As we examine the characteristics of battery systems

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 16:17
Many battery novices argue, wrongly, that all advanced battery systems offer high energy densities, deliver thousands of charge/discharge cycles and come in a small size. While some of these attributes are possible, this is not Aspire 1810T brightattainable in one and the same battery in a given chemistry.

A battery may be designed for high specific energy and small size, but the cycle life is short. Another battery may be built for high load capabilities and durability, and the cells are bulky and heavy. A third pack may have high capacity and long service life, but the manufacturing cost is out of reach for the average consumer. Battery manufacturers are well aware of customer needs and respond by offering products that best suit the application intended. The mobile phone industry is an example of this clever adaptation. The emphasis is on small size, high energy density and low price. Longevity is less important here.

The terms nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) do not automatically mean high specific energy. For example, NiMH for the electric powertrain in vehicles has a specific energy of only 45Wh/kg, a value that is not much higher than lead acid. The consumer NiMH, in comparison, has about 90Wh/kg. The Li-ion battery for hybrid and electric vehicles can have a specific energy as low as 60Wh/kg, a value that is comparable with nickel-cadmium. Li-ion for cell phones and laptops, on the other hand, has two to three times this specific energy.

The Cadex-sponsored website www.BatteryUniversity.com generates many interesting questions. Those that stand out are, “What’s the best battery for a remote-controlled car, a portable solar station, an electric bicycle or electric car?” There is no universal battery that fits all needs and each application is unique. Although lithium-ion would in most instances be the preferred choice, high price and the need for an approved protection circuit exclude this system from use by many hobbyists and small manufacturers. Removing Li-ion leads back to the nickel- and lead-based options. Consumer products may have benefited the most from battery advancements. High volume made Li-ion relatively inexpensive.

Will the battery replace the internal combustion engine of cars? It may come as a surprise to many that we don’t yet have an economical battery that allows long-distance driving and lasts as long as the car. Batteries work reasonably well for portable applications such as cell phones, laptops and digital cameras. Low power enables an economical price; the relative short battery life is acceptable in consumer products; and we can live with a decreasing runtime. While the fading capacity Aspire 1830T bright can be annoying, it does not endanger safety.

As we examine the characteristics of battery systems and compare alternative power sources, such as the fuel cell and the internal combustion (IC) engine, we realize that the battery is best suited for portable and stationary systems. For motive applications such as trains, ocean going ships and aircraft, the battery lacks capacity, endurance and reliability. The dividing line, in my opinion, lies with the electric vehicle.

A generation of Li-ion batteries is emerging

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 16:15
The battery dictates the speed with which mobility advances. So important is this portable energy source that any incremental improvement AS10D51 brightopens new doors for many products. The better the battery, the greater our liberty will become.

Besides packing more energy into the battery, engineers have also made strides in reducing power consumption of portable equipment. These advancements go hand-in-hand with longer runtimes but are often counteracted by the demand for additional features and more power.
The end result is similar runtimes but enhanced performance.

The battery has not advanced at the same speed as microelectronics, and the industry has only gained 8 to 10 percent in capacity per year during the last two decades. This is a far cry from Moore’s Law* that specifies a doubling of the number of transistors in an integrated circuit every two years. Instead of two years, the capacity of lithium-ion took 10 years to double.

In parallel with achieving capacity gain, battery makers must also focus on improving manufacturing methods to ensure better safety. The recent recall of millions of lithium-cobalt packs caused by thermal runaway is a reminder of the inherent risk in condensing too much energy into a small package. Better manufacturing practices should make such recalls a thing of the past. A generation of Li-ion batteries is emerging that are built for longevity. These batteries have a lower specific energy (capacity) than those for portable electronics and are increasingly being considered for the electric powertrain of vehicles.

People want an inexhaustible pool of energy in a package that is small, cheap, safe and clean, and the battery industry can only fulfill this desire partially. As long as the battery is an electrochemical process, there will be Aspire 1410T bright limitations on capacity and life span.

Only a revolutionary new storage system could satisfy the unquenchable thirst for mobile power, and it’s anyone’s guess whether this will be lithium-air, the fuel cell, or some other ground-breaking new power generator, such as atomic fusion. For most of us, the big break might not come in our lifetime.

Most consumers are satisfied with the battery performance

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 16:14
Lithium-ion is the battery of choice for consumer products, and no other systems threaten to interfere with its dominance at this time. The lead acid market is similar in size to Li-ion. Here the applications are divided into SLI (starter battery) for automotive, stationary for power backup, and deep-cycle for wheeled mobility such as golf cars, wheelchairs and scissor lifts. Lead acid holds a solid position, as AS07A71 bright it has done for the last hundred years. There are no other systems that threaten to unseat this forgiving and low-cost chemistry any time soon.

High specific energy and long storage has made alkaline more popular than carbon-zinc, which Georges Leclanché invented in 1868. The environmentally benign nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) continues to hold an important role, as it replaces many applications previously served by nickel-cadmium (NiCd). However, at only three percent market share, NiMH is a minor player in the battery world and will likely relinquish more of its market to Li-ion by 2015.

Developing nations will contribute to future battery sales, and new markets are the electric bicycle in Asia and storage batteries to supply electric power to remote communities in Africa and other parts of the world. Wind turbines, solar power and other renewable sources also use storage batteries for load leveling. The large grid storage batteries used for load leveling collect surplus energy from renewable resources during high activity and supply extra power on heavy user demand. Read more about Batteries for Stationary, Grid Storage.

A major new battery user might be the electric powertrain for personal cars. However, battery cost and longevity will dictate how quickly the automotive sector will adopt this new propulsion system. Energy from oil is cheap, convenient and readily available; any alternative faces difficult challenges. Government incentives may be provided, but such intervention distorts the true cost of energy, shields the underlying problem with fossil fuel and only satisfies certain lobby groups through short-term solutions.

During the last five years or so, no new battery system has emerged that can claim to offer disruptive technology. Although much research is being done, no new concept is ready to enter the market at the time of writing, nor are new developments close to breakthrough point. There are many reasons for this apparent lack of progress: few products have requirements that are as stringent as the AS07B71 bright. For example, battery users want low price, long life, high specific energy, safe operation and minimal maintenance. In addition, the battery must work at hot and cold temperatures, deliver high power on demand and charge quickly. Only some of these attributes are achievable with various battery technologies.

Most consumers are satisfied with the battery performance on portable devices. Today’s battery technology also serves power backup and wheeled mobility reasonably well. Using our current battery technology for electric powertrains on cars, however, might prove difficult because the long-term effects in that environment are not fully understood. The switch to a power source offering a fraction of the kinetic energy compared to fossil fuels will be an eye-opener for motorists who continually demand larger vehicles with more. Read more about the Cost of Power.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically honor

April 05 [Fri], 2013, 16:55
The resistance of a battery provides useful information about its performance and detects hidden trouble spots. High resistance values are often the triggering point to replace an aging battery, and determining resistance iscompatible C655 especially useful in checking stationary batteries.

However, resistance comparison alone is not effective, because the value between batches of lead acid batteries can vary by eight percent. Because of this relatively wide tolerance, the resistance method only works effectively when comparing the values for a given battery from birth to retirement. Service crews are asked to take a snapshot of each cell at time of installation.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically honor the warranty if the internal resistance increases by 50 percent.

Their preference is to get true capacity readings by applying a full discharge. It is their belief that only a discharge can provide reliable readings and they ask users to perform the service once a year. While this advice has merit, a full discharge requires a temporary disconnection of the battery from the system, and on a large battery such a test takes an entire day to complete. In the real world, very few battery installations receive this type of service and most measurements are based on compatible C655Dresistance readings.

Measuring the internal resistance is done by reading the voltage drop on a load current or by AC impedance. The results are in ohmic values. There is a notion that internal resistance is related to capacity, and this is false. The resistance of many batteries stays flat through most of the service life. Figure 1 shows the capacity fade and internal resistance of lithium-ion cells.

Many visitors of BatteryUniversity

April 05 [Fri], 2013, 16:54
Batteries for power tools and other industrial devices can often be repaired by replacing one or all cells. Finding a NiCd and NiMH cell is relatively easy; locating the correct Li-ion cell can be more difficult. Naked Li-ion cells are not readily available off the shelf and a reputable battery manufacturer may only sell tocompatible C650 certified pack assemblers. Incorrect use or lack of an protection circuit could cause stress and disintegration of the replaced cell. When repairing a Li-ion pack make certain that each cell is properly connected to a protection circuit. Read about Safety Concerns and Protection Circuits.

If a relatively new pack has only one defective cell, you may replace only the affected cell. On an aged battery, it’s best to replace all cells. Adding a new cell with full capacity in between neighboring cells that have faded would cause a cell mismatch. Matching the replacement cell with one of a lower rating may work but this fix is often of short duration. Always replace with the same chemistry cell.

A well-matched battery pack means that all cells have similar capacities. An anomaly can be drawn with a chain in which the weakest link determines the performance of the battery. Read more about Can Batteries Be Restored?

When replacing all cells, the rating is less important as long as the differences are not too large for the charger to handle. Cells with higher Ah will simply take a bit longer to charge. The state-of-charge of all cells being charged for the first time should have a similar charge level, and the open-circuit voltages should be within 10 percent of each other.

Many visitors of BatteryUniversity.com ask if NiCd can be replaced with NiMH? Theoretically, this should be possible but charging may be an issue. NiMH uses a more defined charge algorithm than NiCd. A modern NiMH charger can charge both NiMH and NiCd; the old NiCd charger could overcharge NiMH by not properly compatible C650detecting full charge state and applying a trickle charge that is too high.

Welding the cells is the only reliable way to get dependable connection. Limit the heat transfer to the cells during welding to prevent excess heat buildup.

The zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline battery by Ruben

November 23 [Fri], 2012, 14:47
Why was a battery required 2000 years ago?
In June, 1936, workers constructing a new railway near the city of Baghdad uncovered an ancient tomb. Relics in the tomb allowed archeologists to identify it as belonging to the Parthian Empire. The Parthians, although illiterate and nomadic, were the dominating force in the Fertile Crescent area between 190 Why was a battery required 2000 years ago?
In June, 1936, workers constructing areplacement battery for Presario CQ62 battery new railway near the city of Baghdad uncovered an ancient tomb. Relics in the tomb allowed archeologists to identify it as belonging to the Parthian Empire.

The Parthians, although illiterate and nomadic, were the dominating force in the Fertile Crescent area between 190 BC to 224 AD. It is known that in 129 BC they had acquired lands up to the banks of the Tigris River, near Baghdad.

Among the relics found in the tomb was a clay jar or vase, sealed with pitch at its top opening. An iron rod protruded from the center, surrounded by a cylindrical tube made of wrapped copper sheet. The height of the jar was about 15 cm, and the copper tube was about 4 cm diameter by 12 cm in length. Tests of replicas, when filled with an acidic liquid such as vinegar, showed it could have produced between 1.5 and 2 volts between the iron and copper. It is suspected that this early battery, or more than one in series, may have been used to electroplate gold onto silver artifacts.

A German archeologist, Dr. Wilhelm Konig, identified the clay pot as a possible battery in 1938. While its 2000-year old date would make it the first documented battery invention, there may have been even earlier technology at work. Dr. Konig also found Sumerian vases made of copper, but plated with silver, dating back to 2500 BC. No evidence of Sumerian batteries has been found to date.

1747 -- Principle of the telegraph discovered, but not battery-powered.
In 1747 Sir William Watson demonstrated in England that a current could be sent through a long wire, using the conduction through the earth as the other conductor of the circuit. Presumably the current was from an electrostatic discharge, such as from a Leyden jar charged with high voltage. People at that time knew how to generate electrostatic voltages by rubbing dissimilar materials such as glass and fur together. Then in 1753 a certain C.M. in Scotland devised a signaling machine that used an insulated wire for each letter of the alphabet. At the sending end an electrostatic charge was applied to the selected wire, and a pith ball jumped at the receiving end in response to the voltage.

1786 -- Luigi Galvani notices the reaction of frog legs to voltage
He was remarkably close to discovering the principle of the battery, but missed it. He thought the reaction was due to a property of the tissues. He used two dissimilar metals in contact with a moist substance to touch dissected frog legs. The resulting current made the muscles in the frog legs twitch. Luigi Galvani made many more important discoveries later, when the relationship between magnets and currents became known. The galvanometer is named for him. It is a moving coil set in a permanent magnetic field. Current flowing through the coil deflects it and an attached mirror, which reflects a beam of light. It was the first accurate electrical measuring instrument.

1800 -- Alessandro Volta publishes details of a battery
That battery was made by piling up layers of silver, paper or cloth soaked in salt, and zinc. Many triple layers were assembled into a tall pile, without paper or cloth between zinc and silver, until the desired voltage was reached. Even today the French word for battery is ‘pile' (English pronunciation "peel".) Volta also developed the concept of the electrochemical series, which ranks the potential produced when various metals are in contact with an electrolyte. How handy for us that he was well known for his publications and received recognition for this through the naming of the standard unit of electric potential as the volt. Otherwise, we would have to ask "How many galvans does your battery produce?" instead of asking "how many volts does your battery produce?"

1820 -- The Daniell Cell
The Voltaic Pile was not good for delivering currents for long periods of time. This restriction was overcome in the Daniell Cell. British researcher John Frederich Daniell developed an arrangement where a copper plate was located at the bottom of a wide-mouthed jar. A cast zinc piece commonly referred to as a crowfoot, because of its shape, was located at the top of the plate, hanging on the rim of the jar. Two electrolytes, or conducting liquids, were employed. A saturated copper sulphate solution covered the copper plate and extended halfway up the remaining distance toward the zinc piece. Then a zinc sulphate solution, a less dense liquid, was carefully poured in to float above the copper sulphate and immerse the zinc. As an alternative to zinc sulphate, magnesium sulphate or dilute sulphuric acid was sometimes used. The Daniell Cell was one of the first to incorporate mercury, by amalgamating it with the zinc anode to reduce corrosion when the batteries were not in use. We now know better than to put mercury into batteries. This battery, which produced about 1.1 volts, was used to power telegraphs, telephones, and even to ring doorbells in homes for over 100 years. The applications were all stationary ones, because motion would mix the two electrolyte liquids. The battery jars have become collectors items, with prices ranging for $4 to $44. Check them out on ebay.com.

1859 -- Lead Acid -- the Planté Battery
Raymond Gaston Planté made a cell by rolling up two strips of lead sheet separated by pieces of flannel, and the whole assembly was immersed in dilute sulphuric acid. By alternately charging and discharging this cell, its ability to supply current was increased. An improved separator was obviously needed to resist the sulphuric acid.

1866 -- The Leclanché carbon-zinc battery
The first cell developed by Georges Leclanché in France was a wet cell having its electrodes immersed in a liquid. Nevertheless, it was rugged and easy to manufacture and had a good shelf life. He later improved the battery by substituting a moist ammonium chloride paste for the liquid electrolyte and sealing the battery. The resulting battery was referred to as a dry cell. It could be used in various positions and moved about without spilling. Carbon-zinc dry cells are sold to this day in blister packages labeled "heavy duty" and "transistor power". The anode of the cell was zinc, which was made into a cup or can which contained the other parts of the battery. The cathode was a mixture of 8 parts manganese dioxide with one part of carbon black, connected to the positive post or button at the top of the battery by a carbon collector rod. The electrolyte paste may also contain some zinc chloride. Around 1960 sales of Leclanché cells were surpassed by the newer alkaline-manganese batteries.

1881 -- Camille Faure's Lead Acid Battery -- suitable for autos
Camille Faure's acid battery used a grid of cast lead packed with lead oxide paste, instead of lead sheets. This improved its ability to supply current. It formed the basis of the modern lead acid battery used in autos, particularly when new separator materials were developed to hold the positive plates in place, and prevent particles falling from these plates from shorting out the positive and negative plates from the conductive sediment.

1898 to 1908 -- the Edison Battery
Thomas Edison, the most prolific of all American inventors, developed an alkaline cell with iron as the anode material (-) and nickelic oxide as the cathode material (+). The electrolyte used was potassium hydroxide, the same as in modern nickel-cadmium and alkaline batteries. The cells were well suited to industrial and railroad use. They survived being overcharged or remaining uncharged for long periods of time. Their voltage (1 to 1.35 volts) was an indication of their state of charge.

1893 to 1909 -- the Nickel-Cadmium Battery
In parallel with the work of Edison, but independently, Jungner and Berg in Sweden developed the nickel-cadmium cell. In place of the iron used in the Edison cell, they used cadmium, with the result that it operated better at low temperatures, self-discharged itself to a lesser degree than the Edison cell, and could be trickle-charged, that is, charged at a much-reduced rate. In a different format and using the same chemistry, nickel-cadmium cells are still made and sold.

1949 -- the Alkaline-Manganese Battery
The alkaline-manganese battery, or as we know it today, the alkaline battery, was developed in 1949 by Lew Urry at the Eveready Battery Company Laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries could supply more total energy at higher currents than the Leclanché batteries. Further improvements since then have increased the energy storage within a given size package.

1950 -- The zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline battery by Ruben
Samuel Ruben (an independent inventor) developed the zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline battery, which was licensed to the P.R. Mallory Co. P.R. Mallory Co. later became Duracell, International. Mercury compounds have since been eliminated from batteries to protect the environment.BC to 224 AD. It is known that in 129 BC they had acquired lands up to the banks of the Tigris River, near Baghdad.

Among the relics found in the tomb was a clay jar or vase, sealed with pitch at its top opening. An iron rod protruded from the center, surrounded by a cylindrical tube made of wrapped copper sheet. The height of the jar was about 15 cm, and the copper tube was about 4 cm diameter by 12 cm in length. Tests of replicas, when filled with an acidic liquid such as vinegar, showed it could have produced between 1.5 and 2 volts between the iron and copper. It is suspected that this early battery, or more than one in series, may have been used to electroplate gold onto silver artifacts.

A German archeologist, Dr. Wilhelm Konig, identified the clay pot as a possible battery in 1938. While its 2000-year old date would make it the first documented battery invention, there may have been even earlier technology at work. Dr. Konig also found Sumerian vases made of copper, but plated with silver, dating back to 2500 BC. No evidence of Sumerian batteries has been found to date.

1747 -- Principle of the telegraph discovered, but not battery-powered.
In 1747 Sir William Watson demonstrated in England that a current could be sent through a long wire, using the conduction through the earth as the other conductor of the circuit. Presumably the current was from an electrostatic discharge, such as from a Leyden jar charged with high voltage. People at that time knew how to generate electrostatic voltages by rubbing dissimilar materials such as glass and fur together. Then in 1753 a certain C.M. in Scotland devised a signaling machine that used an insulated wire for each letter of the alphabet. At the sending end an electrostatic charge was applied to the selected wire, and a pith ball jumped at the receiving end in response to the voltage.

1786 -- Luigi Galvani notices the reaction of frog legs to voltage
He was remarkably close to discovering the principle of the battery, but missed it. He thought the reaction was due to a property of the tissues. He used two dissimilar metals in contact with a moist substance to touch dissected frog legs. The resulting current made the muscles in the frog legs twitch. Luigi Galvani made many more important discoveries later, when the relationship between magnets and currents became known. The galvanometer is named for him. It is a moving coil set in a permanent magnetic field. Current flowing through the coil deflects it and an attached mirror, which reflects a beam of light. It was the first accurate electrical measuring instrument.

1800 -- Alessandro Volta publishes details of a battery
That battery was made by piling up layers of silver, paper or cloth soaked in salt, and zinc. Many triple layers were assembled into a tall pile, without paper or cloth between zinc and silver, until the desired voltage was reached. Even today the French word for battery is ‘pile' (English pronunciation "peel".) Volta also developed the concept of the electrochemical series, which ranks the potential produced when various metals are in contact with an electrolyte. How handy for us that he was well known for his publications and received recognition for this through the naming of the standard unit of electric potential as the volt. Otherwise, we would have to ask "How many galvans does your battery produce?" instead of asking "how many volts does your battery produce?"

1820 -- The Daniell Cell
The Voltaic Pile was not good for delivering currents for long periods of time. This restriction was overcome in the Daniell Cell. British researcher John Frederich Daniell developed an arrangement where a copper plate was located at the bottom of a wide-mouthed jar. A cast zinc piece commonly referred to as a crowfoot, because of its shape, was located at the top of the plate, hanging on the rim of the jar. Two electrolytes, or conducting liquids, were employed. A saturated copper sulphate solution covered the copper plate and extended halfway up the remaining distance toward the zinc piece. Then a zinc sulphate solution, a less dense liquid, was carefully poured in to float above the copper sulphate and immerse the zinc. As an alternative to zinc sulphate, magnesium sulphate or dilute sulphuric acid was sometimes used. The Daniell Cell was one of the first to incorporate mercury, by amalgamating it with the zinc anode to reduce corrosion when the batteries were not in use. We now know better than to put mercury into batteries. This battery, which produced about 1.1 volts, was used to power telegraphs, telephones, and even to ring doorbells in homes for over 100 years. The applications were all stationary ones, because motion would mix the two electrolyte liquids. The battery jars have become collectors items, with prices ranging for $4 to $44. Check them out on ebay.com.

1859 -- Lead Acid -- the Planté Battery
Raymond Gaston Planté made a cell by rolling up two strips of lead sheet separated by pieces of flannel, and the whole assembly was immersed in dilute sulphuric acid. By alternately charging and discharging this cell, its ability to supply current was increased. An improved separator was obviously needed to resist the sulphuric acid.

1866 -- The Leclanché carbon-zinc battery
The first cell developed by Georges Leclanché in France was a wet cell having its electrodes immersed in a liquid. Nevertheless, it was rugged and easy to manufacture and had a good shelf life. He later improved the battery by substituting a moist ammonium chloride paste for the liquid electrolyte and sealing the battery. The resulting battery was referred to as a dry cell. It could be used in various positions and moved about without spilling. Carbon-zinc dry cells are sold to this day in blister packages labeled "heavy duty" and "transistor power". The anode of the cell was zinc, which was made into a cup or can which contained the other parts of the battery. The cathode was a mixture of 8 parts manganese dioxide with one part of carbon black, connected to the positive post or button at the top of the battery by a carbon collector rod. The electrolyte paste may also contain some zinc chloride. Around 1960 sales of Leclanché cells were surpassed by the newer alkaline-manganese batteries.

1881 -- Camille Faure's Lead Acid Battery -- suitable for autos
Camille Faure's acid battery used a grid of cast lead packed with lead oxide paste, instead of lead sheets. This improved its ability to supply current. It formed the basis of the modern lead acid battery used in autos, particularly when new separator materials were developed to hold the positive plates in place, and prevent particles falling from these plates from shorting out the positive and negative plates from the conductive sediment.

1898 to 1908 -- the Edison Battery
Thomas Edison, the most prolific of all American inventors, developed an alkaline cell with iron as the anode material (-) and nickelic oxide as the cathode material (+). The electrolyte used was potassium hydroxide, the same as in modern nickel-cadmium and alkaline batteries. The cells were well suited to industrial and railroad use. They survived being overcharged or remaining uncharged for long periods of time. Their voltage (1 to 1.35 volts) was an indication of their state of charge.

1893 to 1909 -- the Nickel-Cadmium Battery
In parallel with the work of Edison, but independently, Jungner and Berg in Sweden developed the nickel-cadmium cell. In place of the iron used in the Edison cell, they used cadmium, with the result that it operated better at low temperatures, self-discharged itself to a lesser degree than the Edison cell, and could be trickle-charged, that is, charged at a much-reduced rate. In a different format and using the same chemistry, nickel-cadmium cells are still made and sold.

1949 -- the Alkaline-Manganese Battery
The alkaline-manganese battery, or as we know it today, the alkaline battery, was developed in 1949 by Lew Urry at the Eveready Compaq Presario CQ70 laptop battery Company Laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries could supply more total energy at higher currents than the Leclanché batteries. Further improvements since then have increased the energy storage within a given size package.

1950 -- The zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline battery by Ruben
Samuel Ruben (an independent inventor) developed the zinc-mercuric oxide alkaline battery, which was licensed to the P.R. Mallory Co. P.R. Mallory Co. later became Duracell, International. Mercury compounds have since been eliminated from batteries to protect the environment.

The battery's voltage depends on the chemicals

November 23 [Fri], 2012, 14:41

Any of a class of devices, consisting of a group of electrochemical cells (see electrochemistry), that convert chemical energy into electrical energy; the term is also commonly applied to a single cell of this kind. A wet cell (e.g., a car battery) contains free liquid electrolyte; in a dry cell (e.g., a flashlight battery) the electrolyte is held in an absorbent material. Chemicals are arranged so that electrons releasedoriginal Presario CQ57 battery from the battery's negative electrode flow (see electric current) through a circuit outside the battery (in the device powered by it) to the battery's positive electrode.

The battery's voltage depends on the chemicals used and the number of cells (in series); the current depends on the resistance in the total circuit (including the battery—and thus on electrode size).

Multiple batteries may be connected in series (the positive electrode of one to the negative electrode of the next), which increases total voltage, or in parallel (positive to positive and negative to negative), which increases total current. Batteries that are not rechargeable include standard dry cells used in flashlights and certain wet cells for marine, mine, highway, and military use.

Car batteries, many kinds of dry cells used incheap rn873 Presario CQ60 battery cordless appliances, and batteries for certain military and aerospace uses may be recharged repeatedly.

LiIon batteries are the current standard for laptop computers

October 26 [Fri], 2012, 10:49
Laptops ­and desktops both run on electricity. Both have small batteries to maintain the real-time clock and, in some cases, CMOS RAM. However, unlike a desktop computer, a laptop is portable and can run on replacement Inspiron 1526 battery alone.

Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) batteries were the first type of battery commonly used in laptop computers, and older laptops sometimes still use them. They have a life of roughly two hours between charges, but this life decreases with each charge based on the memory effect. Gas bubbles form in the cell plates, reducing the total amount of available cell space for recharge. The only way around this is to discharge the battery completely before recharging it. The other drawback of NiCad is that if the battery charges too long, it can explode.

Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries are the bridge between NiCad and the newer Lithium-Ion (LiIon) batteries. They last longer between charges than NiCad but overall have a shorter total lifespan. They suffer from the memory effect, but to a lesser extent than NiCad batteries.

LiIon batteries are the current standard for laptop computers. They are light and have long life spans. They do not suffer from the memory effect, can be charged randomly, and won't overheat if overcharged. They are also thinner than any other battery available for laptops, making them ideal for the new ultra-thin notebooks. LiIon batteries can last for anything from about 950 up to 1200 charges.

Many laptops with LiIon batteries claim to have a 5-hour battery life, but this measurement can vary greatly depending on how the computer is used. The hard drive, other disk drives and LCD display all use substantial9 cells Inspiron 1720 battery
power.

Even maintaining wireless Internet connectivity requires some battery power. Many laptop computer models have power management software to extend the battery life or conserve battery power when the battery is low.

Battery Eater will tell you the following important things regarding laptop’s battery

October 26 [Fri], 2012, 10:47
If there is anything frustrating about a notebook or a laptop, it’s the battery. When you buy a laptop, the 12 cells Inspiron 1420 battery is brand new and thus it gives power backup for 3-5 hours. But after a few months, the backup time reduces to a great extent.

This is because of the habit that we use laptop keeping the AC power ON all the time. As a rule of the thumb, you should unplug the AC power and use the laptop running on battery power. When the power is drained out, you should shut down or hibernate the computer and put the notebook back on AC power. Keep it for an hour and wait for the laptop to get fully charged. Then start using the laptop as usual.

This is the advice computer vendors give us but we hardly follow this routine because of two reasons. First, our lives are too busy and there is no time to wait. You can not afford to spend an hour without the computer, just because it’s charging. Hence, the laptop is always put on AC power which considerable damages the battery life.

If you want to know the complete power potential of a notebook battery pack, try Battery Eater. It’s a free program for Windows which allows you to test laptop’s battery life and to set up a few important benchmarks.

Once you have downloaded the program, extract the package to a new folder and run the Battery Eater.exe file.The program is portable, hence you can drop it in a USB stick and use it on any laptop you want.

Battery Eater will tell you the following important things regarding laptop’s battery:

Currently active power scheme.
ID of the laptop’s battery.
Serial number of the laptop’s battery
The manufacturer of the laptop’s battery
Designed capacity and the current capacity of the battery.
Current voltage and the designed voltage.

Manufactured date, temperature and other physical parameters.
In addition to this, you can generate HTML reports of your laptop’s battery configuration and save it for later use. All in all, a very handy tool which can be used to generate the complete battery information of a laptop or replacement rn873 Inspiron 1521 battery notebook. Here is how an HTML report may look like:

Hence, if you want to change your laptop’s battery and need a tool to save the reports of current laptop’s battery, give BatteryEater a spin. You can use this tool to compare the performance of two batteries or may be comparing the performance of your notebook’s battery to that of your friend’s notebook’s battery.

A battery that's going bad might also cause your computer to turn off or hibernate unexpectedly

October 26 [Fri], 2012, 10:45
Does it seem like no matter what you do, your computer is always out of battery power? It might be time to replace the battery. Every battery has a designed capacity—basically the amount of charge that it's designed to hold. Over timeDoes it seem like no matter what you do, your computer is always out of battery power? It might be time to replace the battery. Every battery has a designed capacity—basically the amount of charge that it's designed to hold. Over time dell rn873 battery bestbattery lose their ability to hold a charge. This means that even though you're fully charging your battery, the actual amount of power that the battery can hold is going down.

Some of the telltale signs that your battery is going bad are shorter use times, and subsequently, shorter times to recharge. If you notice the amount of time you can spend unplugged is going down, then chances are your battery has lost much of its ability to hold a charge. Another sign that your battery might be on the wane is that it takes less time to recharge. A battery that's going bad might also cause your computer to turn off or hibernate unexpectedly, even if the battery meter displays ample capacity remaining (70 or 80 percent).

Fortunately, Windows can help you know when your battery is unable to hold a full charge. When your battery gets down to 40 percent of its original capacity (that is, it can only hold 40 percent or less of its designed capacity after it has been charged), you'll see a notification via the battery meter icon that your battery might be going bad. This notification is new in Windows 7—earlier versions of Windows can't notify you when your battery is going bad. If you don't want to receive this notification, you can turn it off by clearing the check box on the battery meter.

Does it seem like no matter what you do, your computer is always out of battery power? It might be time to replace the battery. Every battery has a designed capacity—basically the amount of charge that it's designed to hold. Over time batteries lose their ability to hold a charge. This means that even though you're fully charging your battery, the actual amount of power that the battery can hold is going down.

Some of the telltale signs that your battery is going bad are shorter use times, and subsequently, shorter times to recharge. If you notice the amount of time you can spend unplugged is going down, then chances are your battery has lost much of its ability to hold a charge. Another sign that your battery might be on the wane is that it takes less time to recharge. A battery that's going bad might also cause your computer to turn off or hibernate unexpectedly, even if the battery meter displays ample capacity remaining (70 or 80 percent).

Fortunately, Windows can help you know when your battery is unable to hold a full charge. When your battery gets down to 40 percent of its original capacity (that is, it can only hold 40 percent or less of its designed capacity after it has been charged), you'll see a notification via the battery meter icon that your battery might be going bad. This notification is new in Windows 7—earlier versions of Windows can't notify you when your battery is going bad. If you don't want to receive this notification, you can turn it off by clearing the check box on the battery meter.lose their ability to hold a charge. This means that even though you're fully charging your battery, the actual amount of power that the battery can hold is going down.

Some of the telltale signs that your battery is going bad are shorter use times, and subsequently, shorter times to recharge. If you notice the amount of time you can spend unplugged is going down, then chances are your battery has lost much of its ability to hold a charge. Another sign that your battery might be on the wane is that it takes less time to recharge. A battery that's going bad might also cause your computer to turn off or hibernate unexpectedly, even if the battery meter displays ample capacity remaining (70 or 80 percent).

Fortunately, Windows can help you know when your battery is unable to hold a full charge. When your battery gets down to 40 percent of its original capacity (that is, it can only hold 40 percent or less of its designed capacity after it has been charged), you'll see a notification via the battery meter icon that your battery might be going bad. This notification is new in Windows 7—earlier versions of Windows can't notify you when your battery is going bad. If you don't want to receive this notification, you can turn it off by clearing the check box on the battery meter.

Does it seem like no matter what you do, your computer is always out of battery power? It might be time to replace the battery. Every battery has a designed capacity—basically the amount of charge that it's designed to hold. Over time batteries lose their ability to hold a charge. This means that even though you're fully charging your battery, the actual amount of power that the battery can hold is going down.

Some of the telltale signs that your battery is going bad are shorter use times, and subsequently, shorter times to recharge. If you notice the amount of time you can spend unplugged is going down, then chances are your battery has lost much of its ability to hold a charge. Another sign that your battery might be on the wane is that it takes less time to recharge. A battery that's going bad might also cause your computer to turn off or hibernate unexpectedly, even if the battery meter displays ample capacity remaining (70 or 80 percent).

Fortunately, Windows can help you know when your battery is unable to hold a full charge. When your battery gets down to 40 percent of its original capacity (that is, it can only hold 40 percent or less of its 11.1v 5200mah 9cells rn873 FK890designed capacity after it has been charged), you'll see a notification via the battery meter icon that your battery might be going bad.

This notification is new in Windows 7—earlier versions of Windows can't notify you when your battery is going bad. If you don't want to receive this notification, you can turn it off by clearing the check box on the battery meter.
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