 0.3mol / L, we can see that the main difference in the c (H2SO4) and the ratio of c (of MnSO4). Table 4 shows some of the characteristics of the electrolytic parameters of the Act and its samples. can be seen from Table 1-4 samples using electrolysis conditions for change: of H2SO4 concentration in the 25 $ 40g / L of MnSO4 concentration between 5 $ 20g / L, J is the 26.9 $ 37.7A/m2. This results in a sample, its surface area in the 21 $ 29m2 / g, the compressed density 3.09 $ 3.21g/cm3, IOCV 1.62V above, the intrinsic capacity of 250mAh / g or more, while the XRD patterns of 220 and 370 peak than the Q values ??between 0.47 and 0.76. other electrolysis conditions such as sample 7-8 were not in the selected range, and thus its performance than six poor control sample (original sample 61). can be seen by the study, regardless of the hydrothermal method, or improved methods, EMD to make the system suitable for high-current discharge, the performance parameters of concern is basically the same.

LR6 battery thus obtained improved EMD samples obtained under 1W discharge rate of intrinsic discharge capacity 68.2mAh / g or more, while the original process only 63.4mAh / g,; 1W discharge energy of up to 755mWh The original process samples the only 637mWh.

The use of other methods to improve the large current discharge performance of alkaline manganese batteries cathode additives, TiO2 additives well known, in order to improve the discharge capacity of the alkaline manganese batteries, usually TiO2 in its cathode. TiO2 as the n-type semiconductor, the resistance is high, is not conducive to high-current discharge. Needs plus a modified additive, or use the hydrogen reduction of metal oxides. Have modified additives may enter the TiO2 crystal structure of the pore or partial replacement of the metal hydride lattice point formation the complex Ti1xMx-O2y, in order to reduce the resistivity of TiO2, and improve their ion exchange properties and reduce corrosion or the occurrence of the hydrogen evolution reaction. For example, the use of modified additives Nb2O5, the following complex reaction occurs at high temperatures [11]: (2) In this way, the resistivity of the additives greatly reduced, as shown in 3.

Ti1xO2y in the dopant M mole percent x: 0.01 mol% x 0.5% mole between the metal element M should have octagonal coordination structure. The amount of x-doped TiO2, 1000mA discharge, the cathode in the EMD and C mole ratio of 151 or (201), the amount of n-TiO2 for EMD amount of 1.6 mol%, while the modified dopant Nb2O5 TiO2 cation of 0.1 mol% (ie 10% of Nb2O5 in TiO2), the relative discharge time when the overflow semi-electrode discharge, such as 4.

Other modified TiO2-doped metal oxides are: NbO2, of Ta2O5 WO3, of GeO2 and ZrO2, ThO2, the In2O3, LiNiO2 and so on. Different doping modifiers, different mixing ratio, reaction temperature and time should also be different.

Conclusion In order to meet the requirements of electronic devices of digital high-current discharge, alkaline manganese batteries are still being explored in all aspects and research, and continue to make progress. Center of gravity to improve the performance of EMD, R & D emphasis on one single aspect, such as the definition of power factor is the definition of potentiometric pH alkaline potential and power factor in order to find the discharge performance of the EMD high voltage segment, similar to the Department; porosity and particle size distribution, optimization of the reaction area caused moderate electrolyte and out, in order to reduce the concentration polarization and reduce the reaction of blind spot; potassium content to minimize, in order to avoid a-MnO2 requires the formation of the g, e-type. If these factors together to consider the current rise of a combination of materials applied to the electrochemical combination of electrolysis, the electrolytic conditions optimized for high-current discharge of EMD, may be further progress.

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Built-in battery: built-in battery form of closure

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:20
In general, the lithium-ion battery has three parts:

A lithium-ion batteries

(2) protection circuit (PCM)

3 shell plastic shell

Classification of the battery

Cope with the situation from the lithium-ion battery with the phone are generally divided into the external battery and built-in battery, it is called is very easy to understand, the external battery is mounted directly in the hand on the back, such as: MOTOROLA 191, the SAMSUNG Series; built-in battery into the phone, but also another shell buckle mobile phone battery, such as: MOTOROLA 998,8088, most of NOKIA models

An external battery: external battery package in the form of ultrasonic welding and snap two kinds:

1.1 Ultrasonic welding, battery casing of the shell: this package are the underside of the shell divided material is generally a ABS + PC material, the shell surface is generally injection treatment on behalf of the model: the MOTOROLA 191, the SAMSUNG series, the original battery shell by injection treatment, long-term use is generally not wear flowers, while the brand batteries or parallel batteries to spend a few days the shell injector off: the shell of mobile phone battery is cheaper, while the fuel injection processing costs are generally the times of the shell (better), this treatment are generally three processes: spray varnish (base), injector (the formation of color), then spray a light oil (the order should be like, if I remember correctly) some manufacturers in order to reduce the cost of eliminating the first and third process, so the cost is very low. >> lithium battery supply

Ultrasonic welding presses

Whose role is to: better domestic ultrasonic welding presses in the industry should be the production of mechanical and electrical company in Shenzhen, Kewei.

Welding: ultrasonic welding presses with good enough, is able to weld OK, and also a great relationship with the shell material and welding presses parameter settings, housing the main manufacturer's outlet material doped, and the parameters settings need to find their own way, as it relates to information technology in some of the company, where inconvenience to say more.

1.2 snap: snap-in battery principle to form a snap for the underside of the shell design, the general one-time, if the card is a good user forcibly break open, it can not be undone, but it is for manufacturers in terms of not the difficulty (good card and then fold open), and its representative models: Ericsson 788 MOTOROLA V66. >> Shenzhen lithium battery sales manufacturers

Built-in battery: built-in battery form of closure, there are two ultrasonic welding, and the package labeled (using the trademark wrapped battery)

Ultrasonic welding of battery: NOKIA 8210,8250,8310,7210.

Package subject of batteries, such as the Hu's MOTO998 in the previous two years, 8088.

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Review the course of development of China's traditional industries

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:17
Since 2001, China launched the "863 Program" electric vehicle major projects since almost every year will be the introduction of appropriate support policies to encourage research institutions and automobile companies to vigorously develop the electric vehicle industry. Over the past decade, China's electric vehicle industry development ideas becomes clearer gradually clear, estate planning, business model and industry chain is gradually formed, which is still in the exploratory stage in China's electric car industry specified in a general direction. However, under the premise of the overall situation favorable worrying is that the industry of comprehensive electric vehicle industry chain have ignored the recycling of scrapped electric vehicles and battery power.

Electric vehicle technology R & D and standards development, manufacturing and sales, supporting infrastructure, the battery leasing links course is to achieve the industrialization of electric vehicles must be addressed, however, to the electric vehicle without any distractions on the road, scrapped electric automotive and motive power batteries for recycling the same should not be overlooked. In the battery industry, If you do not put the battery post value chain all used up, both for the electric vehicle business or battery power companies will be a sustainable development.

Review the course of development of China's traditional industries, the case of "pollution first, treatment later" everywhere, its resource costs and environmental costs are shocking. Thus, electric vehicles, energy saving and environmental protection must not repeat the mistakes of the traditional industries.

In fact, as early as 2006, the Commerce Department to promote the construction of renewable resource recycling system, which end-of-life vehicle recycling dismantling heavy head; 2011 due to lead-acid battery pollution problem, and more experts and scholars called for the establishment of a waste battery recycling system several times, also once recognition and support of the State Council, these facts show that our end-of-life vehicle dismantling and scrap battery recycling industry has been the government attach great importance, but also prove the car and battery recycling link has a very important chain of value.

Therefore, when the global attention of stay in the electric vehicle power source - drive battery, whether the Government or the car companies with a strong sense of social responsibility, the battery business, should improve the understanding of electric vehicles and battery recycling face this is bound to face problems in advance layout scrapped electric vehicles and battery recycling industry to jointly build a complete industrial chain of electric vehicles.

"As an important component of the electric vehicle industry in the chain, electric vehicles and battery recycling technology and new product development is an equally important position." Bump cycle Technology Co., Ltd., Foshan, recycling dismantling at the person in charge to the author said. It is understood that Bump is one of the few at the same time has scrapped qualification of vehicle dismantling and recycling of used batteries qualification comprehensive utilization of resources identified one of the enterprises, the company has established in Changsha, Hunan, the total area of ​​160,000 square meters of scrapped automobiles dismantling base and used batteries recycling base.

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To the revitalization of China's information industry

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:14
Shenzhen City, Yi Electronics Co., Ltd. was established in 2003, Taiwan's early sell die crystal source based on the mainland to Taiwan-funded companies. In order to meet the major domestic manufacturers of high-performance electronic components, as well as high quality. In 2003, a professional high-quality brand model, the major manufacturers to in technology, services, prices, high quality party support. The founders had a doctorate and master's degrees in the famous universities in Europe and the United States leading IC companies engaged in IC design for many years, with profound theoretical knowledge and extensive practical experience, the company's development has laid a firm technical base and industry background.

The products mainly include: synchronous buck-boost DCDC converter, synchronous boost DCDC converter, synchronous step-down DCDC converter of DCDC buck converter of DCDC boost converter, low dropout (LDO) regulator, lithium batteries charge management ICs, LED driver IC, backlight driver, voltage detector IC, charge pump, ACDC, MOS tube, which are mainly used in portable products, MP3, MP4, PMP, digital camera, optical mouse, LED lights, remote control toys , electronic dictionaries, video machines, wireless headphones, wireless mouse and keyboard, blood pressure monitors, medical equipment, car alarm, LED flashlight, DC shengdeng, solar lawn lamp, charger, keyboard, electric toys products, digital products and consumer electronics areas.

After years of efforts to promote the product quality has been accepted by major domestic packaging factory and dealer. Power products in the domestic market occupied a larger share of one of the major domestic supplier of power chips. "Integrity, quality, efficiency, innovation" service all the way accompanied by approaching customers and partners, won a good reputation in the industry.

To the revitalization of China's information industry, especially the IC industry as its mission to build modern, international high-tech enterprises as the goal through self-development and international cooperation, make full use of the technology and human resources of the community and the company's ongoing technological innovation, gradually create products with independent intellectual property rights, doing fine and stronger power management chip-based analog and mixed analog-digital circuits, and gradually from the low-end consumer products market, computer peripherals, communication products, industrial control, medical electronics, automotive electronics and other high-end market to promote a distinctive product line, establishing a solid position in the industrial chain and leading position in the industry. We firmly believe that: the vitality of the enterprise is reflected in the agile and efficient, the competitiveness of enterprises is reflected in the quality and service force of the development of enterprises is reflected in the popularity and reputation. Pursuit of speed and only speed allows us to go beyond; we emphasize quality, only the quality of our outstanding; we cherish credibility, or only the credibility of our long.

We shoulder the important task of developing China's microelectronics industry. Although not a glorious history, but we are committed to the development of research and application of microelectronic technology, together with other colleagues work together to create a better future of China's microelectronics industry.

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Countries have introduced a number of policies to promote

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:13
China, as refrigeration, air-conditioning equipment the most important production bases and consumer markets, product categories covering various fields, whether production or use, have already started thinking energy consumption and environmental pollution problems. Refrigeration and air conditioning industry with the changes of national policy is graduallychanging mode of production and the adjustment of product structure can be seen from the adjustment of product mix, energy-saving products has become an enterprise focusing on R & D content and the main product.


Refrigeration Express reporter has learned that in order to achieve the goal of energy saving and environmental protection products, various enterprises around the theme of energy saving and environmental protection activities in new product development, product design, manufacturing process, production line technological innovation to increase investment, promote product upgrading the same time, in terms of production also pays attention to energy conservation, all enterprises to formulate a comprehensive evaluation system, and strive to reduce energy consumption in production capacity of the premise, the production of intermediate links to minimize the emission of pollutants.


Countries have introduced a number of policies to promote the refrigeration and air conditioning industry towards energy saving and environmental protection, such as "Energy Conservation Law" to further regulate the industry, energy conservation issues; "ozone-depleting substances import and export management approach" to promote emphasis on environmental protection and energy saving refrigeration industry; "a comprehensive energy reduction program of work" to make strict demands on enterprise energy saving at the same time, the industry standard specifications have been put forward, but also to refrigeration and air conditioning equipment industry is gradually moving towards standardization: eg computer and data processing room unit air conditioners and modular air conditioning units, unit air conditioners, air conditioning with air filter unit trains, air conditioning units, roof air-cooled air conditioning (heat pump) unit, the "overall mechatronic air conditioning units as well as cabinet fan coil units" a series of standards will allow the refrigeration, air conditioning equipment industry toward standardization, standardization development.

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The Energy Commission

April 25 [Wed], 2012, 16:05
California Energy Commission on the 12th through the battery charger energy efficiency of new standards, the implementation of this standard from February 2013.

According to regulations, the charger production in February 2013 will begin to implement the new standard, heavy equipment such as forklift charger new standards take effect from February 2014? February 2013, the production and sale of the charger is not subject to this bound by the provisions of .

The committee said, California, about 170 million battery chargers in use, the average household about 11. Computers, telephones, power tools, shavers. Goods bar code scanners, battery-powered golf carts and forklifts will be used in the charger, the charger is most fully charged or the battery is removed, continue to power, resulting in energy consumption.

The Energy Commission said the new standard charger will be reduced by two-thirds of the waste of energy savings of nearly $ 300,000,000 per year for consumers to reduce 1 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions, reduce the emissions of 75,000 cars per year on the road statewide each year will reduce energy consumption of 2200 GWh is equivalent to the electricity consumption of 350,000 households.

The Commission said that the improved battery charger energy efficiency without spending too much, just use ready-made switch, so that the charger is fully charged can automatically power off, only cost 40-50 cents.

California is the nation's first state of a battery charger to the development of energy-efficiency standards? After the California Commission formulated a series of energy standards for household appliances and consumer. In 2009, the Commission developed a flat battery, energy efficiency standards.


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