EBM will not offer reliable battery information

June 18 [Tue], 2013, 16:15
Coulomb counting should be self-calibrating, but in real life a battery does not always get a full discharge at a steady current. The discharge may be in form of a sharp pulse that is difficult to capture. The battery may then be partially recharged and be stored at high temperature, causing elevated self-discharge that cannot be tracked. To correct the tracking error, a “smart battery” in use should be X100e replacementcalibrated once every three months or after 40 partial discharge cycles. This can be done by a deliberate discharge of the equipment or externally with a battery analyzer. Avoid too many intentional deep discharges as this stresses the battery.

Fifty years ago, the Volkswagen Beetle had few battery problems. The only battery management was ensuring that the battery was being charged while driving. Onboard electronics for safety, convenience, comfort and pleasure have added to the demands of the battery in modern cars. For the accessories to function reliably, the battery state-of-charge must be known at all times. This is especially critical with start-stop technologies, a future requirement in European cars to improve fuel economy.
When the engine of a start-stop vehicle turns off at a stoplight, the battery continues to draw 25–50 amperes to feed the lights, ventilators, windshield wipers and other accessories. The battery must have enough charge to crank the engine when the traffic light changes; cranking requires a brief 350A. To reduce engine loading during acceleration, the BMS delays charging for about 10 seconds.

Modern cars are equipped with a battery sensor that measures voltage, current and temperature. Packaged in a small housing and embedded into the positive battery clamp, the electronic battery monitor (EBM) provides a SoC accuracy of about +/–15 percent on a new battery. As the battery ages, the EBM begins to drift and the accuracy drops to 20–30 percent. This can result in a false warning message and some garage mechanics disconnect the EBM on an aging battery to stop annoyances. Disabling the control system responsible for the start-stop function immobilizes engine stop and reduces the legal clean air requirement of the vehicle.

Voltage, current and temperature readings are insufficient to assess battery SoF; the all-important capacity is missing. Until capacity can be measured with confidence on-board of a vehicle, the EBM will not offer reliable battery information. Capacity is the leading health indicator that in most cases determines the end-of-battery-life. Imagine measuring the liquid in a container that is continuously shrinking in size. State-of-charge alone has limited benefit if the storage has shrunk from 100 to 20 percent and this change cannot be measured. Capacity fade may not affect engine cranking and the CCA can remain at a vigorous 70 percent to the end of battery life. Because of reduced energy storage, a low capacity battery charges quickly and has normal vital signs, but failure is imminent. A bi-annual capacity check as part of service can identify low capacity batteries. Battery testers that read capacity are becoming available at garages.

A typical start-stop vehicle goes through about 2,000 micro cycles per year. Test data obtained from automakers and the Cadex laboratories indicate that the battery capacity drops to approximately 60 percent in two years when in a start-stop configuration. The standard flooded lead acid is not robust enough for start-stop, and carmakers use a modified AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) to attain longer life.
Automakers want to make sure that no driver gets stuck in traffic with a dead battery. To conserve energy when SoC is low, the BMS automatically turns unnecessary accessories off and the motor stays running at a stoplight. Even with this preventive measure, SoC can remain low when commuting in gridlock. Motor idling does not provide much charge and with essential accessories engaged, such as lights and windshield wipers, the net effect could be a small discharge.

Battery monitoring is also important in hybrid vehicles to optimize charge levels. The BMS prevents stressful overcharge above 80 percent and avoids deep discharges below 30 percent SoC. At low charge level, the internal combustion engine engages earlier and is left running for additional charge.
The driver of an electric vehicle (EV) expects similar accuracies on the energy reserve as is possible with a gasoline-powered car. Current technologies do not allow this and some EV drivers might get stuck with an empty battery when the fuel gauge still indicates reserve. Furthermore, the EV driver anticipates that a fully charged battery will travel the same distance, year after year. This is not possible and the range will decrease as the battery fades with age. Distances between charges will also be shorter than normal when driving in cold temperatures because of reduced battery performance.

Some lithium-ion batteries have a very flat discharge curve and the voltage method does not work well to provide SoC in the mid-range. An innovative new technology is being developed that measures battery SoC by magnetic susceptibility. Quantum magnetism (Q-Mag?) detects magnetic changes in the electrolyte and plates that correspond to state-of-charge. This provides accurate SoC detection in the critical 40-70 percent mid-section. More impotently, Q-Mag? allows measuring SoC while the X120e replacement is being charged and is under load.

The lithium iron phosphate battery in Figure 3 shows a clear decrease in relative magnetic field units while discharging and an increase while charging, which relates to SoC. We see no rubber band effect that is typical with the voltage method in which the weight of discharge lowers the terminal voltage and the charge lifts it up. Q-Mag? also permits improved full-charge detection; however, the system only works with cells in plastic, foil or aluminum enclosures. Ferrous metals inhibit the magnetic field.

A full discharge can sometimes restore the battery

June 18 [Tue], 2013, 16:11
The energy storage of a battery can be divided into three imaginary segments known as the availableenergy, theempty zonethat can T420 replacementbe refilled, and the unusable part, or rock content that has become inactive. Figure 1 illustrates these three sections.

The manufacturer bases the runtime of a device on a battery that performs at 100 percent; most packs in the field operate at less capacity. As time goes on, the performance declines further and the battery gets smaller in terms of energy storage. Most users are unaware of capacity fade and continue to use the battery. A pack should be replaced when the capacity drops to 80 percent; however, the end-of-life threshold can vary according to application, user preference and company policy.

Besides age-related losses, sulfation and grid corrosion are the main killers of lead acid batteries. Sulfation is a thin layer that forms on the negative cell plate if the battery is allowed to dwell in a low state-of-charge. If sulfation is caught in time, an equalizing charge can reverse the condition. Read about Sulfation. Grid T420s replacementcorrosion can be reduced with careful charging and optimization of the float charge.

With nickel-based batteries, the so-called rock content is often the result of crystalline formation, also known as “memory,” and a full discharge can sometimes restore the battery. The aging process of lithium-ion is cell oxidation, a process that occurs naturally as part of usage and aging and cannot be reversed.

A lithium-ion battery can also be recycled with minimal environmental impact

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 16:42
The lithium-ion battery industry is dominated by the consumer electronics industry but the forthcoming wave of EVs is changing the game. Made from nontoxic materials, today’s lithium-ion batteries have unprecedent X200 brand newed safety. Today’s lithium-ion battery has high abuse tolerance, low heat evolution, stable cathode material, and an intelligent pack design that ensure consumer safety.

A lithium-ion battery can also be recycled with minimal environmental impact. More than 95% of the battery materials can be recovered and reused. Despite some concerns of availability of lithium, the industry universally accepts that lithium supplies will continue to be abundant, especially if recycling infrastructure is scaled up.

The billions of dollars invested into lithium-ion battery research and development, with a focus on automotive EV applications, will lead to further advances in battery performance (including power, range, charge time, lifetime, and cost). Better Place is chemistry-agnostic and willing to adopt new X220 brand new technologies as they emerge; however, lithium-ion batteries are the leading chemistry for EVs today.

Performance & range

Older generations of EV batteries were characterized by two major problems - providing short driving range and offering limited performance. Today's lithium-ion batteries can store significantly more energy than and generate twice the power per unit volume as older battery technologies.

These improvements in storage capacity and power availability are critical in maximizing the range of a vehicle. Now, a 24 kWh lithium-ion battery (about 200 kg/440 lbs) in a competitively priced medium-sized sedan provides a range of about 160 kilometers (100 miles) on a single charge.

Many battery-operated appliances use two or four cells

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 16:40
The "self-recharging" features of batteries is most noticeable in a car battery. In some cases you can crank the engine until the battery seems totally dead, then come back an hour later and crank it again. The higher the drain on the X120e brand newy (a car's starter motor is an incredibly high-drain device!), the greater the effect.

To understand why this happens, it is helpful to understand what's going on inside the battery. Let's take the simplest zinc/carbon battery as an example. If you take a zinc rod and a carbon rod, connect them together with a wire, and then immerse the two rods in liquid sulfuric acid, you create a battery. Electrons will flow through the wire from the zinc rod to the carbon rod. Hydrogen gas builds up on the carbon rod, and over a fairly short period of time coats the majority of the carbon rod's surface. The layer of hydrogen gas coating the rod blocks the reaction occurring in the cell and the battery begins to look "dead". If you let the battery rest for awhile, the hydrogen gas dissipates and the battery "comes back to life".

In any battery, be it an alkaline battery found in a flashlight or a lead acid battery in a car, the same sort of thing can happen. Reaction products build up around the two poles of the battery and slow down the reaction. By letting the battery rest, you give the reaction products a chance to dissipate. The higher the drain on the battery, the faster the products build up, so batteries under high drain X130e brand new appear to recover more.

Many battery-operated appliances use two or four cells in series to create higher voltages. If one of the cells has a problem (for example, it does not dissipate reaction products as well as the other batteries), it can make all of the batteries appear to go dead. If you test the batteries individually, however, three of the four may be fine. If the batteries seem to go dead too quickly, testing all four batteries is a good idea. Throw out the bad one and re-use the other three.

Batteries that are subject to continuous charging

March 20 [Wed], 2013, 15:26
Emergency batteries that are connected to the bus are constantly in charge and thus continuously evaporate water from the electrolyte. As the electrolyte level drops and the plate separator begins to be exposedreplacement P775D (dried out in extreme cases), the separator material begins to deteriorate which results in cell heating and shorts in extreme cases.

Batteries that are subject to continuous charging and have little or no opportunity to deliver power, need to be removed periodically, first to check the water level and second to check for capacity.

Water level checking cannot be performed on the aircraft. It can only be performed under bench test conditions with a constant current charger and only when the battery has reached full charge. Excessive water consumption can be indicative of overcharging (bus voltage too high) or infrequent servicing, or both. The time required for this test will range from one day for a "good" battery to several days for a "problem battery".


Since emergency batteries are basically in stand-by condition and are subject to continuous charging, their capacity to deliver current when needed slowly diminishes (capacity fading), so it is also necessary to periodically perform a capacity test. If this test is passed marginally, or not at all, the cells have to be deep cycled (total discharge) to restore the rated capacity. Depending on the severity of the fading, the total discharge and subsequent recharge must be performed several times before proper capacity restoration will occur. The time required for this type of testing will require from two days for a "good" battery to a full week for a "problem" battery.
Batteries that do not pass the required tests can be repaired by replacing the individual cells that fail the specific tests, but not more than 20% of the total number of cells in the battery (4 to 5 cells) should be replaced. If more than 20% of the cells need to be replaced, the entire battery needs to be replaced (this is done to minimize the mismatching between new cells and old cells).

Under normal conditions, most batteries are expected to last five to six years, provided that they are serviced properly (Including occasional cell replacement). This is true even for the larger batteries that are used to start engines or APU’s. But, with improper maintenance (basically infrequent maintenance) the life of the batteries will be significantly shorter. If servicing is infrequent, by the time that the replacement P770 are finally removed for testing, it may be too late.


Proper servicing is costly. Time to do it, proper personnel, availability of a replacement battery, service charges by the battery shop, etc. But, if as a result of inadequate servicing the battery must be replaced, its cost far exceeds the cost of proper servicing. This is also true if a battery failure results in a grounded airplane. Finally, the cost of an in-flight battery failure (Overheating, little or no capacity to provide power, etc.) could have more severe consequences.

This causes the replacement of many packs

March 20 [Wed], 2013, 15:07
One of the most urgent requirements for battery-powered devices is the development of a reliable and economical way to monitor battery state-of-function (SoF). This is a demanding task when considering that there is still no dependable method to read state-of-charge, the most basic characteristic of a battery. Even if SoC were displayed accurately, charge information alone has limited benefits without knowing the capacity. The objective is to identify battery readiness, which describes what the replacement U300 can deliver at a given moment. SoF includes capacity (the amount of energy the battery can hold), internal resistance (the delivery of power), and state-of-charge (the amount of energy the battery holds at that moment).

Stationary batteries were among the first to include monitoring systems, and the most common form of supervision is voltage measurement of individual cells. Some systems also include cell temperature and current measurement. Knowing the voltage drop of each cell at a given load reveals cell resistance. Cell failure caused by rising resistance through plate separation, corrosion and other malfunctions can thus be identified. Battery monitoring also serves in medical, defense and communication devices, as well as wheeled mobility and electric vehicle applications.

In many ways, present battery monitoring falls short of meeting the basic requirements. Besides assuring readiness, batterymonitoring should also keep track of aging and offer end-of-life predictions so that the user knows when to replace a fading battery. This is currently not being done in a satisfactory manner. Most monitoring systems are tailored for new batteries and adjust poorly to aging ones. As a result, battery management systems (BMS) tend to lose accuracy gradually until the information obtained gets so far off that it becomes a nuisance. This is not an oversight by the manufacturers; engineers know about this shortcoming. The problem lies in technology, or lack thereof.

Another limitation of current monitoring systems is the bandwidth in which battery conditions can be read. Most systems only reveal anomalies once the battery performance has dropped below 70 percent and the performance is being affected. Assessment in the all-important 80–100 percent operating range is currently impossible, and systems give the batteries a good bill of health. This complicates end-of-life predictions, and the user needs to wait until the battery has sufficiently deteriorated to make an assessment. Measuring a battery once the performance has dropped or the battery has died is ineffective, and this complicates battery exchange systems proposed for the electric vehicle market. One maker of a battery tester proudly states in a brochure that their instrument “Detects any faulty battery.” So, eventually, does the user.

Some medical devices use date stamp or cycle count to determine the end of service life of a battery. This does not work well either, because batteries that are used little are not exposed to the same stresses as those in daily operation. To reduce the risk of failure, authorities may mandate an earlier replacement of all batteries. This causes the replacement of many packs that are still in good working condition. Old habits are hard to break, and it is often easier to leave the procedure as written rather than to revolt. This satisfies the battery vendor but increases operating costs and creates environmental burdens.

Portable devices such as laptops use coulomb counting that keeps track of the in- and out flowing currents. Such a monitoring device should be flawless, but as mentioned earlier, the method is not ideal either. Internal losses and inaccuracies in capturing current flow add to an unwanted error that must be replacement U205corrected with periodic calibrations.

Over-expectation with monitoring methods is common, and the user is stunned when suddenly stranded without battery power. Let’s look at how current systems work and examine up-and-coming technologies that may change the way batteries are monitored.

I am not getting very much charging current

October 11 [Thu], 2012, 11:59
For the next attempt, I wanted to get 6V and more surface area, so I cut out six strips of lead sheeting, 70mm x 400mm, which when rolled up fitted neatly into a medium sized jam jar. To keep the plates from touching, two sheets of woven glass fibre mat were put in between the sheets of lead. So each cell has two battery for satellite A100 battery sheets of lead and four sheets of glass mat.

This time I left it to soak in the acid overnight, as I wanted lead sulphate (PbSO4) to form on the plates. Once a thin layer of PbSO4 forms, it covers the remaining lead and stops the reaction. So in the morning I put it on charge using a small DC power pack. I set it to 3V, which actually develops 7.1V open circuit. I kept track of the current flowing into the cells.

This time there was no bubbling.. perhaps the bubbling was a symptom of over charging the first model?

I noticed a salt like sediment forming in the bottom of the jars. Perhaps these are the sulphation crystals that are mentioned in warnings about overcharging batteries. To get rid of them I put the jars in a 1-2cm bath of boiling water, and stirred the jars once they had heated. This seems to get the sediment back into solution.

So back to charging.... I am not getting very much charging current... the positive should go rust coloured from PbO2 formation. Perhaps this is due to the lack of spongy lead which will hopefully form after repeated charge/discharge cycles (thereby hugely increasing the surface area).

It seems that a way of monitoring the sulphation and discharge process is needed. Or perhaps I should push more current into the cells on charge? And should discharging be done by just shorting cheap rn873 satellite A200 batteryout the cells (individually or all together?) or by controlling the discharge current?

Is there anyone out there with more knowledge of the chemistry involved who can suggest anything? Please post a comment here, and I will post it here.

Currently (ha ha), the cells are drawing about 5 - 10mA on charge at 6.9V. A new test is an electric motor which spun for 7 seconds from the batteries - I will now alternate charge and discharge and monitor this to see if it increases or decreases.

I covered the plates with battery acid

October 11 [Thu], 2012, 11:58
Have you ever wanted to make your own homemade lead acid battery? Lead acid batteries were invented in 1912 and in essence haven't changed much since. Two plates of lead immersed in 30% sulphuric acid produce about 2V of electric potential after being charged at 2.15V or more. The greater the surface area, the greater the maximum current that can be taking in during charging, and given out replacement PA3635U-1BRMby the battery cell.

A lead acid cell is typically about 70% efficient - to get 100 AmpHours out you need to put 143 AmpHours in. At room temperature, charging a cell below 2.25V is 'safe' in that it will not cause gassing - at higher voltages water is split into hyrdogen and oxygen gasses. Deep cycle batteries are ideally charged at about 2.5V per cell. Forming the plates is the process of using crystal formation to roughen the surface of the plates, greatly increasing the surface area exposed to the electrolyte.

Thin plates very close together give the best maximum current, but are subject to distortion under heavy current, and corrode away more easily. Thick plates give a long life



I am not sure what effect the distance between the plates has - I suppose it introduces resistance, and so ideally is kept to the minimum without danger of the plates touching or being bridged by sediment.

So the only way to know is to try! I cut out about 80cm2 of 1mm thick lead sheet, plus a tab to connect the wire to. A large jam jar with a plastic lid, melt two slits in the lid, and presto a battery cell.

I covered the plates with battery acid (33% H2SO4), so had 160cm2 area per plate. There was about 130mV generated by this for some reason!

I then used a small DC power supply to push 3 volts into it, and it drew 0.25A. I cranked up the supply voltage to "4.5V", which increased the current to about 0.64A and the voltage actually stayed at about 3 to 3.5V. The plates bubble away merrily, with the positive going rust coloured (lots of small bubbles) and the other looking the same silver/grey (larger bubbles).I think what is happening is the positive plate is getting lead peroxide, and the negative plate is just reuniting electrons with H+ ions.

Be warned the bubbles are hydrogen, and explosive when mixed with air. Keep well ventilated, and no flames or sparks!

The analogue ammeter is connected via a 1K Ohm 1% resistor, to make a simple voltmeter (showing 3 "volts", or 30mA). The digital meter is showing amps.

The DC power supply is marked as rated for 500mA. It seems to survive 650mA! Another one I tried to run above its puny 9W rating worked for a while, and then made a horribling fizzling noise. May it rest in peace. It seems the cell is happy to absorb more current, but the DC power supply is not able to. With too much current, at some point the heating and rapid bubbling may cause the peroxide to flake off theToshiba rn873 PA3672U-1BRS positive plate as it forms.

Once that has charged, I will draw a current to discharge the cell. This should result in PbSO4 forming on both plates. Then charging it again should convert the PbSO4 to spongy lead on the negative plate, and PbO2 on the positive.

Will the peroxide (PbS04) powder and fall off the plate? If so some sort of retaining mat will be needed. Or what about having the positive plate horizontal at the bottom of the jar?

What is the smallest battery in the world

August 08 [Wed], 2012, 11:07
We know that a battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries have two electrodes, an anode (the negative end) and a cathode (the positive end). Collectively the anode and the cathode are called the electrodes. What is positve and what is the negative terminal? It would be great to simply say that the anode is negative and the cathode is positive, however, that is not always the case. Somtimes the opposite is true depending on battery technology.

In between the 11.1v 5200mah 9cells A1189 two electrodes runs an electrical current caused primarily from a voltage differential between the anode and cathode. The voltage runs through a chemical called an electrolyte (which can be either liquid or solid). We also know many attributes about batteries the different types of voltage, capacity, chemical make-up and other technical aspects.

But one fascinating consideration that is fun to look at has nothing really to do with the technical ratings, or how long a battery can power a PDA or other device for, or any other technical feature. It is perhaps more journalistic in nature, more inquisitive, more to do with interesting little facts then anything else!

So let’s dive into this fact finding article and discover some of the hidden facts about batteries:

When was the first battery made and who made the first battery?

The first inclination that an electrical path-way from an anode to a cathode within a battery or in this first instance “a frog” occurred in 1786, when Count Luigi Galvani (an Italian anatomist, 1737-1798) found that when the muscles of a dead frog were touched by two pieces of different metals, the muscle tissue twitched.

This led to idea by Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (Feb. 18, 1745- March 5, 1827), an Italian physicist who realized that the twitching was caused by an electrical current that was created by chemicals. Volta’s discovery led to the invention of the chemical battery (also called the voltaic pile) in 1800. His first voltaic piles were made from zinc and silver plates (separated by a cloth) put in a salt water bath (brine). Volta improved the pile, using zinc and copper in a weak sulfuric acid bath and thus invented the first generator of continuous electrical current.

How many high quality MacBook Pro 15 battery are there in the world today?

If you take into consideration every conceivable place a battery can be used it is highly probable that the number would be hundreds of billions. That number of batteries would shrink if you start including certain parameters that would further qualify a family or group of batteries. But without question a lot: children toys, gaming machines, digital cameras, hearing aids, watches, computers, cars. When you start thinking in the broadest possible sense there are quite a bit of batteries being used in the world today.

What is the biggest battery in the world?

ABB, the global power and automation technology group, built the world’s largest battery energy storage system in Fairbanks Alaska. The energy storage system includes a massive nickel-cadmium battery, power conversion modules, metering, protection and control devices and service equipment. This battery provides continuous voltage support during normal operation, as well as energy back-up - to quickly provide power during system disturbances. The battery’s purpose is to be used as an electrical bridge during emergency power outages for customers of the Golden Valley Electric Association Inc (GVEA) in Fairbanks, Alaska. In operation, the battery will produce power for several minutes to cover the time between a system disturbance and when the utility company is able to bring back-up generation on line. The battery is a high performance nickel-cadmium storage battery made up of 13,760 energy cells. Each cell measures 16 in. by 21 in. This NiCad battery is approximately 21,520 square feet in size and weighs approximately 2,866,009. This big battery provides 40 megawatts of power - enough electricity for 12,000 people - for up to seven minutes.

What is the smallest battery in the world?

The smallest battery in the world measures 2.9 mm in diameter and 13 mm in length (about the size of a pencil tip). The cylindrical device is only 1/35 the size of a standard AA battery. The battery can, with recharging, last up to 10 years. The battery is made of a polysiloxane polymer, a material that has the highest conductivity ever reported for an electrical conductor. Recharging the battery is done wirelessly by an external electrical field, which is of great benefit since these batteries are designed to stimulate damaged nerves and muscles inside the human body.

Lead acid batteries are transported via trucks to recycling centers

August 08 [Wed], 2012, 11:04
Seal Lead Acid batteries have a long history of being one of the most environmentally friendly resources on the free market and are actually “greener” then soft drink cans, beer cans, newspapers, glass bottles, and tires. Indeed lead-acid 12 cells A32-F82are an environmental success story of our time. More than 97 percent of all battery lead is recycled. This is almost twice as much as aluminum soft drink and beer cans, newspapers, glass bottles and tires. In fact lead-acid batteries are the most recycled consumer product of our time. How are lead acid batteries recycled and reused in brand new batteries. What is the recycling process of lead acid batteries? Let’s find out.

Lead acid batteries are transported via trucks to recycling centers. Once at recycling centers batteries are broken apart in a hammermill, which is a machine that hammers the battery into pieces. At its most basic level a hammermill is a steel drum that contains a cross-shaped rotor. On the rotors are mounted hammers that pivot when the rotor spins. When the rotor spins the hammers swing and when the battery fed into the drum the batteries broken into pieces.

Once broken the batteries components are separated into 3 categories:

Plastics

Broken pieces of polypropylene plastic are collected, washed, blown dry and sent to a plastic recycler. At the plastic recycler the broken pieces of polypropylene are melted at the plastics correct melting point (or glass transition temperature (Tg), which is the temperature at which a polymer changes from hard and brittle to soft and pliable). Then the molten plastic is passed through a machine called an extruder that shapes the molten plastic into pellets which are then sold back to battery manufacturers to begin the new battery for A1189 manufacturing process.

Lead

The lead acid batteries lead grids, lead oxide and other lead parts are cleaned and then heated to 621.5 degrees Fahrenheit - leads melting point. After the lead reaches its melting point the molten lead is poured into ingot molds. The leads impurities, known as dross, floats to the top and subsequently scraped away and then the ingots sit there thill they are cooled. After cooling the ingots are sold back to manufacturers for use in new lead plate production.

Electrolyte - Sulfuric Acid

Spent battery acid can be neutralized using an industrial grade baking soda compound. After neutralization the acid turns into water, treated, cleaned to meet clean water standards, and then released into the public sewer system. Or another option would be to convert spent battery acid into sodium sulfate, which is used in laundry detergent, glass and textile manufacturing. Considering that a typical battery recycling plant recovers 10,000 tons of lead, about 4000 tons of sulphuric acid, and can produce about 6000 tons of sodium sulphate – there is definitely some merit into this conversion process.