The primary reason for the relatively short cycle life of a lead acid battery

July 03 [Wed], 2013, 11:30
A lead acid battery goes through three life phases, called formatting, peak and decline (Figure 1). In the formatting phase, try to imagine sponge-like lead plates that are being exposed to a liquid. Exercising the plates HSTNN-Q34C high quality allows the absorption of more liquid, much like squeezing and releasing a sponge. This enables the electrolyte to better fill the usable areas, an exercise that increases the capacity.

Formatting is most important for deep-cycle batteries and requires 20 to 50 full cycles to reach peak capacity. Field usage achieves this. There is no need to apply added cycles for the sake of priming; however, manufacturers recommend to go easy

A deep-cycle battery delivers 100–200 cycles before it starts the gradual decline. Replacement should occur when the capacity drops to 70 or 80 percent. Some applications allow lower capacity thresholds but the time for retirement should not fall below 50 percent because the aging occurs rapidly once the battery is past its prime. Apply a fully saturated charge of 14 to 16 hours. Operating at moderate temperatures assure the longest service times. If at all possible, avoid deep discharges; charge more often.

The primary reason for the relatively short cycle life of a lead acid battery is depletion of the active material. According to the 2010 BCI Failure Modes Study,* plate/grid-related breakdown has increased from 30 percent HSTNN-C17C high quality five years ago to 39 percent. The report does not give reasons for the increased wear-and-tear, other than to assume that higher demands of starter batteries in modern cars induce added stress.

While the depletion of the active material is well understood and can be calculated, a lead acid battery suffers from other infirmities long before plate- and grid-deterioration sound the death knell. The following articles address the most common problems that develop with use and time and what battery users can do to minimize the effect.

The batteries also feature the company’s patented PowerFrame

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 15:53
Johnson Controls, the world’s leading supplier of automotive batteries, is launching a line of Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM) batteries in North UM09A75 brightAmerica to support up-and-coming Start-Stop vehicle technology.

AGM batteries also are better equipped to handle the higher electrical loads that are increasingly being required of the battery in newer vehicles with combustion engines. AGM batteries last longer in demanding applications and are completely spill proof and maintenance free.

“With continuously increasing power requirements in cars and trucks, the battery has taken on a more important role,” said Allen Martin, vice president and general manager Global Aftermarket for Johnson Controls Power Solutions. “Our proven AGM battery technology is designed to meet and exceed automaker and consumer requirements, providing the latest technological developments available in batteries today.”

Johnson Controls, which has been manufacturing AGM batteries in Europe since 2002, produces more than 3 million VARTA? Start-Stop Plus AGM batteries annually to supply the rapidly growing Start-Stop market. The company has started producing AGM batteries for the United States at its facility in St. Joseph’s, Mo., and will launch manufacturing later this year at its newly expanded facility near Toledo, Ohio.

“We’re installing approximately 6 million in AGM annual capacity for the U.S. market. Our estimates suggest that up to 40 percent of new cars being built the United States by 2016 could be Start-Stop vehicles requiring AGM batteries, in addition to the growing number of conventional vehicles that require a more robust battery” said Mike Carr, vice president and general manager North America for Johnson Controls Power Solutions.

Because some Start-Stop vehicles require special processes to replace and reset the battery and system, Johnson Controls developed its VARTA? Start-Stop Service Program (VSSP) in Europe, and plans to bring a similar program to the United States. The VSSP program provides workshops with the necessary training, information and equipment to allow technicians to test the battery, examine relevant control modules, delete error codes, reset the memory and read replacement instructions as they go.


“While AGM batteries are designed to easily fit today’s cars, they do have special requirements for installing and resetting when used in Start-Stop vehicle systems. Our VSSP program will help service technicians properly link the batteries with the on-board electronics,” said Martin.

Johnson Controls’ AGM batteries are engineered to extend the life and improve performance of the battery. This includes a reinforced plastic case, a unique venting system that better maintains the seal over life, increased charge AL10D56 brightacceptance on the negative grid, and higher density material on the positive grid to improve cycling.

The batteries also feature the company’s patented PowerFrame? grid technology, which virtually eliminates premature failure and resists corrosion up to 66 percent more effectively than other grid designs. Its design provides superior starting performance over the life of the battery with up to 70 percent better electrical flow than other grid technologies. And, the PowerFrame grid manufacturing process uses 20 percent less energy and releases 20 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other manufacturing methods.

This research brief details the state of the advanced battery

May 14 [Tue], 2013, 15:51
Lithium ion batteries, which currently lead the market for advanced batteries in applications ranging from consumer electronics to electrified transportation, represent a significant step beyond conventional lead-acid technology. The technology, however, still falls short of market needs in terms of both technical UM09A31 bright performance and cost. These shortcomings and potential future demand for energy storage are driving innovation in the next generation of advanced battery energy storage.

The goal of this innovation is to find lower cost raw materials and increase lifecycle expectations – both of which, in turn, will enable lower capital costs and lower total cost of ownership across all battery applications. Both electrified transportation and stationary storage demand lower price points to enable full electrification. Only through advances in materials science and manufacturing, delivering higher energy densities, using lower cost materials, producing systems that will last at least twice as long as commercially available battery products, can these cost reductions be achieved. Over the next 7 years, Pike Research forecasts, those advances will drive sharp increases in the installed capacity of advanced batteries for grid-scale applications – growing from a few hundred megawatts (MW) in 2013 to more than 10,000 MW in 2020.

This research brief details the state of the advanced battery industry today and examines the materials and design innovations that have the potential to revolutionize the energy storage industry. Forecasts for total capacity of advanced batteries and for investment in grid-scale advanced batteries are included through 2020. In addition, the research brief profiles the key players in this rapidly evolving sector.Lithium ion batteries, which currently lead the market for advanced batteries in applications ranging from consumer electronics to electrified transportation, represent a significant step beyond conventional lead-acid technology. The technology, however, still falls short of market needs in terms of both technical performance and cost. These shortcomings and potential future demand for energy storage are driving innovation in the next generation of advanced battery energy storage.

The goal of this innovation is to find lower cost raw materials and increase lifecycle expectations – both of which, in turn, will enable lower capital costs and lower total cost of ownership across all battery applications. Both electrified transportation and stationary storage demand lower price points to enable full electrification.

Only through advances in materials science and manufacturing, delivering higher energy densities, using lower cost materials, producing systems that will last at least twice as long as commercially available battery products, can these cost reductions be achieved. Over the next 7 years, Pike Research forecasts, those advances will drive sharp increases in the installed capacity of advanced UM09A41 bright for grid-scale applications – growing from a few hundred megawatts (MW) in 2013 to more than 10,000 MW in 2020.

This research brief details the state of the advanced battery industry today and examines the materials and design innovations that have the potential to revolutionize the energy storage industry. Forecasts for total capacity of advanced batteries and for investment in grid-scale advanced batteries are included through 2020. In addition, the research brief profiles the key players in this rapidly evolving sector.

Aging affects battery chemistries at different degrees

April 02 [Tue], 2013, 17:51
Early cell phones were powered with nickel-based batteries but most newer phones are now equipped with lithium-ion. This chemistry is lightweight, offers high energy density and lasts long enough to span the typical life of tcompatible Aspire 3935he product. Lithium-ion contains no toxic metals.
To obtain thin geometry, some cell phone manufacturers switched to lithium-ion-polymer.

This satisfied consumer requests for slim designs. In the meantime, technological advancements also made low profile lithium-ion possible. lithium-ion packs are now available in 3 mm, a profile that suits most designs. lithium-ion has the advantage of lower manufacturing cost, better performance and longer cycle life than the polymer version.

Lithium-ion is a low maintenance battery. No periodic discharge is needed and charging can be done at random. A random charge means that the battery does not need to be fully depleted before recharge. In fact, it is better to recharge before the battery gets too low. Full discharges put an unnecessary strain on the battery. A recharge on a partially charged battery does not cause memory because there is none.

Charging lithium-ion is simpler and cleaner than nickel-based batteries but the chargers require tighter tolerances. Lithium-ion cannot absorb overcharge and no trickle charge is applied on full charge. This allows lithium-ion to be kept in the chargers until used. Some chargers apply a topping charge every week or so to replenish the capacity lost through self-discharge while the battery sits idle in the charger. Repeated insertion into the charger or cradle does not damage thecompatible Aspire 3820Tthough overcharge. If the battery is full, no charge is applied. The battery voltage determines the need to charge.

On the negative side, lithium-ion gradually loses charge acceptance as part of aging, even if not used. lithium-ion batteries should not be stored for long periods but be rotated like perishable food. The buyer should be aware of the manufacturing date when purchasing a replacement battery. Aging affects battery chemistries at different degrees.

This power monitor/management app can keep the smartphone

January 29 [Tue], 2013, 15:37
The newly released DROID RAZR is super thin and light. It has received a lot of positive reviews on the large screen, performance, and HD camera. Call and data quality are very satisfactory too. But how is the battery life holding up? Does DROID RAZR battery life is as good as promised on the paper? Expect talk cheap A32-N82time of approximately 12.5 hours and standby time of approximately 8.5 days on a powerful 1780 mAh battery. Sounds like enough for everyday use, right? I would like to investigate more in some real world tests.

Let’s review the kind of features that can easily consume power on the DROID RAZR. The Motorola Droid Razr has a 4.3-inch display, pretty much following the new trend of big screen smartphone. The images look bright and crisp. Videos are smooth thanks to the dual-core 1.2GHz processor and 1GB of RAM on-board. So expect it to do everything in a speedy manner. Today’s mobile processor use very little battery compared to their processor. However because you can multitask, that puts a lot of stress on the processor. Android allow apps to run in the background and some apps don’t automatically close unless you do so explicitly. It’s obvious that the more apps running at the same time the more power they consume.

The DROID RAZR runs on the new 4th generation data network call 4G LTE. It’s the best data network you can get these days. However, fast data speed comes with a cost. When you turn on LTE, even though you don’t plan to check email and browse the web all the time, it will drain the battery life faster than on a 3G or 2G connection. Although the phone switches from 3G to LTE depending on the signal strength, In fact, after 2.5 hours of use on web surfing, 1 episode of “Two and Half Men”, streaming music from Pandora, and a few app downloads, I only have 15% battery life left! Sure this can last the entire morning commute on the train. But if I don’t have a charger at the office it’s unlikely I will be able to use the phone again on the way back home.
Lastly, just like the iPhone, the battery on DROID RAZR is built-in and can’t be easily changed. So you have to rely on one charge for whatever you will be doing before you can find outlet to plug in your phone again.

Motorola knows the DROID RAZR is a power hog and thus includes a very nice app called Smart Actions. This power monitor/management app can keep the smartphone from getting unnecessary battery drain. You can modify built-in rules so that features such as GPS, Bluetooth, and the screen can be turn on and off at certain time. The phone display can turned down and the ringer can be turned up when you are at home. On the other hand, you can set the productivity apps to open whenever you get to the office. The Low Battery Action pays close attention on how much charge you have left on the phone and automatically dims the screen at 40% power and slows down data usage at 30%. Does the DROID RAZR battery last longer now with the SmartActions control? It does indeed. But how much power you can prevent from “leaking” will depend on your usage habits too. Choose the right setting and get more while doing less.

Here is my final verdict. DROID RAZR’s battery life is not as good as what the specs states. Unless you will be using this phone mainly for talking, it’s unlikely you can get more than few hours of continuous use on data, especially 4G LTE. Of course you can extend the battery life longer by doing the following: dim screen, turn off the GPS (because you don’t really need it all the time), turn off some cheap A32-N71background running apps like Weather and Screen Saver, don’t auto sync emails every 2 minutes. otherwise, be prepared to have charger at home and at work. The biggest draw is that you don’t have the option to swap dead battery or use an extended one. The good news is that it takes less than 1 hour to get from 0% to full power capacity.

Caution also applies to purchasing counterfeit chargers

January 29 [Tue], 2013, 15:14
In the search for low-cost batteries, consumers may inadvertently purchase counterfeit batteries that are unsafe. The label appears bona fide and the buyer cannot distinguish between an original and a forged product. Cell phone manufacturers are concerned about these products flooding the market and advis cheap Presario V6000 batterye customers to use approved brands; defiance could void the warranty. Manufacturers do not object to third-party suppliers as long as the aftermarket batteries are well built, safe and approved by a safety agency.

Caution also applies to purchasing counterfeit chargers. Some aftermarket chargers do not terminate the battery correctly and rely on the battery’s internal protection circuit to cut off the charge when the battery is full. The need for redundancy in charging is important because a bona fide battery could have a malfunctioning protection circuit that was damaged by a static charge or other cause. If, for example, the maker of the counterfeit battery relies on the charger to terminate the charge, and the manufacturer of the charger depends fully on the battery’s protection circuit, a cheap A32-X64combination exists that can have serious consequences.

Some laptop manufacturers disallow aftermarket batteries by digitally locking the pack with a tamperproof security code. This is done in part for safety reasons; the potential damage resulting from a faulty laptop battery is many times greater than that of a cell phone.

Some unsafe aftermarket chargers do not terminate the battery correctly

January 29 [Tue], 2013, 15:13
In the search for low-cost batteries, consumers may inadvertently purchase counterfeit batteries that are unsafe. The label appears bona fide and the buyer cannot distinguish between an original and a forged product. Cell phone manufacturers are concerned about these products flooding the market and advise cheap Presario F500 customers to use approved brands; defiance could void the warranty. Manufacturers do not object to third-party suppliers as long as the aftermarket batteries are well built, safe and approved by a safety agency.

Caution also applies to purchasing counterfeit chargers. Some unsafe aftermarket chargers do not terminate the battery correctly and rely on the battery’s internal protection circuit to cut off when full. The need for redundancy is important because a bona fide battery could have a malfunctioning protection circuit that was damaged by a static charge. If, for example, the maker of the counterfeit battery relies on the charger to terminate the charge, and the charger builder has full confidence that the battery will turn off when ready, the combination of these two products can cheap Presario F700 battery have a lethal effect.

Some laptop manufacturers disallow aftermarket batteries by digitally locking the pack with a tamperproof security code. This is done in part for safety reasons, because the potential damage resulting from a faulty laptop battery is many times greater than that of a cell phone.

In practice a typical cell is constructed with many more plates

December 10 [Mon], 2012, 11:55
In semi traction cells flat plate construction is used. Each positive plate is a cast metallic frame which contains the lead dioxide active material. The negative plates contain spongy lead active material. also on a similar 11.1v 5200mah 9cells rn873 L09S6Y11 frame. Both plates usually have the same surface areas.

In practice a typical cell is constructed with many more plates than just two in order to get the required current output. All positive plates are connected together as are all the negatives. Because each positive plate is always positioned between two negative plates, there is always one or more negative plate than positives.

The resultant voltage of lead acid cell is normally 2 volts In order to achieve the voltage required for the application each cell is then connected in series by substantial metal straps to form a battery. In a typical monoblock battery, such as that used in a car for starting, the voltage required is 12 volts, achieved by connecting six cells together in series and enclosing them in one plastic box. Leisure batteries where a sustained current requirement is needed and a deep cycle, the ability to be discharged to 90%, have a different make-up to that of a traction battery that is used in a car.

The cell containing the plates is filled with an electrolyte made up of sulphuric acid and distilled water with a specific gravity of 1.270 at 60deg F (15.6deg C). Sulphuric acid is a very active compound of hydrogen and sulphur and oxygen atoms. Sulphuric acid is a very reactive substance and because of its instability it is able to distribute itself very evenly throughout the electrolyte in the battery. Over time, this action ensures that an even reaction can occur between all the plates. producing voltage and current. The chemical reaction between constituent parts of the electrolyte and the 1. spongy lead of the negative plates and 2. the lead dioxide at the positive plates turns the surface of both plates into lead sulphate.

As this process occurs the hydrogen within the acid reacts with the oxygen within the lead dioxide to form water. The net result of all this reaction is that the positive plate gives up electrons and the negative plate gains them in equal numbers, thereby creating a potential difference between the two plates. The duration of the reactions producing the cell voltage is limited if there is no connection between the two plates and the voltage will remain constant.

If a connection (a load) is placed between the positive and negative plates the chemical reaction is able to continue with electrons flowing through the circuit from the negative plate to the positive. The flow of electrons isreplacement rn873 57Y4559 in fact the current produced by the cell.

Only when the supply of electrons becomes depleted i.e. when the active material on the negative plate has been used up, and the within the electrolyte has mostly been turned into water will the battery fail to produce any current. During the chemical process different levels of heating can occur and the faster a battery is exhausted the greater will be the heating and thus the efficiency of the system will be reduced.

Life without lead-acid batteries would mean everything

December 10 [Mon], 2012, 11:53
Lead-acid batteries are truly the power behind everyday life. They keep those systems we depend on—cars, boats, public transportation —running as we move through the day. However, perhaps even more important is the function these batteries play in those times when normal life is halted—such as during a blackout or brownout. In these situations, when all other power is cut, lead-acidLenovo L08O6D13 batteryensure our safety by providing necessary back-up power for everything from computers to hospital emergency lighting.

In a power outage, lead industrial batteries are what back up wireless and wired telephones and computer systems so that phones stay on no computer data is lost. They power the majority of mobile vehicles both on land and sea. Lead-acid batteries start and power vehicles, back up uninterruptible operations like hospitals, railroad signals, weapons systems, and air traffic controls, and help electric utilities shift loads among grids. On the water they start engines, back up critical systems in submarines, and power navigational signals and devices in boats.

Life without lead-acid batteries would mean everything but muscle-powered transportation would stop. There would be frequent power outages as electric utility companies couldn’t handle rapid fluctuations in the demand for electricity. Every major telephone company in the world uses lead-acid battery for rn873 L09M6Y02as back up power, keeping telephone systems working during storms, power outages, and earthquakes. They also provide quiet, pollution-free emergency power for critical operations in facilities like air traffic control towers, hospitals, railroad crossings, military installations, submarines, and weapons systems.

Lead-acid batteries keep pollution control systems operating during blackouts and brownouts in environmentally sensitive manufacturing operations until the plant can be shut down. These batteries also back up cell phones and two-way radio systems.

Most rechargeable batteries available are lithium-ion batteries

October 22 [Mon], 2012, 11:25
As solar power becomes an increasingly popular electricity option for homeowners and businesses, one of the keys will be to make it more adaptable for a modern lifestyle. One of the criticisms of renewable energy has been that it is not an on-demand power source, meaning that peak sunshine does not always hp 504610-001 laptop batterycorrespond with peak electricity use times.

One of the ways to make solar power more flexible is through solar batteries. Photovoltaic Recent advances in battery technology could dramatically improve the performance of home solar technology.panels charge the batteries, and then the batteries provide clean energy whenever it is needed.

Iron-Air Batteries
New research from the University of Southern California has shown it possible to make an affordable and long-lasting battery using a chemical process similar to rusting. Chemistry professor Sri Narayan and his team developed a battery that efficiently captures the energy released when iron plates are exposed to oxygen in the air.

"Iron is cheap and air is free," Narayan said in a statement. "It's the future."

Similar designs have been around for more than 30 years. However, earlier models were not efficient due to hydrogen reactions inside the battery, which took away about half of the battery's energy-saving potential. Narayan's team was able to mostly neutralize the reaction by introducing bismuth, the element responsible for making Pepto-Bismol pink, into the system.

"A very small amount of bismuth sulfide doesn’t compromise on the promise of an eco-friendly battery that we started with," he said.

With bismuth included, the battery only loses about 4 percent of its energy potential from hydrogen, making new iron-air batteries about 10 times more efficient than earlier incarnations, according to NBC News.

Paintable Batteries
For locations that do not have much room to store large batteries, such as a Los Angeles solar installation or an urban New Jersey solar installation, new technology developed at Rice University may be the key.

Scientists at the Houston college have developed a rechargeable battery that can be painted onto any surface. The battery has all the parts found in the lithium-ion batteries used for consumer electronics, except each layer can be spray painted onto nearly any surface, meaning any photovoltaic installation could include energy storage capacity, Solar Novus Today reported.

"If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices," the research team wrote in the journal Scientific Reports.

"Energy harvesting devices, such as solar cells, can then be easily integrated with these batteries to give any surface a standalone energy capture and storage capability," the report said.

Sodium Ion Batteries
Most rechargeable batteries available are lithium-ion batteries. Scientists at the Argonne National Laboratory are looking into making less expensive rechargeable batteries by replacing the lithium with sodium. This could help reduce the cost of storing energy since sodium, one of the main elements in salt, is more abundant than lithium.

The sodium-ion batteries developed so far are heavier than lithium-ion batteries, making this new technology most practical for stationary cheap Pavilion dm4 battery
home or commercial energy use.

"The big concerns for stationary energy storage are cost, performance and safety, and sodium-ion batteries would theoretically perform well on all of those measures," said Christopher Johnson, a chemist at ANL.