AGM batteries are less prone

June 20 [Thu], 2013, 15:56
AGM is an improved lead acid battery with higher performance than the regular flooded type. Instead of submerging the plates into liquid electrolyte, the electrolyte is absorbed in a mat of fine glass fibers. This makes the 593554-001 laptop battery spill-proof, allowing shipment without hazardous material restrictions. The plates can be made flat like the standard flooded lead acid and placed in a rectangular case, or wound into a conventional cylindrical cell.

AGM has very low internal resistance, is capable of delivering high currents and offers long service even if occasionally deep-cycled. AGM has a lower weight and provides better electrical reliability than the flooded lead acid type. It also stands up well to high and low temperatures and has a low self-discharge. Other advantages over regular lead acid are a better specific power rating (high load current) and faster charge times (up to five times faster).

The negatives are slightly lower specific energy (capacity) and higher manufacturing costs.
AGM batteries are commonly built to size and are found in high-end vehicles to run power-hungry accessories such as heated seats, steering wheels, mirrors and windshield wipers. Starter batteries also power navigation systems, traction and stability control, as well as premium stereos. NASCAR and other auto racing leagues choose AGM products because they are vibration resistant. Start-stop batteries are almost exclusively AGM because the classic flooded type is not robust enough; repeated micro cycling would induce capacity fade.
AGM batteries are commonly


AGM is the preferred battery for upscale motorcycles. It reduces acid spilling in an accident, lowers weight for the same performance and can be installed odd angles. Because of good performance at cold temperatures, AGM batteries are also used for marine, motor home and robotic applications.
As with all gelled and sealed units, AGM batteries are sensitive to overcharging. These batteries can be charged to 2.40V/cell (and higher) without problem; however, the float charge should be reduced to between 2.25 and 2.30V/cell (summer temperatures may require lower voltages).

Automotive charging systems for flooded lead acid often have a fixed float voltage setting of 14.40V (2.40V/cell), and a direct ks527aa laptop battery replacement with a sealed unit could spell trouble by exposing the battery to undue overcharge on a long drive.

AGM and other gelled electrolyte batteries do not like heat and should be installed away from the engine compartment. Manufacturers recommend halting charge if the battery core reaches 49°C (120°F). While regular lead acid batteries need a topping charge every six months to prevent the buildup of sulfation, AGM batteries are less prone and can sit in storage for longer before a charge becomes necessary.

The idea of recharging alkaline batteries is not new

April 25 [Thu], 2013, 15:53
The reusable alkaline was introduced in 1992 as an alternative to disposable batteries. The battery was promoted as a low-cost power source for consumer goods. Attempts were made to open markets for wireless communications, medical and defense. But the big breakthrough never came. Today, the reusable alkaline occupies only a small market and its use is limited to portable entertainment devices HSTNN-DB73 compatibleand flashlights. The lack of market appeal is regrettable when considering the environmental benefit of having to discard fewer batteries. It is said that the manufacturing cost of the reusable alkaline is only marginally higher than the primary cell.


The idea of recharging alkaline batteries is not new. Although not endorsed by manufacturers, ordinary alkaline batteries have been recharged in households for many years. Recharging these batteries is only effective, however, if the cells have been discharged to less than 50% of their total capacity. The number of recharges depends solely on the depth of discharge and is limited to a few cycles at best. With each recharge, the amount of capacity the cell can hold is reduced. There is a cautionary advisory. Charging ordinary alkaline batteries may generate hydrogen gas, which can lead to explosion. It is not prudent to charge ordinary alkaline unsupervised.


The reusable alkaline is designed for repeated recharge. Also here,, there is a loss of charge acceptance with each recharge. The longevity of the reusable alkaline is a direct function of the depth of discharge; the deeper the discharge, the fewer cycles the battery can endure.

Tests performed by Cadex on 'AA' reusable alkaline cells showed a high capacity reading on the first discharge. In fact, the energy density was similar to that of nickel-metal-hydride. After the battery was fully discharged and recharged using the manufacturer's charger, the reusable alkaline settled at 60%, a capacity slightly below that of nickel-cadmium. Repeat cycling in the same manner resulted in a fractional capacity loss with each cycle. The discharge current in the tests was adjusted to 200mA (0.2 C-rate, or one fifth of the rated capacity); the end-of-discharge threshold was set to 1V/cell.

An additional limitation of the reusable alkaline system is its high internal resistance, resulting in a load current capability of only 400mA (lower than 400mA provides better results). Although adequate for portable radios receivers, CD players, tape players and flashlights, 400mA is insufficient to power most mobile phones and video cameras.

The reusable alkaline is inexpensive to buy but the cost per cycle is high when compared to other rechargeable batteries. Whereas nickel-cadmium checks in at $0.04US per cycle based on 1500 cycles, the reusable alkaline costs $0.50 based on 10 full discharge cycles. For many applications, this seemingly high cost is still economical when compared to primary alkaline that provides a one-time use. By only partially discharging the reusable alkaline, an improved cycle life is possible. At 50% depth of discharge, 50 cycles can be expected.

To compare the operating cost between the standard and reusable alkaline, a study was done on flashlight batteries for hospital use. The reusable alkaline achieved measurable cost savings in the low?intensity care unit in which the flashlights were used only occasionally. The high-intensity care unit, which used the f 497694-001 compatiblelashlights constantly, did not attain the same result. Deeper discharge and more frequent recharge reduced the service life and offset any cost advantage over the standard alkaline battery.

When considering reusable alkaline, one must realize that the initial energy is slightly lower than that of the standard alkaline. Each subsequent recharge/charge cycle causes the capacity to decrease. Cost savings are realized if the batteries are never fully discharged but have a change to be recharged often.

This prevents gassing due to a float

March 08 [Fri], 2013, 10:36
The first sealed, or maintenance-free, lead acid emerge in the mid-1970s. The engineers argued that the term “sealed lead acid” is a misnomer because no lead acid battery can be totally sealed. This is true and replacement HSTNN-Q21Cdesigners added a valve to control venting of gases during stressful charge and rapid discharge.

Rather than submerging the plates in a liquid, the electrolyte is impregnated into a moistened separator, a design that resembles nickel- and lithium-bases system. This enables to operate the battery in any physical orientation without leakage.

The sealed battery contains less electrolyte than the flooded type, hence the term “acid-starved.” Perhaps the most significant advantage of the sealed lead acid is the ability to combine oxygen and hydrogen to create water and prevent water loss. The recombination occurs at a moderate pressure of 0.14 bar (2psi). The valve serves as safety vent if gases buildup during over-overcharge or stressful discharge. Repeated venting would lead to an eventual dry out.

Driven by these advantages, several types of sealed lead acid have emerged and the most common are gel, also known as valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA), and absorbent glass mat (AGM). The gel cell contains a silica type gel that suspends the electrolyte in a paste. Smaller packs with capacities of up to 30A are called SLA (sealed lead acid). Packaged in a plastic container, these batteries are used for small UPS, emergency lighting, ventilators for healthcare and wheelchairs. Because of economical price, dependable service and low maintenance, the SLA remains the preferred choice for biomedical and healthcare in hospitals and retirement homes. The VRLA is the larger gel variant used as power backup for cellular repeater towers, Internet hubs, banks, hospitals, airports and other sites.

The AGM is a newer design and suspends the electrolytein aspecially designed glass mat. This offers several advantages to lead acid systems, including faster charging and instant high load currents on demand. AGM works best as a mid-range battery with capacities of 30 to 100Ah and is less suited for large systems, such as UPS. Typical uses are starter batter for motorcycles, start-stop function for micro-hybrid cars, as well as marine and RV that need some cycling.

With cycling and age, the capacity of AGM fades gradually; gel, on the other hand, has a dome shaped performance curve and stays in the high performance range longer but then drops suddenly towards the end of life. AGM is more expensive than flooded, but is cheaper than gel.(Gel would be too expensive for start/stop use in cars.) See Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM).

Unlike the flooded, the sealed lead acid battery is designed with a low over-voltage potential to prohibit the battery from reaching its gas-generating potential during charge. Excess charging causes gassing, venting and subsequent water depletion and dry out. Consequently, gel, and in part also AGM, cannot be charged to their full potential and the charge voltage limit must be set lower than that of a flooded. The float charge on full charge must also be lowered. In respect to charging, the gel and AGM are no direct replacements to the flooded type. If no designated charger is available with lower voltage settings, disconnect the charger after 24 hours of charge. This prevents gassing due to a float voltage that is set too high. See Charging Lead Acid.

The optimum operating temperature for a VRLA battery is 25°C (77°F); every 8°C (15°F) rise above this temperature threshold cuts battery life in half. See Heat, Loading and Battery Life. Lead acid batteries are rated at a 5-hour (0.2C) and 20-hour (0.05C) discharge. The battery performs best when discharged slowly and the capacity readings are notably higher at a slow discharge rate. Lead acid can, howereplacement HSTNN-Q34Cver, deliver high pulse currents of several C if done for only a few seconds. This makes the lead acid well suited as a starter battery, also known as starter-light-ignition (SLI). The high lead content and the sulfuric acid make lead acid environmentally unfriendly.

The following paragraphs look at the different architectures within the lead acid family and explain why one battery type does not fit all.

As we examine the characteristics of battery systems

March 08 [Fri], 2013, 10:35
Many battery novices argue, wrongly, that all advanced battery systems offer high energy densities, deliver thousands of charge/discharge cycles and come in a small size. While some of these attributes are possible, this is not replacement HSTNN-OB42 attainable in one and the same battery in a given chemistry.

A battery may be designed for high specific energy and small size, but the cycle life is short. Another battery may be built for high load capabilities and durability, and the cells are bulky and heavy. A third pack may have high capacity and long service life, but the manufacturing cost is out of reach for the average consumer. Battery manufacturers are well aware of customer needs and respond by offering products that best suit the application intended. The mobile phone industry is an example of this clever adaptation. The emphasis is on small size, high energy density and low price. Longevity is less important here.

The terms nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) do not automatically mean high specific energy. For example, NiMH for the electric powertrain in vehicles has a specific energy of only 45Wh/kg, a value that is not much higher than lead acid. The consumer NiMH, in comparison, has about 90Wh/kg. The Li-ion battery for hybrid and electric vehicles can have a specific energy as low as 60Wh/kg, a value that is comparable with nickel-cadmium. Li-ion for cell phones and laptops, on the other hand, has two to three times this specific energy.

The Cadex-sponsored website www.BatteryUniversity.com generates many interesting questions. Those that stand out are, “What’s the best battery for a remote-controlled car, a portable solar station, an electric bicycle or electric car?” There is no universal battery that fits all needs and each application is unique. Although lithium-ion would in most instances be the preferred choice, high price and the need for an approved protection circuit exclude this system from use by many hobbyists and small manufacturers. Removing Li-ion leads back to the nickel- and lead-based options. Consumer products may have benefited the most from battery advancements. High volume made Li-ion relatively inexpensive.

Will the battery replace the internal combustion engine of cars? It may come as a surprise to many that we don’t yet have an economical battery that allows long-distance driving and lasts as long as the car. Batteries work reasonably well for portable applications such as cell phones, laptops and digital cameras. Low power enables an economical price; the relative short battery life is acceptable in consumer products; and we can live with a decreasing runtime. While the fading capacity replacement HSTNN-OB60can be annoying, it does not endanger safety.

As we examine the characteristics of battery systems and compare alternative power sources, such as the fuel cell and the internal combustion (IC) engine, we realize that the battery is best suited for portable and stationary systems. For motive applications such as trains, ocean going ships and aircraft, the battery lacks capacity, endurance and reliability. The dividing line, in my opinion, lies with the electric vehicle.

Virtually all of the energy-storage capacity currently

January 11 [Fri], 2013, 16:58
A new battery technology may pave the way for cheap, long-lived power storage that can quickly pump electricity into the grid to6 cell Vostro 1320 compensate for fluctuating renewables like wind and solar.

Developed by Yi Cui and colleagues at Stanford University in California, the battery's key advantage is its electrodes, which can run for a thousand charge cycles without degrading. Battery electrodes typically degrade over time as ions in a battery cell repeatedly slam into them and are ripped away again.

By coating the negatively charged cathode in copper hexacyanoferrate and using an anode made of activated carbon and a conductive polymer - compounds that allow electricity-carrying ions to move easily in and out - the team were able to build a prototype battery with electrodes that didn't lose capacity over time.

The new electrodes sandwich a liquid solution of positively charged potassium ions, a battery design that was invented only in 2004 using conventional electrodes. As in a standard battery, charged particles are driven towards the positive electrode during charging, flowing back to the negative electrode to provide current during discharge. The researchers write that their battery's components are cheap and commercially available.

Most energy-storage technologies are too expensive or inefficient to be widely useful in backing up wind and solar power sources, the researchers say.

"Virtually all of the energy-storage capacity currently on the grid is provided by pumped hydroelectric power, which requires an immense capital investment, is location-dependent and suffers from low energy efficiency," the team write.


A new battery technology may pave the way for cheap, long-lived power storage that can quickly pump electricity into the grid to compensate for fluctuating renewables like wind and solar.

Developed by Yi Cui and colleagues at Stanford University in California, the battery's key advantage is its electrodes, which can run for a thousand charge cycles without degrading. Battery electrodes typically degrade over time as ions in a battery cell repeatedly slam into them and are ripped away again.

By coating the negatively charged cathode in copper hexacyanoferrate and using an anode made of activated carbon and a conductive polymer - compounds that allow electricity-carrying ions to move easily in and out - the team were able to build a prototype battery with electrodes that didn't lose capacity over time.

The new electrodes sandwich a liquid solution of positively charged potassium ions, a battery design that was invented only in 2004 using conventional electrodes. As in a standard battery, charged particles are driven towards the positive electrode during charging, flowing back to the negative electrode to provide current during discharge. The researchers write that their battery's components are cheap and commercially available.

Most energy-storage technologies are too expensive or inefficient to be widely useful in backing up wind and solar power 6 cell Vostro 1710sources, the researchers say.

"Virtually all of the energy-storage capacity currently on the grid is provided by pumped hydroelectric power, which requires an immense capital investment, is location-dependent and suffers from low energy efficiency," the team write.

Temperature control is mostly through an on/off switch

January 11 [Fri], 2013, 14:28
Charger design has been simplified through chips that embed charge intelligence. When first introduced in the 1980s, these chips were hot commodities and were made popular with the arrival of NiMH and Li-ion6 cell HSTNN-OB42 that need special charging algorithms. Charger chips have since matured and serve in more basic charging devices.

Although charger chips are easy to use, they have limitations. Most offer a fixed charge algorithm that does not permit fine-tuning for specialty uses. Features such as “boost,” which reactivates the protection circuit when a Limion battery falls asleep, do not exist, nor can a charger chip accommodate different chemistries selectable by a code, or do ultra-fast charging with safeguards that include scaling the charge current to battery condition and temperature.
Temperature control is mostly through an on/off switch.

Microcontrollers offer an alternative to charger chips. Although the design cost is higher because of programming, manufacturing costs are compatible to charger chips. We must keep in mind that the charge chip or6 cell HSTNN-OB60 microcontroller form only a small part of the charger circuit, and the bulk of the cost lies in the peripheral components, which include solid-state switches and the power supply. The cost of these parts is in direct relationship to current handling.

Lal also has built versions of the device in which the cantilever

December 05 [Wed], 2012, 16:27
Researchers at Cornell University have built a micro-electromechanical system that could supply decades worth of power to remote replacement rn873 AS07B72 sensors or implantable medical devices by drawing energy from a radioactive isotope.

The device is said to convert the energy stored in the radioactive material directly into motion. It could directly move the parts of a tiny machine or could generate electricity in a form more useful for many circuits than has been possible with earlier devices.

This new approach creates a high-impedance source (the factor that determines the amplitude of the current) better suited to power many types of circuits, said Amil Lal, Cornell assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering.

The prototype is made up of a copper strip 1 millimetre wide, 2 centimetres long and 60 micrometers thick that is cantilevered above a thin film of radioactive nickel-63 (an isotope of nickel with a different number of neutrons from the common form). As the isotope decays, it emits beta particles (electrons), whose energy is small enough not to penetrate skin.

The emitted electrons collect on the copper strip, building a negative charge, while the isotope film, losing electrons, becomes positively charged. The attraction between positive and negative bends the rod down. When the rod gets close enough to the isotope, a current flows, equalising the charge. The rod springs up, and the process repeats itself.

Radioactive isotopes can continue to release energy over periods ranging from weeks to decades. The half-life of nickel-63, for example, is over 100 years, and Lal said a battery using this isotope might continue to supply useful energy for at least half that time.

Other isotopes offer varying combinations of energy level versus lifetime. And unlike chemical batteries, the devices will work in a very wide range of temperatures. Possible applications include sensors to monitor the condition of missiles stored in sealed containers, battlefield sensors that must be concealed and left unattended for long periods, and medical devices implanted inside the body.

The moving cantilever can directly actuate a linear device or can move a cam or ratcheted wheel to produce rotary motion. A magnetised material attached to the rod can generate electricity as it moves through a coil.

Lal also has built versions of the device in which the cantilever is made of a piezoelectric material that generates electricity when deformed, releasing a pulse of current as the rod snaps up. This also generates a radio-frequency pulse that could be used to transmit information. Alternatively, Lal suggests, the electrical pulse could drive a light-emitting diode to generate an optical signal.

In addition to powering other devices, the tiny cantilevers could be used as stand-alone sensors, Lal said. The devices ordinarily operate in a vacuum. But the sensors might be developed to detect the presence or absence of particular gases, since introducing a gas to the device changes the flow of current between high quality rn873 AS10B31 the rod and the base, in turn changing the period or amplitude of the oscillation. Temperature and pressure changes also can be detected.

Lal, Cornell doctoral candidate Hui Li and Cornell doctoral candidate Hang Guo are now building and testing practical sensors and power supplies based on the concept. The prototype shown in August was gigantic by comparison with the latest versions, Lal said. An entire device, including a vacuum enclosure, could be made to fit in less than one cubic millimetre, he concluded.

The sensors might be developed to detect the presence or absence of particular gases

December 05 [Wed], 2012, 16:19
But now Cornell University researchers have built a microscopic device that could supply power for decades to remote sensors or implantable medical devices by drawing energy from a radioactive isotope according to a newsbattery for rn873 AS10B31 release issued by the Cornell University

The device converts the energy stored in the radioactive material directly into motion. It could directly move the parts of a tiny machine or could generate electricity in a form more useful for many circuits than has been possible with earlier devices.

This new approach creates a high-impedance source (the factor that determines the amplitude of the current) better suited to power many types of circuits, says Amil Lal, Cornell assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering.

Lal and Cornell doctoral candidate Hui Li described a prototype of the device at a U.S. Department of Defence meeting of Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) investigators in Detroit. The prototype is the first MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) version of a larger device that Lal designed and built.

The prototype device uses a copper cantilever 2 cm long. Future nanofabricated versions could be smaller than one cubic millimeter.

The prototype is made up of a copper strip 1 mm wide, 2 cm long and 60 micrometers (millionths of a meter) thick that is cantilevered above a thin film of radioactive nickel-63 (an isotope of nickel with a different number of neutrons from the common form).

As the isotope decays, it emits beta particles (electrons). Radioactive materials can emit beta particles, alpha particles or gamma rays, the last two of which can carry enough energy to be hazardous.

Lal has chosen only isotopes that emit beta particles, whose energy is small enough not to penetrate skin, to be used in his device.

The emitted electrons collect on the copper strip, building a negative charge, while the isotope film, losing electrons, becomes positively charged.

The attraction between positive and negative bends the rod down. When the rod gets close enough to the isotope, a current flows, equalizing the charge.

The rod springs up, and the process repeats. The principle is much like that underlying an electric doorbell, in which a moving bar alternately makes and breaks the electric circuit supplying an electromagnet that moves the bar.

Radioactive isotopes can continue to release energy over periods ranging from weeks to decades.

The half-life period of the metal nickel-63, for example, is over 100 years, and Lal says a battery using this isotope might continue to supply useful energy for at least half that time. (The half-life is the time it takes for half the atoms in an element to decay.)

Other isotopes offer varying combinations of energy level versus lifetime. And unlike chemical batteries, the devices will work in a very wide range of temperatures.

Possible applications presently include sensors which can monitor the condition of the missiles stored in sealed containers, battlefield sensors that must be concealed and left unattended for long periods, and medical devices implanted inside the body.

The moving cantilever can directly actuate a linear device or can move a cam or ratcheted wheel to produce rotary motion.

A magnetised material attached to the rod can generate tremendous electricity as it moves through a coil. Lal also has built versions of the device in which the cantilever is made of a piezoelectric material that generates electricity when deformed, releasing a pulse of current as the rod snaps up.

This also generates a radio-frequency pulse that could be used to transmit information. Alternatively, Lal suggests, the electrical pulse could drive a light-emitting diode to generate an optical signal.

In addition to powering other devices, the tiny cantilevers could be used as stand-alone sensors, Lal says. The devices11.1v 5200mah 9cells rn873 UM09H36 ordinarily operate in a vacuum.

But the sensors might be developed to detect the presence or absence of particular gases, since introducing a gas to the device changes the flow of current between the rod and the base, in turn changing the period or amplitude of the oscillation. Temperature and pressure changes also can be detected easily, say the researchers.

It is really handy to have a good golf cart battery

October 17 [Wed], 2012, 15:31
Majority of golf carts are battery powered. These carts use the power that is stored in the battery for its running. They are rechargeable and are one of the most important parts of the vehicle. It is essential to maintain thern873 t Pavilion 4510s battery. If the battery is weak then you have to replace it.

The cart uses the electrical energy from the battery to get started, to run and to perform other functions. It is essential to maintain it properly before it getting run down.

A new good golf cart battery is very important in the case of those custom golf carts, brand-new one or a second-hand cart from someone else. The vehicles use batteries same as those used in cars.

The working of a golf cart battery is same as that of a car battery. The cart will be open up to the battery and the car runs own that battery. Same as that of a car, if the cart kept in idle for a long time, then the battery will run down and stop and then you have to recharge it or the battery will drain power.


After sometimes you have to buy a new cart battery. The battery is used for running other customizations such as a radio or CD player together with the motor of the cart. Some carts provide places for plugging in the handheld devices or cell phones that will run off of the golf cart battery.

While not using the cart, you can plug your carts in to the power plug and thus the cart battery will recharge itself. This is helpful that you can make sure that the battery is charged before you use it extensively. You can always 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Pavilion G50 battery recharge the battery to make it ready to go again instead of run it down.

It is really handy to have a good golf cart battery. And if you are not using it for some time, you have to remove it and store in a good place.

This makes the battery ready to go when you want. You should also have an extra battery in hand, if you need to change it.

Lithium iron phosphate is an insulator

October 17 [Wed], 2012, 15:30

In 1996 a paper was presented at the electrochemical society meeting that first introduced the world to lithium iron phosphate. The paper showed that lithium could be accommodated in this structure at a voltage that made it a decent cathode. However, the rate at which lithium could move in and out of the material Original 516355-001was not that great. If you tried to use it under normal conditions (say, charging in 2-3 hours) the battery was not particularly useful

Turns out, lithium iron phosphate is an insulator. And having electronic conduction in a battery material tends to be important. A breakthrough was needed to make this a useful cathode.

As Y2K approached and mere mortals like me were busy stockpiling rations, others were devising methods to improve the rate of this material. Making it nano-sized appeared to be helping (one of probably two cases where nano structuring helps in batteries). The rate of the movement of lithium in and out of the material was improving, but much more needed to be done.

In early 2002 a paper came out that showed what appeared to be the highest power for a lithium battery up to that point in time using lithium iron phosphate. This paper changed everything that was known/thought about this material and kicked off a large effort across the scientific community to understand how an insulator can be made into a high-rate battery.

The breakthrough had occurred.

This concept was moved from the lab scale to industry and A123 Systems started working on this material. In late 2005, A123 Systems announced that they were going to start supplying these batteries for power-tool applications.

Commercialization had occurred.

Let us recap: In 1996 we knew a breakthrough was needed. This came 6 years later in the form of a lab-scale experiment. Three and a half years after that, the material was commercialized (at least the announcement is made).

It took almost a decade from start to finish. In the battery field, this time frame has been considered aggressive and12 cells 607763-001 one of a kind!

Notice also that, in this case study, we are talking about a new cathode material that, once it is shown to work in the lab-scale, fits into an existing production line (with tweaks). The manufacturing process was known and had been perfected over a decade, we were now inserting a new material into the line. Still, this took more than 3 years.
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