The electric vehicle will tell how far the battery can go

July 25 [Thu], 2013, 11:54
Governments have been trying to reduce fuel consumption and lower pollution without imposing drastic change on the driving habits of the motorist, and the hybrid car fits the bill well, especially in large cities. So strong is the acceptance on the political scene that the move has crossed the Atlantic. Germany and France, with their fuel-efficient and clean-running diesel engines, are showing a good facelithium Satellite P305D by adding hybrid versions to their lines of cars. However, a visit to the auto show in Frankfurt in 2009 proved that muscle cars still attract the largest crowds, while vehicles with a low carbon footprint sat neglected on the show floor.

Batteries play an important role in electric powertrains, and the price per kilowatt-hour varies according to battery type. Table 1 lists typical batteries for mobility. At $120 per kWh, a deep-cycle battery for golf cars is most economical, followed by starter and forklift batteries. Complex manufacturing, rare raw materials, electronic safety circuits and management systems make newer technologies morelithium Satellite P500 expensive than older systems. High-volume production will moderate the price only marginally. Batteries for powertrains are about $1,000 per kWh.

The electric vehicle will tell how far the battery can go, and we hope for success. Advancing further and deploying batteries for heavy trains, large ships and passenger airplanes makes little sense today. Current battery technologies are not yet suited to replace petroleum; the NCV of a battery is low, the price is high and the life span short. Finding a new energy source comparable to petroleum products will be difficult to find.

The battery serves as a buffer similar to the HEV

July 25 [Thu], 2013, 11:52
The fuel cell as a propulsion system is in many ways superior to batteries, as it needs to carry less energy storage devices by weight and volume compared to a vehicle propelled by batteries alone. Figure 1 illustrates the practical travel range of a vehicle powered by a fuel cell (FC) compared to lead acid, NiMH or Li-ionlithium Satellite C670 . One can clearly see that lead- and nickel-based batteries simply get too heavy when increasing the size to enable larger distances. In this respect, the fuel cell enjoys similar qualities to the IC engine in that it can conquer large distances with only the extra weight of fuel.

Although the fuel cell assumes the duty of the IC engine in a vehicle, poor response time and a weak power band make onboard batteries necessary. In this respect, the FC car resembles an electric vehicle with an onboard power aggregate to keep the batteries charged. The battery is the master and the fuel cell becomes the slave. On start-up, the vehicle relies 100 percent on the battery and the fuel cell only begins contributing after reaching a steady state in 5–30 seconds. During the warm-up period, the battery must also deliver power to activate the air compressor and pumps. When warm, the FC provides enough power for cruising, and when the vehicle is accelerating or climbing hills both the FC and battery provide power. During braking, the kinetic energy is returned to charge the battery.

The FC of a mid sized car generates around 85kW, or 114hp. The energy is coupled to an electric motor with a similar or slightly higher power output. The onboard battery has a capacity of around 18kW and provides throttle response and power assist when passing vehicles or climbing hills. The battery serves as a buffer similar to the HEV and does not get heavily stressed by repeated deep cycling, as is the case with the EV.


Hydrogen costs about twice as much as gasoline, but the high efficiency of the FC compared to the IC engine in converting fuel to energy gives the same net effect on the pocketbook, with the benefit of less greenhouse gas and reduced pollution.

Hydrogen is commonly derived from natural gas. Critics might well ask, “Why not burn natural gas directly in the IC engine instead of converting it to hydrogen through a reformer and then transforming it to electricity in a fuel cell to feed the electric motors?” The answer is efficiency. Burning natural gas in a combustion turbine to produce electricity has an efficiency factor of only 26–32 percent, while using a fuel cell is 35–50 percent efficient. We must keep in mind that the machinery required to support the clean FC is far more expensive and requires additional maintenance over the more simplistic burning process.

Complicating matters further is the fact that we have no hydrogen infrastructure, and the cost of building one is prohibitive. A refueling station capable of reforming natural gas to hydrogen for the support of 2,300 vehicles costs over $2 million to build. In comparison, a charging outlet for the EV is less than $1,000, but the refill time would be longer than with the FC. Meanwhile, we have plenty of gas stations that offer a quick fill-up of cheap fuel.


Durability and cost are other concerns with the fuel cell, and there have been encouraging improvements. The service life of an FC in a car driven in normal traffic conditions has doubled from 1,000 hours to 2,000 hours. Thelithium Satellite P305 target for 2015 is 5,000 hours, or the full life of a vehicle driving 240,000km (150,000 miles). Further challenge is cost. The fuel cell costs substantially more to manufacture than an IC engine.


As a simple guideline, the FC vehicle will be more expensive than a plug-in hybrid, and the plug-in hybrid will cost more than a regular gasoline-powered car. Based on our relatively low fuel prices, using alternative conversion methods is difficult to justify in terms of cost savings. The benefit goes to the environment.

Li-ion batteries yield one ton of lithium

July 25 [Thu], 2013, 11:51
The demand for Li-ion batteries is increasing, and finding sufficient supply of lithium as a raw material is testing the mining industry. A compact EV battery (Nissan Leaf) uses about 4kg (9 lb) of lithium. If every man, woman and teenager were to drive an electric car in the future, a lithium shortage could develop lithium Satellite C660D and rumor of this happening is already spreading.

About 70 percent of the world’s lithium comes from brine (salt lakes); the remainder is derived from hard rock. Research institutes are developing technology to draw lithium from seawater. China is the largest consumer of lithium. The Chinese believe that future cars will run on Li-ion batteries and an unbridled supply of lithium is important to them.

In 2009, total demand for lithium reached almost 92,000 metric tons, of which batteries consume 26 percent. Figure 1 illustrates typical uses of lithium, which include lubricants, glass, ceramics, pharmaceuticals and refrigeration.

Most of the known supply of lithium is in Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Australia and China. The supply is ample and concerns of global shortages are speculative, at least for the moment. It takes 750 tons of brine, the base of lithium, and 24 months of preparation to get one ton of lithium in Latin America. Lithium can also be recycled an unlimited number of times, and 20 tons of spent Li-ion batteries yield one ton of lithium. This will help the supply, but recycling can be more expensive than harvesting new supply through mining.

Named after the Greek word “lithos” meaning “stone,” lithium is inexpensive. The raw material costs a fraction of one cent per watt, or less than 0.1 percent of the battery cost. A $10,000 battery for a plug-in hybrid contains less than $100 worth of lithium. Shortages when producing millions of large batteries for vehicles and stationary applications may increase the price. Cobalt, another component found in some Li-ion batteries, is expensive and if required in high volume, demand for this hard and lustrous gray metal could cause global shortages.

At the time of writing, there are no other materials that could replace lithium, nor are battery systems in development that offer the same or better performance as lithium-ion at a comparable price. Rather than worrying about a lack of lithium, graphite, the anode material, could also be in short supply. A large EV lithium Satellite C665 uses about 25kg (55lb) of anode material. The process to make anode-grade graphite with 99.99 percent purity is expensive and produces much waste.

There is also a concern about pending shortages of rare earth materials for permanent magnets. Electric motors with permanent magnets are among the most energy efficient, and these are finding their way into EV powertrains. China controls about 95 percent of the global market for rare earth metals and expects to use most of these resources for its own production.

Lithium-ion batteries are significantly more susceptible to internal failures

April 11 [Thu], 2013, 10:31
A growing number of investigators and Boeing executives are working around the clock to determine what caused the two incidentsOriginal T117C which the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration says released flammable chemicals and could have sparked a fire in the plane's electrical compartment.

There are still no clear answers about the root cause of the battery failures, but the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board's statement eliminated one possible answer that had been raised by Japanese investigators.

It also underscored the complexity of investigating a battery system that includes manufacturers across the world, and may point to a design problem with the battery that could take longer to fix than swapping out a faulty batch of batteries.
"Examination of the flight recorder data from the JAL B-787 airplane indicates that the APU (auxiliary power unit) battery did not exceed its designed voltage of 32 volts," the NTSB said in a statement issued early Sunday.

On Friday, a Japanese safety official had told reporters that excessive electricity may have overheated the battery in the ANA-owned Dreamliner that was forced to make the emergency landing at Japan's Takamatsu airport last week.

"The NTSB wanted to set the record straight," said one source familiar with the investigation who was not authorized to speak publicly.
U.S. investigators have already examined the lithium-ion battery that powered the APU, where the battery fire started in the JAL plane, as well as several other components removed from the airplane, including wire bundles and battery management circuit boards, the NTSB statement said.
On Tuesday, investigators will convene in Tucson, Arizona to test and examine the charger for the battery, and download non-volatile memory from the APU controller, with similar tests planned at the Phoenix facility where the APUs are built. Other components have been sent for download or examination to Boeing's Seattle facility and manufacturer facilities in Japan.

Securaplane Technologies Inc, a unit of Britain's Meggitt Plc that makes the charger, said it will fully support the U.S. investigation.
Officials with United Technologies Corp, which builds the plane's auxiliary power unit and is the main supplier of electrical systems on the 787, said they would also cooperate with the investigation.

The NTSB's decision to travel to Securaplane's facility sparked fresh questions about the safety of the lithium-ion batteries that remain at the heart of the investigation.
While the 787 is the most aggressive user of lithium-ion battery technology in commercial aviation, the industry at large is testing it, and the FAA has approved its use in several different planes, each governed by "special conditions."

"Lithium-ion batteries are significantly more susceptible to internal failures that can result in self-sustaining increases in temperature and pressure," the FAA said in 2006, when it allowed Airbus to use lithium batteries for the emerging lighting system on its A380.
Securaplane, which first began working on the charger in 2004, suffered millions of dollars of damages in November 2006 after a lithium-ion battery used in testing exploded and sparked a fire that burned an administrative building to the ground.

Boeing spokesman Marc Birtel said an investigation into the 2006 fire was later determined to have been caused byOriginal KY265 an improper test set-up, not the battery design. He declined comment on the current 787 investigations.

After the fire, a former Securaplane employee named Michael Leon sued the company, alleging that he was fired for raising security concerns about charger and discrepancies between their assembly documents and the finished chargers.

The Army's test would involve the Nett Warrior program

April 11 [Thu], 2013, 10:30
Tomorrow's soldiers may get hands-free helmet displays and mobile computers to track friendly troop locations on the battlefield — but they still need to recharge the batteries. The U.S. Army wants to make charging Original Studio 1535similarly hands-free by putting cordless charging stations in every military vehicle, aircraft and base.

The Army's first step toward turning the dream of wireless charging everywhere into reality would test a charging station inside an armored infantry carrier to "trickle charge" soldiers' gadgets at a distance of two feet. Success on the battlefield could eventually lead to many more civilian charging stations for cellphones, tablets and laptops on the home front.

"This technology will replace cables and standardize on one interface, potentially being able to adjust power settings to charge different types of batteries," according to the Army's solicitation for the small-business innovation research program on April 25. "Eventually, it will be embedded in commercial electronic devices, eliminating the need for an adapter."

The Army's test would involve the Nett Warrior program — a trial system that has a computer, radio, display and other components used to help track fellow squad members. Such soldier-worn gadgets would need about 10 watts per soldier to charge up the Nett Warrior battery carried by each of nine soldiers riding inside a vehicle.

Having a wireless charging station means soldiers would not need to take out their gadgets and fumble with charging cords. They also would also save on both space and weight by not needing to carry extraOriginal T112Cduring long slogs out on foot patrol — a pain even if tomorrow's soldiers have a robotic mule to help share the load.

Existing wireless chargers mostly require users to lay their smartphones or tablets flat on a pad. But efforts such as the Army's new plan and a private project to create wireless charging for electric cars could someday free both soldiers and civilians from having to untangle power cords ever again.

The delta Temperature method keeps the battery

February 21 [Thu], 2013, 16:21
Full-charge detection of sealed nickel-based batteries is more complex than that of lead acid and lithium-ion. Low-cost chargers often use toriginal Vostro 1320emperature sensing to end the fast-charge, but this can be inaccurate.

The core of a cell is several degrees warmer than the skin where the temperature is measured, and the delay that occurs causes over-charge. Charger manufacturers use 50°C (122°F) as temperature cut-off. Although any prolonged temperature above 45°C (113°F) is harmful to the battery, a brief overshoot is acceptable as long as the battery temperature will drop quickly when the “ready” light appears.

With microprocessors, advanced chargers no longer rely on a fixed temperature threshold, but sense the rate of temperature increase over time, also known as delta Temperature over delta time, or dT/dt. Rather than waiting for an absolute temperature to occur, this method uses the rapid temperature increase towards the end of charge to trigger the “ready” light.

The delta Temperature method keeps the battery cooler than a fixed temperature cut-off, but the cells need to charge reasonably fast to trigger the temperature rise. Charge termination occurs when the temperature rises 1°C (1.8°F) per minute. If the battery cannot achieve the pace of temperature rise, an absolute temperature cut-off set to 60°C (140°F) terminates the charge.

Chargers relying on temperature inflict harmful overcharges when a fully charged battery is removed and reinserted. This is the case with chargers in vehicles and desktop stations where a two-way radio is being removed original Vostro 1710with each use.

Every reconnection initiates a fast-charge cycle that raises the battery temperature to the triggering point again. Li‑ion systems have an advantage in that state-of-charge is being detected by voltage. Reinserting a fully charged Li-ion battery pushes the voltage to the full-charge threshold, and the charger turns off shortly without needing to create a temperature signature.

Cellular repeater towers are an example where the battery serves

February 21 [Thu], 2013, 16:20
The main purpose of a stationary battery is to provide power during power outage. A battery bank can also provide supplementarypowerduring high-traffic periods. In essence, the battery acts as a buffer to assist the AC power supply when so needed. The term “AC power supply” refers to the unit that provides electricaloriginal T117C power to the system and charges stationary batteries.

Cellular repeater towers are an example where the battery serves as a buffer to bridge heavy usage times. During off-peak periods, the batteries are fully charged, and at peak times when the load exceeds the capacity of the power supply, the batteries kick in to provide the extra power. A starter battery in a vehicle works in a similar way. While the motor is on idle at a traffic light, the battery complements the power to run the lights, windshield wipers and other accessories. Driving at highwayoriginal KY265 speed replenishes the borrowed power.

When relying on the battery as buffer, make certain that the battery has enough time to charge between peak periods. The net charge must always be greater than what was drawn from the battery. Avoid deep discharges and make sure that the float charge voltage is set correctly. Stationary and starter batteries are not made for deep cycling. If excessively cycled, the battery will experience unwanted stresses that will shorten the life.

Battery manufacturers are aware of performance loss over time

December 27 [Thu], 2012, 17:03
A battery is a corrosive device that begins to fade the moment it comes off the assembly line. The stubborn behavior of batteries has left many users in awkward situations. The British Army could have lost the Falklands War in 1982 on account of uncooperative batteries. The officers assumed that aAspire 5750 compatible batterywould always follow the rigid dictate of the military. Not so. When a key order was given to launch the British missiles, nothing happened. No missiles flew that day. Such battery-induced letdowns are common; some are simply a nuisance and others have serious consequences.

Even with the best of care, a battery only lives for a defined number of years. There is no distinct life span, and the health of a battery rests on its genetic makeup, environmental conditions and user patterns.

Lead acid reaches the end of life when the active material has been consumed on the positive grids; nickel-based batteries lose performance as a result of corrosion; and lithium-ion fades when the transfer of ions slows down for degenerative reasons. Only the supercapacitor achieves a virtually unlimited number of cycles, if this device can be called a battery, but it also has a defined life span.

Battery manufacturers are aware of performance loss over time, but there is a disconnect when educating buyers about the fading effect. Runtimes are always estimated with a perfect battery delivering 100 percent capacity, a condition that only applies when the battery is new.While a dropped phone call on a consumer product because of a weak battery may only inconvenience the cellular user, an unexpected power loss on a medical, military or emergency device can be more devastating.

Consumers have learned to take the advertised battery runtimes in stride. The information means little and there is no enforcement. Perhaps no other specification is as loosely given as that of battery performance. The manufacturers know this and get away with minimal accountability. Very seldom does a user challenge the battery manufacturer for failing to deliver the specified battery performance, even when human lives are at stake. Less critical failures have been debated in court Aspire 5742 compatible batteryand punished in a harsh way.
The battery is an elusive scapegoat; it’s as if it holds special immunity.

Should the battery quit during a critical mission, then this is a situation that was beyond control and could not be prevented. It was an act of God and the fingers point in other directions to assign the blame. Even auditors of quality-control systems shy away from the battery and consider only the physical appearance; state-of-function appears less important to them.

Lithium-ion batteries are nearing their theoretical energy

November 21 [Wed], 2012, 11:09
When Sony introduced the first lithium-ion battery in 1991, they knew of the potential safety risks. A recall of the previously released rechargeable metallic lithium battery was a bleak reminder of the discipline one must exercise when dealing with this high energy-dense battery system.

Pioneering work for the lithium battery began in 1912, but is was not until the early 1970's when the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available. Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the eighties. These early models were based on metallic lithium and offered very 12 cells 537626-001high energy density. However, inherent instabilities of lithium metal, especially during charging, put a damper on the development. The cell had the potential of a thermal run-away.

The temperature would quickly rise to the melting point of the metallic lithium and cause a violent reaction. A large quantity of rechargeable lithium batteries had to be recalled in 1991 after the pack in a cellular phone released hot gases and inflicted burns to a man's face.

Because of the inherent instability of lithium metal, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions. Although slightly lower in energy density, the lithium-ion system is safe, providing certain precautions are met when charging and discharging. Today, lithium-ion is one of the most successful and safe battery chemistries available. Two billion cells are produced every year.

Lithium-ion cells with cobalt cathodes hold twice the energy of a nickel-based battery and four-times that of lead acid. Lithium-ion is a low maintenance system, an advantage that most other chemistries cannot claim. There is no memory and the battery does not require scheduled cycling to prolong its life. Nor does lithium-ion have the sulfation problem of lead acid that occurs when the battery is stored without periodic topping charge. Lithium-ion has a low self-discharge and is environmentally friendly. Disposal causes minimal harm.

Long battery runtimes have always been the wish of many consumers. Battery manufacturers responded by packing more active material into a cell and making the electrodes and separator thinner. This enabled a doubling of energy density since lithium-ion was introduced in 1991.

The high energy density comes at a price. Manufacturing methods become more critical the denser the cells become. With a separator thickness of only 20-25μm, any small intrusion of metallic dust particles can have devastating consequences. Appropriate measures will be needed to achieve the mandated safety standard set forth by UL 1642. Whereas a nail penetration test could be tolerated on the older 18650 cell with a capacity of 1.35Ah, today's high-density 2.4Ah cell would become a bombbright 607762-001 when performing the same test.

UL 1642 does not require nail penetration. Lithium-ion batteries are nearing their theoretical energy density limit and battery manufacturers are beginning to focus on improving manufacturing methods and increasing safety.

Older models of cameras will often use battery types

November 21 [Wed], 2012, 11:06
1
Third-party batteries are usually available in your local electronics stores. If your original battery quits unexpectedly, you can have a working replacement within the day, which is especially important if you're using your camera to photographhigh quality Pavilion G72 battery graduations, holiday parties, and other one time events.

When compared to their brand name equivalent most generics cost less than half the price.

Older models of cameras will often use battery types that have been discontinued by the manufacturer. In these instances, after market suppliers are your only alternative.

If the correct battery was selected, it will generally function and perform exactly like its brand name twin. Most third party 9cells Pavilion Envy 14 battfery are identical in their composition, voltage and battery life. Many actually offer better battery life.