NMC is the battery of choice for power tools and powertrains for vehicles

June 27 [Thu], 2013, 11:51
Leading battery manufacturers focus on a cathode combination of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC). Similar to Li-manganese, these systems can also be tailored to high specific energy or high specific power, but not both. For example, NMC in an 18650 cell for consumer use can be tweaked to 2,250mAh, but the specific power is moderate. NMC in the same cell optimized for high specific power has a ca probook 4710s rn873 pacity of only 1,500mAh. A silicon-based anode in will be able to go to 4,000mAh; however, the specific power and the cycle life may be compromised.

The secret of NMC lies in combining nickel and manganese. An analogy of this is table salt in which the main ingredients of sodium and chloride are toxic on their own but mixing them serves as seasoning salt and food preserver. Nickel is known for its high specific energy but low stability; mangLeading battery manufacturers focus on a cathode combination of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC). Similar to Li-manganese, these systems can also be tailored to high specific energy or high specific power, but not both. For example, NMC in an 18650 cell for consumer use can be tweaked to 2,250mAh, but the specific power is moderate. NMC in the same cell optimized for high specific power has a capacity of only 1,500mAh. A silicon-based anode in will be able to go to 4,000mAh; however, the specific power and the cycle life may be compromised.

The secret of NMC lies in combining nickel and manganese. An analogy of this is table salt in which the main ingredients of sodium and chloride are toxic on their own but mixing them serves as seasoning salt and food preserver. Nickel is known for its high specific energy but low stability; manganese has the benefit of forming a spinel structure to achieve very low internal resistance but offers a low specific energy. Combining the metals brings out the best in each.

NMC is the battery of choice for power tools and powertrains for vehicles. The cathode combination of one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt offers a unique blend that also lowers raw material cost due to reduced cobalt content. Striking the right balance is important and manufacturers keep their recipes a well-guarded secret. Figure 7 demonstrates the characteristics of the HSTNN-DB73 rn873 NMC.anese has the benefit of forming a spinel structure to achieve very low internal resistance but offers a low specific energy. Combining the metals brings out the best in each.

NMC is the battery of choice for power tools and powertrains for vehicles. The cathode combination of one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt offers a unique blend that also lowers raw material cost due to reduced cobalt content. Striking the right balance is important and manufacturers keep their recipes a well-guarded secret. Figure 7 demonstrates the characteristics of the NMC.

Li-manganese is used for power tools

June 27 [Thu], 2013, 11:50
Lithium insertion in manganese spinels was first published in the Materials Research Bulletin in 1983. In 1996, Moli Energy commercialized a Li-ion cell with lithium manganese oxide as a cathode material. The architecture forms a three-dimensional spinel structure that improves ion flow on the electrode, which Pavilion g6 rn873 results in lower internal resistance and improves current handling. A further advantage of spinel is high thermal stability and enhanced safety, but the cycle and calendar life is limited.

Low internal cell resistance is key to fast charging and high-current discharging. In an 18650 package, Li-manganese can be discharged at currents of 20–30A with moderate heat buildup. It is also possible to apply one-second load pulses of up to 50A. A continuous high load at this current would cause heat buildup and the cell temperature cannot exceed 80°C (176°F). Li-manganese is used for power tools, medical instruments, as well as hybrid and electric vehicles.

Figure 4 shows the crystalline formation of the cathode in a three-dimensional framework. This spinel structure, which is usually composed of diamond shapes connected into a lattice, appears after initial formation.

Li-manganese has a capacity that is roughly one-third lower compared to Li-cobalt but the battery still offers about 50 percent more energy than nickel-based chemistries. Design flexibility allows engineers to maximize the battery for either optimal longevity (life span), maximum load current (specific power) or high capacity (specific energy). For example, the long-life version in the 18650 cell has a moderate 593550-001 rn873 capacity of 1,100mAh; the high-capacity version is 1,500mAh but has a reduced service life. Laptop manufacturers would likely choose the high capacity version for maximum runtime; where as the maker of cars with the electric powertrain would take the long-life version with high specific power and sacrifice on runtime.

Figure 5 shows the spider web of a typical Li-manganese battery. In this chart, all characteristics show as marginal, however, newer designs have improved in terms of specific power, safety and life span.

Modern batteries have thin multiple plates which are connected

May 09 [Thu], 2013, 16:01
You can make a simple wet-cell storage battery with only two lead plates. Submerge them in an electrolyte solution (64% water and 36% sulfuric acid by weight is standard), apply direct current and watch as the positive lead plate develops a brown coating of lead peroxide and the negative plate becomes sponge lead. Remove the voltage source and put a voltmeter across the plates and you'll find Latitude E6400 brightapproximately 2.1 volts, regardless of the size. The larger the plates, the longer the battery can supply this voltage. Combining three such cells in series can create a 6-volt battery, and six cells can make a 12-volt battery (actually 6.3 or 12.6 volts, respectively).

When we ask the battery to produce current flow by putting a load across its terminals, the plates and acid solution undergo another chemical transformation, causing both lead plates to change into lead sulfate, consuming the acid and producing water as a by-product.

Gradually the electrolyte becomes increasingly watery and the plates more sulfated until the battery either dies or we reverse the process by returning current to the battery to restore it. The basic chemistry hasn't changed for a hundred years.



A modern motorcycle battery is a marvel of compact packaging. Since even a smooth-running motorcycle subjects the innards of a batter to much greater vibration than a car, the motorcycle battery's case will be a tighter fit to prevent the lead plates from rattling to pieces. But it's still generally true that a motorycle that vibrates a lot will have a shorter battery life, because the plates themselves are more fragile than you might expect. They are constructed of highly active but very soft lead pastes applied to waffled supporting grids, which provide greater surface area for the chemical reaction than simple flat plates. The paste is porous to allow full penetration of the electrolyte, and the pastes on both the negative and positive plates begin as the same substance; a mixture of lead oxide, dilute sulfuric acid, water and special binders like plastic fiber that produce a material about the consistency of firm mud. Since the negative plates tend to contract in service, special expanders are added to their mix so they can't shrink to become inpenetrable and chemically inactive. Just like our simple cell, the plates are then submerged in electrolyte and given a electrical charge that forms them into positive and negative.

To make the battery more rugged, the plate grids must be made of a harder lead alloy, usually lead-antimony. Anywhere from .5%12% antimony is typical, with higher antimony mixtures making for tougher plates but shortening the sitting life of the charged battery. The big drawback to lead-antimony is that gradual corrosion of the positive grid releases the antimony, which may then form tiny hairlike bridges between the plates. These bridges are actually short circuits that gradually increase the current necessary to recharge the battery, causing increased water loss. Therefore, an older battery needs its water level checked more frequently, and a new battery that needs constant filling may have a voltage regulator problem that is overcharging the battery.

Sealed, maintenance-free batteries use calcium instead of antimony to strengthen the plate grids, since calcium does not produce internal shorts. By giving the battery box a slightly larger volume to hold an extra reserve of electrolyte, incorporating sulfation-retardants and gas-recombinant technology (GRT: a special glass mat surrounding the plates which helps the hydrogen and oxygen recombine rather than escape from the battery as a gas), the manufacturer can eliminate the filler caps. However, all these batteries are not truly sealed, but may incorporate almost invisible safety vents around the perimeter of their tops. As advertised, the maintenance-free battery does have a natural resistance to overcharging and water loss. But unfortunately, they are also not as resilient when deeply discharged (considered to be the loss of 80% capacity) as are their lead-antimony brothers, and may be killed by such things as leaving an electrical load on for a long time (when a 12 volt battery might drop to just 2 volts), while a lead-antimony battery might still be saved. Some of the new high-tech "smart" battery chargers (about $60) claim to be able to restore even a deeply-discharged maintenance-free battery by increasing the initial charging voltage to as high as 20 volts to overcome the internal reisistance.

To increase current capacity, modern batteries have thin multiple plates which are connected in parallel within each cell, forming a kind of lead sandwich with a negative plate at each end and alternating positive plates Studio 1555 brightwithin, all insulated from one another by separators. The separators are micro-porous, meaning charged ions can pass through readily, but they prevent physical contact that would constitute a short circuit, and also attempt to prevent the formation of the tiny alloy short circuits.

Steady improvements in separator materials have given us more powerful batteries without size increases.

There is no too much modification in addition to brand LOGO

March 21 [Thu], 2013, 14:31
The Lenovo Thinkpad E series has taken “thinking different, doing something different” as a slogan, and dares to break through rigid business notebook formal design, bold colors and consistent quality demonstrate the excellence 12 cells Envy 15and innovation of the ThinkPad. Today I brought Thinkpad E430 black version, there are some changes in the appearance at the same time it is equipped with the latest Ivy Bridge platform, with the NVIDIA GeForce GT 630M + IntelGMA the HD 4000 dual graphics cards.

As a member of ThinkPadEdge E series, ThinkPad E430’s design style has not changed much compared with the previous generation E420, but some details has some adjustment. Thinkpad E430 has black and red teo colors, it continues the Edge E series of simple and elegant design style, on the machine top cover, there is no too much modification in addition to brand LOGO, the overall design is simple and elegant.

Thinkpad E430 uses a 14-inch matte screen design to reduce the screen reflective, so that users can easily see the screen 12 cells Pavilion dv3outdoors, at the same time the 1366 × 768 is the laptop main resolution.

In the laptop interface configuration, ThinkPad E430 provides us with a common USB2.0, HDMI and VGA interface on left side, USB3.0 interface, network interface and a headphone jack on the right configuration, the USB 3.0 interface makes the data transfer speed 5 times faster compared to USB 2.0.


This is the first time we joined a targeted function

March 21 [Thu], 2013, 14:27
Apple previously announced the second quarter earning showed that Apple Mac of the Asia-Pacific region (including the Mac, Mac, book air and Macbookpro) sales is 593,000 units, down 4 percent. Apple official said “the iPhone12 cells 586029-001 and iPad selling is very well in China, and we hope the Mac also has a very good performance in China.”

Mac’s problem largely reflects the “decline” of the entire PC market, according to IDC recent report about second-quarter PC sales, during the period the worldwide PC shipments are 86.7 million units, a slight decline of 0.1% compared to the same period last year, far less from the IDC had expected growth of 2.1%.

In addition to the new iPad, Apple sales channels in China recently ushered in a new product -the notebook product line with new configuration, including Macbook air, Macbookpro, and MacBookPro with a new generation of Retina display (Retinal screen). It is worth noting that the listing time of these products in China is synchronous with the United States, France, Germany, Japan and other countries. More important, these new products are equipped with Apple’s new Mac operating system mountainlion, the biggest improvement in this version system is the integratation with many specialized functions for the Chinese market.

“This is the first time we joined a targeted function for the market segments (China) needs.” Apple’s headquarters said to when receiving the Southern Reporter interview that the new added features include Sina microblogging, Tudou, Youku, NetEase and the Tencent mailbox supporting, and it comes 12 cells Pavilion dm3with the Pinyin input method.

Since the took over Apple firm from the late legend Steve Jobs hands, the CEO Tim Cook never lacks praise to the Chinese market. The past two years the Chinese market performance also brought earnings to Apple. However, in the latest quarterly earnings report, growth in China appears to be slowing, and in the Asia-Pacific including China the Mac sales volume recorded decline.

Wind turbines generate electricity dependent on the speed of the wind

November 16 [Fri], 2012, 17:40
Energy storage systems are sometimes used for load balancing. Load balancing is the process of storing excess electricity generated during off peak hours especially (in the night) and using it to help power plants to meet electricity demand during the day by jointly supplying electricity with the existing gener9cells A32-UL20ators (example: steam or wind turbines).

Without load balancing, power plants such as coal, nuclear, natural gas (steam), and geothermal generate too much electricity at night when electricity demand is lower, and just about enough, or too little during the day, so more electricity is wasted at night. Power plants of that type are not load-following power plants, their power output cannot be adjusted much.

Gasoline powered generators’ efficiency varies with speed, and they can benefit from economical and efficient energy storage by operating at their most efficient speed at all times and charging cheap, efficient batteries, which would then supply just enough electricity to meet demand, and at all times.

Wind turbines generate electricity dependent on the speed of the wind. Wind speed patterns do not consistently follow electricity demand patterns, and the wind blows intermittently, therefore, energy storage replacement battery for rn873 A1309 helps wind power plants by enabling them to supply exactly the right amount of electricity demanded and at all times.

Examples of Rechargeable batteries include Pure Energy and Accucell

November 16 [Fri], 2012, 16:17
These batteries were supposed to bring the best of both worlds for alkaline. Its high capacity combined with its rechargeable nature makes is sound very good. However, it does not. Rechargeable Alkalines get fewer recharge cylcles in comparison to NiMH rechargeables. In fact, the Rechargeable Alkalines have lower Compaq Presario CQ70 laptop batterystarting capacity than the best NiMHs anyway.

Rechargeable Alkalines cannot be used in digital cameras since it is not a high-drain battery, and it also requires a special charger.

However, Rechargeable Alkalines do give out higher voltage than NiMH. This means that it performs great with devices that take in multiple batteries. For instance, LED flashlights gives out brighter light with the alkalines than with NiMH. With the infrequent use along with high self-discharge of the NiMH makes the batteries go dead on their own between periods of use.

Examples of Rechargeable batteries include Pure Energy and Accucell.

As mentioned with the regular alkaline, DO NOT charge batteries with any regular recharger for they may explode. Always keep the batteies "topped off" meaning the sooner it is recharged, the more recharge cycles and more total power it can give throughout its lifetime.

There are no 9V rechargeable alkalines for two reasons. One being that they are made with six 1.5V-cells inside, therefore making it easy to access each cells for and reliably recharge them. It is harder to access the9cells rn873 Presario F500 battery cells with the 9V. The other reason is that 9V batteries provides limited benefit in terms of cost savings for the products that run with them lasts more many months anyway.

Gasoline powered generators’ efficiency varies with speed

November 16 [Fri], 2012, 16:16
Energy storage systems are sometimes used for load balancing. Load balancing is the process of storing excess electricity generated during off peak hours especially (in the night) and using it to help power plants to meet electricity demand during the day by jointly supplying electricity with the existingcheap rn873 Presario CQ60 battery generators (example: steam or wind turbines).

Without load balancing, power plants such as coal, nuclear, natural gas (steam), and geothermal generate too much electricity at night when electricity demand is lower, and just about enough, or too little during the day, so more electricity is wasted at night. Power plants of that type are not load-following power plants, their power output cannot be adjusted much.

Gasoline powered generators’ efficiency varies with speed, and they can benefit from economical and efficient energy storage by operating at their most efficient speed at all times and charging cheap, efficient batteries, which would then supply just enough electricity to meet demand, and at all times.

Wind turbines generate electricity dependent on the speed of the wind. Wind speed patterns do not consistently followreplacement battery for Presario CQ62 battery electricity demand patterns, and the wind blows intermittently, therefore, energy storage helps wind power plants by enabling them to supply exactly the right amount of electricity demanded and at all times.

Components of battery packs include the individual batteries or cells

October 19 [Fri], 2012, 15:22
A battery pack is a set of any number of (preferably) identical batteries or individual battery cells. They may be configured in a series, parallel or a mixture of both to deliver the desired voltage, capacity, or power density. The term cheap rn873 pack is often used in reference to RC hobby toys and battery electric vehicles.

Components of battery packs include the individual batteries or cells, and the interconnects which provide electrical conductivity between them. Rechargeable battery packs often contain a temperature sensor, which the battery charger uses to detect the end of charging. Interconnects are also found in batteries as they are the part which connects each cell, though batteries are most often only arranged in series strings.

When wiring a pack in parallel there are various methods and one should take into consideration the balance of the electrical circuit. Battery regulators are sometimes used to keep the peak voltage of each individual battery or cell below its maximum value so to allow weaker batteries to be fully charged, bringing the whole pack back into balance.

Active balancing can also be performed by battery balancer devices which can shuttle energy from strong batteries to weaker ones in real time for even better balance. A well-balanced pack lasts longer and delivers dell battery rn873 W953Gbetter performance so it is a rather beneficial component of high capacity or expensive packs.

For an inline package, cells are selected and stacked with solder in between them. The cells are pressed together and a current pulse generates heat to solder them together and to weld all connections internal to the cell.

This is the mystery battery/ultracapacitor combination that receives

September 07 [Fri], 2012, 18:36
Lead acid batteries continue to hold a leading position, especially in wheeled mobility and stationary applications. This strong market appeal entices manufacturers to explore ways to make the batteries better. Improvements have been made and some claims are so promising that one questions the trustworthiness. It is no secret that researchers prefer publishing the positive attributes whilbattery for 593572-001e keeping the negatives under wraps. The following information on lead acid developments was obtained from available printed resources at the time of writing.
Firefly Energy

The composite plate material of the Firefly Energy battery is based on a lead acid variant that is lighter, longer living and has higher active material utilization than current lead acid systems. The battery includes foam electrodes for the negative plates, which gives it a performance that is comparable to NiMH but at lower manufacturing costs. Design concerns include microtubule blockage through crystal growth during low charge conditions. In addition, crystal expansion causes a reduction of the surface area, which will result in lower capacity with aging. Pricing is also a concern. It currently costs about $450 to manufacture a Firefly battery as opposed to $150 for a regular lead acid version. Firefly Energy is a spin-off of Caterpillar and went into bankruptcy in 2010.
Altraverda Bipolar

Similar to the Firefly Energy battery, the Altraverda battery is based on lead. It uses a proprietary titanium sub-oxide ceramic structure, called Ebonex?, for the grid and an AGM separator. The un-pasted plate contains Ebonex? particles in a polymer matrix that holds a thin lead alloy foil on the external surfaces. With 50–60Wh/kg, the specific energy is about one-third larger than regular lead acid and is comparable with NiCd. Based in the UK, Altraverda works with East Penn in the USA, and the battery is well suited for higher voltage applications.
Axion Power

The Axion Power e3 Supercell is a hybrid battery/ultracapacitor in which the positive electrode consists of standard lead dioxide and the negative electrode is activated carbon, while maintaining an assembly process that is similar to lead acid. The Axion Power battery offers faster recharge times and longer cycle life on repeated deep discharges than what is possible with regular lead acid systems. This opens the door for the start-stop application in micro-hybrid cars. The lead-carbon combination of the Axion Power battery lowers the lead content on the negative plate, which results in a weight reduction of 30 percent compared to a regular lead acid. This, however, also lowers the specific energy to 15–25Wh/kg instead of 30–50Wh/kg, which a regular lead acid battery normally provides.
CSIRO Ultrabattery

The CSIRO Ultrabattery combines an asymmetric ultracapacitor and a lead acid battery in each cell. The capacitor enhances the power and lifetime of the battery by acting as a buffer during charging and discharging, prolonging the lifetime by a factor of four over customary lead acid systems and producing 50 percent more power. The manufacturer also claims that the battery is 70 percent cheaper to produce than current hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) batteries. CSIRO batteries are undergoing road trials in a Honda Insight HEV and show good results. Furukawa Battery in Japan licensed the technology. The CSIRO battery is also being tested for start-stop applications in micro-hybrid cars to replace the lead acid starter battery. This battery promises dv2000 laptop battery extended life when exposed to frequent start-stop conditions and is able to take a fast charge.
EEStor

This is the mystery battery/ultracapacitor combination that receives much media attention. The battery is based on a modified barium titanate ceramic powder and claims a specific energy of up to 280Wh/kg, higher than lithium-ion. The company is very secretive about their invention and releases only limited information. Some of their astonishing claims are: One-tenth of the weight of a NiMH battery in a hybrid application, no deep-cycle wear-down, three- to six-minute charge time, no hazardous material, similar manufacturing costs to lead acid, and a self-discharge that is only 0.02 percent per month, a fraction of that of lead acid and Li-ion.