Many warranty batteries are being replaced for this reason 

2013年06月14日(金) 11時11分
Charging and discharging batteries is a chemical reaction, but Li-ion is claimed as an exception. Here, battery scientists talk about energies flowing in and out as part of ion movement between anode and cathode. This claim has merits, but if the scientists were totally right then the battery would live forever, and Inspiron 1750 bright this is wishful thinking. The experts blame capacity fade on ions getting trapped. For simplicity, we consider aging a corrosion that affects all battery systems.

The Li?ion charger is a voltage-limiting device that is similar to the lead acid system. The difference lies in a higher voltage per cell, tighter voltage tolerance and the absence of trickle or float charge at full charge. While lead acid offers some flexibility in terms of voltage cut?off, manufacturers of Li?ion cells are very strict on the correct setting because Li-ion cannot accept overcharge. The so-called miracle charger that promises to prolong battery life and methods that pump extra capacity into the cell do not exist here. Li-ion is a “clean” system and only takes what it can absorb. Anything extra causes stress.

Most cells charge to 4.20V/cell with a tolerance of +/–50mV/cell. Higher voltages could increase the capacity, but the resulting cell oxidation would reduce service life. More important is the safety concern if charging beyond 4.20V/cell. Figure 1 shows the voltage and current signature as lithium-ion passes through the stages for constant current and topping charge.


The charge rate of a typical consumer Li-ion battery is between 0.5 and 1C in Stage 1, and the charge time is about three hours. Manufacturers recommend charging the 18650 cell at 0.8C or less. Charge efficiency is 97 to 99 percent and the cell remains cool during charge. Some Li-ion packs may experience a temperature rise of about 5oC (9oF) when reaching full charge. This could be due to the protection circuit and/or elevated internal resistance. Full charge occurs when the battery reaches the voltage threshold and the current drops to three percent of the rated current. A battery is also considered fully charged if the current levels off and cannot go down further. Elevated self-discharge might be the cause of this condition.

Increasing the charge current does not hasten the full-charge state by much. Although the battery reaches the voltage peak quicker with a fast charge, the saturation charge will take longer accordingly. The amount of charge current applied simply alters the time required for each stage; Stage 1 will be shorter but the saturation Stage 2 will take longer. A high current charge will, however, quickly fill the battery to about 70 percent.

Li-ion does not need to be fully charged, as is the case with lead acid, nor is it desirable to do so. In fact, it is better not to fully charge, because high voltages stresses the battery. Choosing a lower voltage threshold, or eliminating the saturation charge altogether, prolongs battery life but this reduces the runtime. Since the consumer market promotes maximum runtime, these chargers go for maximum capacity rather than extended service life.

Some lower-cost consumer chargers may use the simplified “charge-and-run” method that charges a lithium-ion battery in one hour or less without going to the Stage 2 saturation charge. “Ready” appears when the W953G bright reaches the voltage threshold at Stage 1. Since the state-of-charge (SoC) at this point is only about 85 percent, the user may complain of short runtime, not knowing that the charger is to blame. Many warranty batteries are being replaced for this reason, and this phenomenon is especially common in the cellular industry.

Avoiding full charge has benefits, and some manufacturers set the charge threshold lower on purpose to prolong battery life. Table 2 illustrates the estimated capacities when charged to different voltage thresholds with and without saturation charge.

Another battery might be fully charged and remain cool 

2013年06月14日(金) 11時09分
The charge algorithm for NiMH is similar to NiCd with the exception that NiMH is more complex. The NDV method to measure full charge shows only a faint voltage drop, especially when charging at less than 0.5C. A hot RM791 bright or one with mismatched cells works against the already minute voltage drop.

The NDV in a NiMH charger must respond to a voltage drop of 5mV per cell. To assure reliable charging, NiMH chargers must include electronic filtering to compensate for noise and voltage fluctuations induced by the battery and the charger. Modern chargers achieve this by combining NDV, voltage plateau, delta temperature (dT/dt), temperature threshold and time-out timers into the full-charge detection algorithm. These “or-gates” utilize whatever comes first depending on battery condition. Many chargers include a 30-minute topping charge of 0.1C to add a few percentage points of extra charge.

Some advanced chargers apply an initial fast charge of 1C. When reaching a certain voltage threshold, a rest of a few minutes is added, allowing the battery to cool down. The charge continues at a lower current and applies further current reductions as the charge progresses. This scheme continues until the battery is fully charged. Known asthe “step-differential charge,” this method works well for all nickel-based batteries.

Chargers utilizing the step-differential or other aggressive charge methods achieve a capacity gain of about six percent over a more basic charger, an increase that is not possible without stressful overcharge. Although a higher capacity is desirable, filling the battery to the brim has a negative effect in that it will shorten the overall battery life. Rather than achieving the expected 350 to 400 service cycles, the aggressive charger might exhaust the pack after 300 cycles.

NiMH cannot absorb overcharge well and the trickle charge is set to around 0.05C. In comparison, the older NiCd charger trickle charges at 0.1C, double that rate. Differences in trickle charge and the need for a more sensitive full-charge detection render the original NiCd charger unsuitable for NiMH batteries. A NiMH in a NiCd charger would overheat, but a NiCd in a NiMH charger does well because the lower trickle charge is also sufficient for NiCd.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to slow-charge a NiMH battery. At a C?rate of 0.1 to 0.3C, the voltage and temperature profiles fail to exhibit defined characteristics to measure the full-charge state accurately and the charger must depend on a timer. Harmful overcharge will occur if a fixed timer controls the charge. This is especially apparent when charging partially or fully charged batteries.

The same scenario occurs if the battery has lost capacity due to aging and can only hold half the capacity. In essence, this battery has electrically shrunk to half size while the fixed timer is programmed to apply a 100 percent charge without regard for the battery condition. In most cases an overcharge will heat the battery, but this is not always the case. A poorly designed NiMH charger is capable of overcharging a battery without heat buildup. At a sufficiently low charge rate, NiMH can remain totally cool and yet suffer from overcharge.

Battery users are often dissatisfied with shorter than expected service life of a battery. Let’s not blame the battery manufacturer, because the fault might lie in the charger. Low-priced consumer chargers are especially prone to incorrectly charging. If you use such a charger and want to improve battery performance, estimate the battery state-of-charge and capacity and set the charge time accordingly. Remove the batteries when you think they are full.


If your charger charges at a high charge rate, do a temperature touch. Lukewarm indicates that the batteries may be full enough for removal. It is far better to remove the batteries and then recharge before use than to Vostro 1310 bright leave them in the charger for eventual use.

Note that some nickel-based batteries heat up during charge and this is in part due to high internal resistance. Such a battery may be warm to the touch even though it is only partially charged. Another battery might be fully charged and remain cool. Charging NiCd and NiMH batteries on an inexpensive charger is guesswork, and it is best not to charge them longer than necessary. Remove the batteries when perceived full and give them a quick charge before use.

The speed at which a battery can charge is limited 

2013年04月17日(水) 15時12分
Two researchers have developed battery cells that can charge up in less time than it takes to read the first two sentences of this 12 cells 593550-001article. The work could eventually produce ultra-fast power packs for everything from laptop computers to electric vehicles.

Byoungwoo Kang and Gerbrand Ceder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge have found a way to get a common lithium compound to release and take up lithium ions in a matter of seconds. The compound, which is already used in the electrodes of some commercial lithium-ion batteries, might lead to laptop batteries capable of charging themselves in about a minute. The work appears in Nature1 this week.

Lithium-ion batteries are commonplace in everything from mobile phones to hybrid vehicles. "They're essentially devices that move lithium ions between electrodes," says Ceder. The batteries generate an electric current when lithium ions flow out from a storage electrode, float through an electrolyte, and are chemically bound inside the opposing cathode. To recharge the battery, the process is reversed: lithium ions are ripped from the cathode compound and sent back to be trapped in 12 cells probook 4710stheir anode store.

The speed at which a battery can charge is limited by how fast its electrons and ions can move - particularly through its electrodes. Researchers have boosted these rates by building electrodes from nanoparticle clumps, reshaping their surfaces, and using additives such as carbon. But for most lithium-ion batteries, powering up still takes hours: in part because the lithium ions, once generated, move sluggishly from the cathode material to the electrolyte.

Manufacturers of primary batteries only specify specific energy 

2013年04月17日(水) 15時10分
Specific energy indicates the energy a battery can hold. This, however, does not guarantee delivery. Primary batteries tend to have high internal resistance, which limits the discharge to light loads such as remote12 cells Envy 17 controls, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. Digital cameras are borderline — a power drill on alkaline would be unthinkable.

Manufacturers of primary batteries only specify specific energy; the specific power (ability to deliver power) is not published. While most secondary batteries are rated at a discharge current of 1C, the capacity of primary batteries is measured by discharging them at a very low current of 25mA, or a fraction of a C. In addition, the batteries are allowed to go down to a very low voltage of 0.8 volts per cell. This evaluation method provides impressive readings on paper, but the results are poor under a more demanding load.

Figure 2 compares performance of primary and secondary batteries on a discharge of 1C. The results are indicated in Actual and Rated. Actual is the Wh/kg derived at a 1C discharge, Rated is the Wh/kg the manufacturer specifies when discharged at a much low current. While the primary batteries do well on a discharge representing entertainment device, secondary batteries have lower capacities but are more resilient at a load of 1C.

Secondary batteries are typically rated at 1C; alkaline uses much lower discharge currents.
Courtesy of Cadex

Specific energy indicates the energy a battery can hold. This, however, does not guarantee delivery. Primary batteries tend to have high internal resistance, which limits the discharge to light loads such as remote controls, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. Digital cameras are borderline — a power drill on alkaline would be unthinkable.

Manufacturers of primary batteries only specify specific energy; the specific power (ability to deliver power) is not published. While most secondary batteries are rated at a discharge current of 1C, the capacity of primary batteries is measured by discharging them at a very low current of 25mA, or a fraction of a C. In addition, the batteries are allowed to go down to a very low voltage of 0.8 volts per cell. This evaluation method provides impressive readings on paper, but the results are12 cells Pavilion g6 poor under a more demanding load.

Figure 2 compares performance of primary and secondary batteries on a discharge of 1C. The results are indicated in Actual and Rated. Actual is the Wh/kg derived at a 1C discharge, Rated is the Wh/kg the manufacturer specifies when discharged at a much low current. While the primary batteries do well on a discharge representing entertainment device, secondary batteries have lower capacities but are more resilient at a load of 1C.

Put to use in a broader scale 

2013年02月28日(木) 14時38分
The battery, developed by Zhong Lin Wang and colleagues at the Georgia Institute of Technology, converts the kinetic energy from motion into chemical energy, which can then be used to power any device. By placing the cheap rn873 A32-F80on the bottom of a shoe, for example, it could generate energy with every step.

You've probably heard about similar technologies, but all other systems of this nature require two processes. The new system achieves it in just one. The first research on this new battery was published in August 2012 in the journal Nano Letters.

Until this new system was developed, capturing kinetic energy required converting mechanical energy into electricity, which would then be converted into chemical energy for long- or short-term storage. This new method skips a step and converts energy from motion directly into stored chemical energy.

"This is a project that introduces a new approach in battery technology that is fundamentally new in science," Wang told Phys.org.

Not only does this new battery technology create a more efficient process — five times more efficient than current systems, Lin Wang says — it reduces the amount of size and weight of the resulting battery, making it even more portable and easy to incorporate into all manner of devices.

Right now the battery system doesn't generate all that much electricity — about enough to power a pocket calculator — but the scientists say that could be increased to the equivalent of today's 1.5V batteries. Put to use in a broader scale, they say it could produce almost unlimited electricity.

Professor Wang discussed the cheap rn873 A32-1015 — which he calls more of a "power pack" than a simple battery — with CNN, where he demonstrated it generating electricity simply through the power of his own breath:

Wang says the system could be commercially implemented in three to five years.

This includes a reinforced plastic case 

2013年02月28日(木) 14時37分
Johnson Controls, the world’s leading supplier of automotive batteries, is launching a line of Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM) batteries in cheap rn873 A32-UL20 North America to support up-and-coming Start-Stop vehicle technology.

AGM batteries also are better equipped to handle the higher electrical loads that are increasingly being required of the battery in newer vehicles with combustion engines. AGM batteries last longer in demanding applications and are completely spill proof and maintenance free.

“With continuously increasing power requirements in cars and trucks, the battery has taken on a more important role,” said Allen Martin, vice president and general manager Global Aftermarket for Johnson Controls Power Solutions. “Our proven AGM battery technology is designed to meet and exceed automaker and consumer requirements, providing the latest technological developments available in batteries today.”

Johnson Controls, which has been manufacturing AGM batteries in Europe since 2002, produces more than 3 million VARTA® Start-Stop Plus AGM batteries annually to supply the rapidly growing Start-Stop market. The company has started producing AGM batteries for the United States at its facility in St. Joseph’s, Mo., and will launch manufacturing later this year at its newly expanded facility near Toledo, Ohio.

“We’re installing approximately 6 million in AGM annual capacity for the U.S. market. Our estimates suggest that up to 40 percent of new cars being built the United States by 2016 could be Start-Stop vehicles requiring AGM batteries, in addition to the growing number of conventional vehicles that require a more robust battery” said Mike Carr, vice president and general manager North America for Johnson Controls Power Solutions.

Because some Start-Stop vehicles require special processes to replace and reset the battery and system, Johnson Controls developed its VARTA® Start-Stop Service Program (VSSP) in Europe, and plans to bring a similar program to the United States. The VSSP program provides workshops with the necessary training, information and equipment to allow technicians to test the battery, examine relevant control modules, delete error codes, reset the memory and read replacement instructions as they go.


“While AGM batteries are designed to easily fit today’s cars, they do have special requirements for installing and resetting when used in Start-Stop vehicle systems. Our VSSP program will help service technicians properly link the batteries with the on-board electronics,” said Martin.

Johnson Controls’ AGM batteries are engineered to extend the life and improve performance of the battery. This includes a reinforced plastic case, a unique venting system that better maintains the seal over life, increased charge acceptance on the negative grid, and higher density material on the positive grid to improve cycling. The batteries also feature the company’s patented PowerFrame® grid technology, which virtually eliminates premature failure and resists corrosion up to 66 percent more effectively than other grid designs.

Its design provides superior starting performance over the life of the battery with up to 70 percent better electrical flow than other grid technologies. And, the PowerFrame grid manufacturing process uses 20 percent lesscheap rn873 A32-K53 energy and releases 20 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other manufacturing methods.

AGM batteries to meet European sizes (H6, H7, H8) are available today. Group 31 commercial truck batteries will launch in July, with U.S.-focused car and light truck group sizes 24F, 34, 65 and 78 slated for late summer and early fall.

This incredible new battery technology works 

2013年01月04日(金) 12時14分
This incredible new battery technology works because of the material that is being used in the actual construction of the items. The reason that the new material is making headlines is because of the fact that it can be integrated into the design of an automobile and would make it lighter and more fuel efficient, but couldbuy AS07A71 actually supply power to recharge the battery of an electric car.

With the material being able to be strong enough for the construction of a car, there are many other possibilities for its use. Right off the bat, devices such as cell phones, iPods, laptops and anything else that you can think of that would use battery power would be able to benefit from this new battery technology.

In the case of portable devices, the entire outer shell would actually be made from this material and would serve as the charging agent. There would simply never be a need to ever plug the device into a charger again. For cars, areas such as the roof or part of a door panel could have the material integrated into it and the power routed to the battery of the automobile. Again, electric or hybrid car owners are spared the inconvenience of having to recharge their batteries.

Because the material is also super lightweight, it will improve the overall performance of the vehicle as well efficiency of the gas mileage. Because of the lighter weight, the cars would also need fewer batteries to power them. With the cost of the batteries being pretty significant, the overall cost of the car would buy AS07B71
The new technology is just that, new, so there is still a lot of work to be done in order get it to be as effective as possible. The developers are still continuing to find ways to make it stronger, lighter, more durable and of course more energy efficient. In addition, they are seeking ways to make the actual production of the materials needed more cost effective so that the consumer can truly reap the benefits of this incredible new battery technology.

Toppan has now developed a new battery-free RFID product with a dot-matrix electronic paper  

2012年11月29日(木) 12時04分
There are an increasing number of initiatives using smart cards and IC tags to enhance the efficiency of logistics management and improve customer service in the distribution and amusement industries. As an evolution of such 9cells rn873 Pavilion g6 battery applications, there is increasing demand for devices with display functions that allow information on the smart card or IC tag to be confirmed on the spot.

Devices with display functions have existed for some time but most of these products included a battery within the device in order to provide power to change and maintain the information displayed. This presented a challenge because maintenance was needed every time the battery was changed.

In February 2012, Toppan Printing developed a battery-free contactless smart card with a display function that featured a segment type (*4) electronic paper display. This card had similar dimensions and thickness to previous cards but had a system that could display the information in the contactless smart card using only the power supply from the reader/writer.

Toppan has now developed a new battery-free RFID product with a dot-matrix electronic paper display that can display text and images. With this new product, the original electronic paper control and antenna technologies that were created during the development of the battery-free contactless smart card with a segment-type display have been further advanced. With the addition of a newly developed low-power consumption circuit design technology for contactless power supply, it has battery for 593550-001become possible to drive the display with general reader/writers even though it is a dot-matrix type with high power consumption.

This means that use has become possible for numerous reader/writers in a wide range of industries.

A battery is not required because information can be read 

2012年11月29日(木) 12時02分
Toppan Printing Co., Ltd. (hereafter Toppan Printing; head office: Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo; President & Representative Director: Shingo Kaneko) has developed an RFID (*1) device that is compliant with the ISO/IEC15693 (*2) communication standard and can display information on an IC chip in text and imageshp Pavilion dm1 battery without the need for a battery.

Sample shipments are scheduled to begin in spring 2013 with use envisaged for applications where text and images such as QR codes on an IC chip need to be displayed for confirmation, such as management of processes or status in factories and hospitals.

This is an RFID device that has a 2.7 inch dot-matrix (*3) electronic paper display and enables the display to be changed without the use of a battery. A battery is not required because information can be read, written and displayed using only the power supply from the reader/writer. Since electronic paper is used for the display section, information displayed remains on the screen without the need for a battery.

The method of communication is compliant with ISO/IEC 15693, which is widely used in the field of RFID. Due to the use of a low-power consumption circuit developed by Toppan, it has become possible to operate this device 11.1v 5200mah 9cells rn873 Pavilion Envy 17 batterywith general reader/writers even though the display is a dot-matrix type, which consumes a lot of power.

This product will be displayed in the Toppan booths at CARTES 2012, which will be held from November 6 to 8, 2012 in Paris, France, and at Messe Nagoya 2012, which will be held from November 7 to 10, 2012 at the Port Messe Nagoya exhibition center in Nagoya, Japan.

AGM batteries are commonly built to size and are found in high-end vehicles 

2012年10月08日(月) 18時05分
AGM is an improved lead acid battery with higher performance than the regular flooded type. Instead of submerging the plates into liquid electrolyte, the electrolyte is absorbed in a mat of fine glass fibers. This makes the 12 cells Pavilion g6 battery spill-proof, allowing shipment without hazardous material restrictions. The plates can be made flat like the standard flooded lead acid and placed in a rectangular case, or wound into a conventional cylindrical cell.

AGM has very low internal resistance, is capable of delivering high currents and offers long service even if occasionally deep-cycled. AGM has a lower weight and provides better electrical reliability than the flooded lead acid type. It also stands up well to high and low temperatures and has a low self-discharge. Other advantages over regular lead acid are a better specific power rating (high load current) and faster charge times (up to five times faster). The negatives are slightly lower specific energy (capacity) and higher manufacturing costs.

AGM batteries are commonly built to size and are found in high-end vehicles to run power-hungry accessories such as heated seats, steering wheels, mirrors and windshield wipers. Starter batteries also power navigation systems, traction and stability control, as well as premium stereos. NASCAR and other auto racing leagues choose AGM products because they are vibration resistant. Start-stop batteries are almost exclusively AGM because the classic flooded type is not robust enough; repeated micro cycling would induce capacity fade.

AGM is the preferred battery for upscale motorcycles. It reduces acid spilling in an accident, lowers weight for the same performance and can be installed odd angles. Because of good performance at cold temperatures, AGM batteries are also used for marine, motor home and robotic applications.
As with all gelled and sealed units, AGM batteries are sensitive to overcharging. These batteries can be charged to 2.40V/cell (and higher) without problem; however, the float charge should be reduced to between 2.25 and 2.30V/cell (summer temperatures may require lower voltages).

Automotive charging systems for flooded lead acid often have a fixed float voltage setting of 14.40V (2.40V/cell), and a direct replacement with a sealed unit could spell trouble by exposing the battery to undue overcharge on a long drive.

AGM and other gelled electrolyte batteries do not like heat and should be installed away from the engine compartment. Manufacturers recommend halting charge if the battery core reaches 49°C (120°F). While regular lead acid 11.1v 5200mah 9cells 593550-001 need a topping charge every six months to prevent the buildup of sulfation, AGM batteries are less prone and can sit in storage for longer before a charge becomes necessary.

The following are important lead acid systems in limited use or under field test.