Accra police spokesman Freeman Tettey said on Saturday the former West Ham United player was taken into custody on Friday after he was accused of the stabbing attack by a neighbour.
Paintsil, who has not been formally charged pending an investigation, said there had been a "misunderstanding" with his wife Richlove, Tettey said.
"She was bleeding profusely from cuts she suffered in the upper eyelid - she also had a swollen nose, so we had to go into action to arrest him," Tettey said. She is receiving treatment in hospital, he said.
Paintsil, 31, was a key defender in the Ghana team that finished fourth at the Africa Cup of Nations in South Africa earlier this month.
He last played for Israel's Hapoel Tel Aviv after previous stints with Leicester City, West Ham United and Fulham in England.