#1 My Wardrobe 

2007年04月01日(日) 9時04分
This is a picture of my wardrobe. As can be seen in the
picture, my wardrobe is full of darkly colored clothes and
dresses. My personality is a major influence on
wardrobe decisions as well as other fashion-oriented
opinions. I would like to talk about myself and how I
see color decisions relating to gender issues in this first
journal entry.

According to Wood’s description of Social learning
theory, children learn the notion of gender by mimicking
the behavior of others in society and studying how
adults respond to the children’s behavior (Wood, p. 48).
The stereotypical view of “Girls wear pink, and boys
wear blue” can be easily passed down from adults to

However, I personally believe colors should not be
associated with gender stereotypes because colors are
naturally neutral in character. Colors are for everybody
to enjoy. However, people have associated meanings,
images, and stereotypes with certain colors. We learn
about these stereotypes in our everyday social

For example, pink has traditionally been associated with
a “girly” imagine for as long as I’ve been alive. As I
recall, in my childhood I always tried to avoid wearing
pink and other traditionally feminine apparel because
wearing such ‘girly’ clothes was always an embarrassing
experience for me.

As I have aged and matured I have grown to appreciate
such stereotypical female fashion, but I am still not
comfortable wearing overtly feminine colors such as
pink or feminine accessories such as ribbons and bows.
Wearing feminine colors such as pink makes me feel like
I am pretending to be a girl or falsely embracing a
gender stereotype. This is why I do not own pink cloths.
I strongly feel I do not want to be considered a typical
girly-girl by dressing myself in obviously feminine colors
such as pink. I do not want to wear what people expect
me to wear. I do not wear the color pink because I do
not want colors I wear to give others a false impression
about what I am like.

Even though I make a conscious effort not to wear
“girly” colors, I am still a big fan of “girly” fashion, such
as dresses. I like casual dresses because they are
comfortable. However there is another reason. I must
admit that whenever I wear a dress I feel very classy
and lady-like. I feel very confident and positively
feminine when I wear dress. In the end it appears I
simultaneously embrace and reject different aspects of
feminine fashion (embracing dresses and rejecting pink).
Though I am critical of some traditional aspects of
feminine fashion, there are certainly traditional
aspects I enjoy as well.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#2 Celebrating Girl Culture 

2007年04月04日(水) 22時59分
These are pictures of my girl friends and I. Sometimes
my closest girlfriends and I plan a girl’s night. This
picture was taken during the most recent girl’s night.

As is apparent in the pictures, every time we have a
girl’s night I ended up having such a good time. Just
like the third-wave feminists embrace the traditional
girl culture, we tend to celebrate the girl culture during
girl’s night as well (Wood, p. 83). In the most recent
girl’s night we had Kahlua-milk, watched Pretty Woman,
did some facials (pictures of the masks), ate cupcakes
and ice cream, and slept over in our living room. Every
time I have girl’s night, I realize how much I appreciate
being a girl.

Not only do I think the girl culture is beautiful and fun,
but I also like when a bunch of girls get together without
men being present. We all get to see sides of each other
that we don’t normally get to see when men are present.
When the only company is girls we have a tendency to
behave goofier than we normally behave in other social
settings with male friends. Also, since we tend to have
girl’s night at someone’s apartment, everybody tends to
show up with relaxed cloths, pajama pants, hairs in a
bun, light or no makeup, and no heels. I like the relaxed
atmosphere that everybody has in the girl’s night.
I also like how we share the stories that we don’t usually
share with male friends; such as sharing secrets with
each other and gossiping about other people we know.
I like how free we get to feel during girl’s night.
Engaging in such social events makes me more aware
of the social pressures that occur in the normal, male-
dominated society.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#3 Artifacts 

2007年04月13日(金) 2時02分
This is my friend Isaac. He was about to take off for
class. As you can see in the picture, all he has with
him is a single notebook for his classes. He has his
wallet, keys, and one pen in his pocket. However,
when I take for class, all I have is a big purse with
all kinds of personal belongings in it. This picture
shows a dramatic difference between how males and
females have to prepare for their day. Somehow,
college males usually carry their belonging around in
their pocket. However, college females carry around
their many belongings in big purses.

Females are expected to have many more personal
belongings with them at all times than males require;
such as makeup bags. This leads to the phenomenon
of girls with purses. Wood explains that things such
are purses are called “artifacts”. Artifacts are personal
belongings that impact how we see ourselves and
express our identity (Wood, p. 140-141).

Also, not only do I have purses for carrying around my
belongings, but also I buy other purses for the fashion
purposes; such as buying purses to match outfits
(picture). Wherever I go I have to have purse simply
because having a purse feels ‘appropriate’. Purses
today are considered to be fashion accessories. It
seems that without having a matching purse an outfit
is not complete. In fact, I don’t feel complete if I don’t
have a purse to match my outfit. This shows that I am
totally driven by the need to have “artifacts” and the set
of ideas associated with the concept of ‘artifacts’
required for being an ideal female.

The purse story gives me the impression females have to
unnecessarily suffer a stereotype society artificially
contrived in order to become more “feminine”. If I pay
attention to my pants, there are no big, deep pockets
like male’s pants. I was surprised to learn how designs
of clothes are already crafted to include the assumption
that females will have a purse. However, I definitely
enjoy carrying decorative purses.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#4 Gendered Nonverbal Communication 

2007年04月18日(水) 8時37分
Kate Moss is a supermodel with an interesting and
unique talent. I have always been a big fan of hers.
However, I never figured out why I liked her until I read
Wood’s chapter about gender and nonverbal
communication. Wood explains that Kinesics is a form
of nonverbal communication; especially regarding facial
and body movements (Wood, p. 145). For example,
the kinesic behavior more typical of a female
supermodel is to look sexually desirable.

These pictures of Kate Moss, however, have been my
favorite ones because there is no trace of stereotypical
gender roles exist. In these pictures Kate Moss looks
aggressive, wild, and angry. Although most pictures of
models have flawless hair, there are often times when
Kate Moss has very messy hair. In pictures, she throws
tough punches, makes a mess of her own hair, and sits
with her legs wide open in a typically male pose and
posture. Those are the kinesics that usually explains
male stereotypes.

Without using female kinesics, Kate Moss is still able to
achieve a look of unique, authentic beauty. Without
utilizing artifacts to emphasize her femininity she still
looks very feminine. Although there are often times she
poses nude when modeling, she does not often use cliche
modeling techniques and sexual appeal in pictures such as
those seen in Victoria’s Secret’s advertising.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#5 “Who Pays for Lunch?” 

2007年04月27日(金) 9時59分
Every Thursday afternoon my girlfriends and I treat
ourselves to Sushi at a local restaurant. This picture
was taken during one of our Thursday lunch dates.
As it seen in the pictures, I have a very diverse group
of friends. We look very different, have unique
backgrounds, and have different opinions about
everything. However, we all get along very well.
During this afternoon we were having our usual sushi
lunch. When we have our lunch together we always
split the bill evenly.

During the lunch pictured here, we were talking about
one of the girl’s new dates and how she had mixed-
feelings about a date she recently had with a new guy.
She informed us that she has had three dates with her
new guy friend and things were going very well. She
did, however, have one complaint: She claimed that
the problem with her new date is that he never offers
to pay for dates.

The other girl made a comment about how the girl’s
new date is not being very nice and “gentlemanly”.
She agreed that one of her expectations for the male
during a date is also to cover her expense.

As it shown in the Wood text, there are many girls that
tend to depend on males financially (Wood, p. 195).
I was very surprised that both of my girl friends expect
male financial support and view the issue as a decisive
factor when evaluating a man. I offered my opinion that
I think it is fairer for the man and woman to split the
expenses. Also, if the date, whether it is a first date,
steady boyfriend, or a husband completely supporting
us financially, I think I would feel very dependent and
helpless, as well as guilty towards the person. I could
not believe so many girls today are so old-fashioned as
to still be dependant on males.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#6 Girl and Independence 

2007年05月02日(水) 9時05分
Conceiving of women as child-like is one of the worst
stereotypes. As Wood explains, there are often times
that females exhibit stereotypical images of being cute
and childish, but they typically do not take themselves
seriously when doing so. Such stereotyping usually
causes females to resist beneficial experiences such as
difficult educational tasks, and other challenging work
(Wood, p. 232). These pictures of my suitcase and
passport represent my feeling toward those stereotypes
because they are directly connected to my traveling
experiences where I would live alone in a foreign country
for long periods of time.

I have been carrying around this suitcase and passport
for six years. I came to the United States due to my
father’s work at Proctor and Gamble. There was one
time that I cannot forget what my parents told me.
My father and mother told me that “You are lucky
because you are a girl. If you were a son; we would
not have taken you to the United States when you
were 17. Forcing a 17 year old male son to relocate
to a different country and attend an American
University at such a crucial time in their life would
have been too risky of a decision.” I was shocked
when I heard that from my parents. Caring less about
daughter’s success, or at least not expecting as much
from a daughter as they would a son, is definitely the
result of a gender stereotype.

Similar thing happen when I asked my parents for
permission to travel alone to England and Ireland during
spring break. Since I was always dreaming about going
to see the world on my own, I was planning on traveling
to those countries by myself. To my surprise, when I
confronted my parents with this question they yelled at
me and said that it is too dangerous for a girl to go
travel by herself.

Since both of my parents maintain the unfair gender-
related opinion that females need to be “protected”,
my opportunity to have these types of enriching
experiences is limited. At the same time, because I am
a female, they think it is ok for them to change my life
as however they want; such as they did when forcing
me to move to the United States along with them.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#7 Sports and Gender 

2007年05月11日(金) 23時08分
This is a picture of television screen playing ESPN.
I do not watch television; however, whenever I go to
the fitness gym in my apartment, this channel is on.
Not only does ESPN almost always broadcast the same
sports; i.e. basketball, football, and baseball, but the
sports they are broadcasting are always male sports.
While working out, I have never seen ESPN
broadcasting any female sports. Wood explains that
women athletes constitute only 4% of sports coverage
broadcasted during ESPN’s Sports Center
(Wood, p. 260). As I was taking a glance at ESPN in
the fitness room, many thoughts occurred to me
relating to gender and sports.

There are many very obvious inequalities between male
and female professional sports. Why must the female’s
basketball be smaller than the males? Why must the
size of the golf clubs be different for females? Why must
the women’s softball be bigger than the male’s baseball?
Those differences in sports do not make sense to me.
Even though I know that there are biological differences
between males and females, I believe that it is possible
for females to use the same size ball as men if they train
that way. Do they believe that females cannot hit a
smaller target the size of the male’s baseball? Do they
expand the size of the softball for female so we can
more easily hit it with the bat?

The other picture portrays synchronized swimming.
This sport is exclusively for females. Even though I
think the female body is exotic and beautiful, I was
surprised how synchronized swimming is heavily focused
on showing off the female’s body. They pose in pretty
position for the audience and judges, smile, and act
graceful in the water. This may be considered to be
celebrating the beauty of the female body. However,
as one of the few exclusively female sports, it deserves
to be subjected to a feminist critique do to the overt
exhibition of the female gender involved.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#8 Daily Decisions that Driven by Media 

2007年05月16日(水) 21時10分
These are pictures of my running shoes, mineral water,
and nutritional facts; which are involved in all my daily
dietary decisions. I run everyday for at least 20 minutes.
I also don’t eat food unless I know its calorie content.
I also have an obligation to myself to burn the amount
of calories that I eat by running. Contrex is the mineral
water that I prefer for my diet. In the package, it says
“Contrex is a natural source of calcium and minerals
without the unwanted calories!” I also avoid fried food,
carbohydrates, meat, and whipped cream for smoothies
and lattes. I also try to drink 1L of water everyday to
cleanse my body from inside.

My daily decisions are totally driven by my attempt to
achieve what I believe is the ideal female figure; which
is typically inspired by celebrities in the media. Today,
in order to achieve the ideal body, a woman is required
to undertake unnatural processes such as extreme diets
and plastic surgery (Wood, p. 276-277).

I have to admit that I don’t think I would workout if
I already had the body I wanted. I don’t think I would
workout if I didn’t feel pressured to be somewhat skinny,
either. I think working out could be more fun if I did it
for my health, rather than to lose weight. I am aware
of both the positive and negative outcomes of this diet.
Throughout the day there are numbers of decisions that
I make which are driven by my self-conscious conception
of my body.

There are times when I wish I could eat whatever I
wanted and did not have to exercise. I wish I didn’t
regret eating a whole bowl of pasta, french-fries, steak,
and a latte topped with whipped cream. I wish I didn’t
have to try to refuse chocolate and ice-cream. I wish
I didn’t have to check the calories in dietary information
for everything I consume.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#9 Marriage and Career 

2007年05月24日(木) 19時14分
The documentary Tough Guise made me think not only
of the pressures of living in male-dominated culture,
but also the subtle pressures existing in a girl-culture.
In this entry, I want to talk about choices and
alternatives that exist in girl-culture (Katz, 1999).

These two pictures are very happy pictures for me.
One of these pictures of me was taken when I bought
my first suit. Since I was dreaming for a long time
about getting my first pair of suits, when I first tried
them on I felt very independent and happy so I decided
to take a picture of myself in the fitting room.
This picture portrays my anticipated excitement of
being an independent woman. The other picture is my
best friend’s sister’s wedding. The girl pictured standing
in the middle is my best friend, Kozue. She sent me
picture recently with the note saying
“I wonder if I’ll ever get married like my big sister!”,
and I immediately identified with her question.

Both Kozue and I start working our careers this year.
Both Kozue and I decided to be apart with boyfriend for
a while because of our careers. We didn’t take
boyfriends into consideration when it comes to picking
career. Even though we could have chosen to be with
our boyfriends while we do career, we didn’t. We made
this decision because we both think self-development
through working is necessary when we are young.
Since many couples that we know choose to stay
together after college, Kozue and I feel very strong
about ourselves. For us, having an ordinary and
cliche girl life of seems boring. Especially, making
decisions based on our desire to be with our boyfriends
seems very wrong to us. We reasoned like this because
we know how easy it is for girls to be that way. Since
we each decided to develop our career portfolio rather
than remain dependently anchored to our boyfriends,
we both think we are very independent-minded girls.
Similar to what was shown in the Tough Guise
documentary, there is a social pressure for girls to
choose a certain type of lifestyle. However, it is a
refreshing and liberating pleasure for girls such as
Kozue and me to resist the typical trend of girls
latching onto men, and thereby denying their
own goals (Katz, 1999).

Katz, J. & Jhally, S (Director). (1999). Tough Guise:
Violence, media, and thecrisis in masculinity.

Northampton, MA: Media Education Foundation.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.

#10 Measurement of Beauty 

2007年05月27日(日) 9時17分
One story from The Good Body which caught my
attention was about the effect of Miss India winning
the world beauty championship. When Miss India won
the pageant, local girls in India started wanting their
body to be as thins as “Miss Skinny India”, which is a
great departure from the curvier body which used to be
emblematic of female beauty in India (Ensler, 2004).
This phenomenon shows the negative impact of the
globalization. Since the world and its various cultures
are growing closer to each other through the
interconnecting affect of globalization, many cultures
have been subjected to hegemonic ideas which
dominate and influence every culture in the world.
As this aspect of globalization has been taking effect,
one dominant, global conception of an ideal female body
has emerged. Since Western culture primarily dominates
the marketplace of ideas, there is a noticeable tendency
in the women in the world to want to emulate the
popular type of beauty which is present in Western

The story of Indian girls seems to be a very familiar
story to me. Japan in recent years has been influenced
by more and more of the ideas stemming from the fashion
and media industry, which largely promote Western ideals.
Many young Japanese girls watch the popular television
show O.C., check Paris Hilton’s fashion report, and listen
to Hip-Hop, as a result of this Western influence.

I took picture from two separate magazines in order to
compare different culture’s conceptions of beauty.
One is called ViVi and it’s heavily impacted by Western
culture and its standards of beauty. On the other hand,
the other magazine is called Jille and it has long been a
popular fashion magazine in Japan, and never changes its
style. This magazine does not attempt to emulate the
Western cultural conception of beauty as most magazines
attempt to do. Instead, Jille emphasizes traditional
Japanese conception of beauty and fashion.

As is seen in the pictures, the two magazine’s tastes
in fashion are apparently different. ViVi’s fasion reveals
more skin, which is a common theme associated with
Western magazines such as Vogue. On the other hand,
the fashion styles portrayed in Jille has more layers,
shapes and colors which reflects the traditional
Japanese beauty. Interestingly, and more importantly,
all the models ViVi uses in its Western-influenced
magazine are all half-Caucasian/half-Japanese girls.
However, the other magazines have almost all Japanese
girls exclusively. The reason why ViVi uses these kinds
of girls is apparent: It is obviously a result of the ideal
conception of beauty in Japan shifting more towards
Western beauty. Many girls in Japan undergo plastic
surgery to make their eyes bigger, their nose taller,
and breasts bigger. Almost all cosmetics in Japan today
are designed to enhance Western face structures as well.

It is sad to see traditional Japanese cultural identity being
ignored by today’s younger generation. I want all
Japanese girls to notice how traditional Japanese beauty
is something to embrace and be proud of.

Ensler, E. (2004). The Good Body. London:
William Heinemann.

Wood, J. (2005). Gendered lives: Communication,
gender, and culture
(6th ed.). Belmont,CA: Wadsworth.