Charge or equalize the battery after service

June 11 [Tue], 2013, 10:41
Adding chemicals to the electrolyte of flooded lead acid batteries can reduce the buildup of lead sulfate on the plates and improve the overall battery performance. This treatment has been in use since the 1950s (and perhaps longer) and provides a temporary performance boost for aging batteries. It’s a A665 compatiblestopgap measure because in most cases the plates have already been worn out through shedding. Chemical additives cannot replace the active material, nor can cracked plates, corroded connectors or damaged separators be restored with an outside remedy.

Extending the service life of an aging battery is a noble desire. The additives are cheap, readily available and worth the experiment of a handyman. Suitable additives are magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt), caustic soda and EDTA. (EDTA is a crystalline acid used in industry.) These salts may reduce the internal resistance of a sulfated battery to give it a few months of extra life. Using Epsom salt, follow these easy steps:

Heat up the water to about 66°C (150°F), mix 10 heaping tablespoons of Epsom salt into the water and stir until dissolved. The consistency of the brew should vary according to the extent of the sulfation. Avoid using too much salt because a heavy concentration will increase corrosion of the lead plates Satellite A665D compatibleand internal connectors. Pour the warm solution into the battery.

Be careful not to overfill. Do not place un-dissolved Epsom salt directly into the battery because the substance does not dissolve well. In place of Epsom salt, try adding a pinch of caustic soda. Charge or equalize the battery after service. The results are not instantaneous and it may take a month for the treatment to work. The outcome is not guaranteed.

Several companies offer anti-sulfation devices that apply pulses to the battery

June 11 [Tue], 2013, 10:40
Sulfation occurs when a lead acid battery is deprived of a full charge. This is common with starter batteries in cars driven in the city with load-hungry accessories. A motor in idle or at low speed cannot charge the Satellite A660 compatible sufficiently.

Electric wheelchairs have a similar problem in that the users might not charge the battery long enough. An eight-hour charge during the night when the chair is free is not enough. Lead acid must periodically be charged 14–16 hours to attain full saturation. This may be the reason why wheelchair batteries last only two years, whereas golf car batteries deliver twice the service life. Longer leisure time allows golf car batteries to get the fully saturated charge.

Solar cells and wind turbines do not always provide sufficient charge, and lead acid banks succumb to sulfation. This happens in remote parts of the world where villagers draw generous amounts of electricity with insufficient renewable resources to charge the batteries. The result is a short battery life. Only a periodic fully saturated charge could solve the problem, but without an electrical grid at their disposal, this is almost impossible. An alternative is using lithium-ion, a battery that is forgiving to a partial charge, but this would cost about six-times as much as lead acid.

What is sulfation? During use, small sulfate crystals form, but these are normal and are not harmful. During prolonged charge deprivation, however, the amorphous lead sulfate converts to a stable crystalline that deposits on the negative plates. This leads to the development of large crystals, which reduce the battery’s active material that is responsible for high capacity and low resistance. Sulfation also lowers charge acceptance. Sulfation charging will take longer because of elevated internal resistance.

There are two types of sulfation: reversible (or soft sulfation), and permanent (or hard sulfation). If a battery is serviced early, reversible sulfation can often be corrected by applying an overcharge to a fully charged battery in the form of a regulated current of about 200mA. The battery terminal voltage is allowed to rise to between 2.50 and 2.66V/cell (15 and 16V on a 12V mono block) for about 24 hours. Increasing the battery temperature to 50–60°C (122–140°F) further helps in dissolving the crystals. Permanent sulfation sets in when the battery has been in a low state-of-charge for weeks or months. At this stage, no form of restoration is possible.

There is a fine line between reversible and non-reversible sulfation, and most batteries have a little bit of both. Good results are achievable if the sulfation is only a few weeks old; restoration becomes more difficult the longer the battery is allowed to stay in a low SoC. A sulfated battery may improve marginally when applying a de-sulfation service. A subtle indication of whether a lead acid can be recovered is visible on the voltage discharge curve. If a fully charged battery retains a stable A660D compatible voltage profile on discharge, chances of reactivation are better than if the voltage drops rapidly with load.

Several companies offer anti-sulfation devices that apply pulses to the battery terminals to prevent and reverse sulfation. Such technologies tend to lower sulfation on a healthy battery but they cannot effectively reverse the condition once present. Manufacturers offering these devices take the “one size fits all” approach and the method is unscientific. A random service of pulsing or blindly applying an overcharge can harm the battery in promoting grid corrosion. Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation and apply a calculated overcharge to dissolve the crystals. Chargers featuring this technique only apply de-sulfation if sulfation is present and only for the time needed.

Higher voltage may damage some devices

March 12 [Tue], 2013, 15:15
Lithium, an exceptionally light metal, gives lithium batteries the highest energy density of any battery cell. Thus they can store more energy than alkaline batteries or any single-use battery of a comparable size. USE WITH CAUTION: Their higher voltage capacity makes lithium batteries too powerful for some devices bright VGP-BPS20/Sand may damage circuitry. Read manufacturer instructions for battery recommendations for individual products.

Nominal voltage: 3 (though it gradually declines as battery discharges).

Estimated shelf life (68°F/20°C): 10-15 years.

Best use: "High-drain" devices (digital cameras) and most (but not all) lower-drain microelectronic devices. They are too powerful, for example, for some headlamps.

Pros:

Longest life (by far) in single-use category; in a digital camera, lithium batteries hypothetically may produce 100-200+ flash photos; alkaline batteries, 20-40+.
Superior functionality in cold weather (particularly subzero temperatures) and hot conditions.
Estimated to provide about 300% more energy capacity than zinc chloride (so-called "heavy duty") or antiquated zinc carbonbright VGP-BPS20A ("general purpose") batteries.
Longer shelf life.
Lowest weight.
Cons:

More expensive.
WARNING: Higher voltage may damage some devices. Read manufacturer instructions that accompany each device to determine if they can handle lithium batteries.
Note: What is the difference between lithium and lithium-ion batteries? Lithium batteries cannot be recharged. Lithium-ion batteries can.

A battery's internal chemicals begin to degrade

March 12 [Tue], 2013, 15:13
Batteries are portable storehouses of energy. When activated, they furnish a flow (or discharge) of electric current. They date back to 1800 when Italian physicist Alessandro Volta invented the "voltaic pile"—a stack of blottingbright VGP-BPS13S papers saturated by a briny stew of silver and zinc. In 1896 the National Carbon Company (which became Eveready, then Energizer) is credited for introducing the first battery marketed for consumer use: the 1.5-volt Columbia dry cell. In those days it measured 6 inches long.

Modern microelectronic devices such as headlamps and GPS receivers are powered by dry cell batteries such as the cylindrical AA batteries we all know. They are available in single-use or rechargeable models. In technical battery jargon, single-use batteries are known as "primary" batteries. Rechargeables are "secondary" models.

A dry cell battery has positive and negative terminals. Internal layers (electrodes) include a cathode (which transports a positive charge) and an anode (to carry a negative charge). They are divided by some type of barrier called a "separator." (Technical footnote: With rechargeable batteries, the cathode and anode carry reverse charges during recharging.)



In single-use alkaline batteries, the cathode is usually powdered manganese dioxide (sometimes mixed with graphite). The anode is zinc. Nickel, along with various alloys, is the dominant component of most cylindrical rechargeable batteries.

All batteries contain some type of electrolyte—a substance that conducts electricity (a flow of electrons) between a battery's terminals. Motor vehicles use large "wet cell" batteries where the electrolytes are liquid. In dry cell batteries, the electrolyte is more of an aqueous paste or gel.

When a battery is activated, the electrolyte, cathode and anode interact and a chemical reaction (basically oxidation) occurs. Ions (positively charged) and electrons (negatively charged) flow through the electrolyte, exit via the negative terminal and enable a device such as a headlamp (the "load") to function.



Over time, a battery's internal chemicals begin to degrade and interaction diminishes. Eventually they can no longer retain a charge. In this depleted state, the battery is "dead."

The mix of chemicals in dry cells aims to provide some combination of the four holy grails of the elusive "ideal" battery—long life, high performance, reasonable cost and low environmental impact. A frustrating fact of bright VGP-BPS14B life is that advancements in battery technology have not come close to keeping pace with the rapid rate of progress (and increasing power demands) in microelectronics.

Until the perfect battery arrives, here's a look at the portable power options now available to you

The charging current converts the large sulfate crystals

January 08 [Tue], 2013, 12:37
The recommended storage temperature for most batteries is 15°C (59°F); the extreme allowable temperature is –40°C to 50°C (–40°C to 122°F) for most chemistries. While lead acid must always be kept at full charge during storage, nickel- and lithium-based chemistries should be stored at around a 40 percent st 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Inspiron 1750 batteryate-of-charge (SoC). This level minimizes age-related capacity loss while keeping the battery in operating condition and allowing self-discharge.

Finding the 40 percent SoC level is difficult because the open circuit voltage (OCV) of batteries does not lend itself well to state-of-charge estimations. For lack of better methods, voltage is nevertheless used as a rough fuel gauge indicator. The SoC of Li-ion is roughly 50 percent at 3.80V/cell and 40 percent at 3.75V/cell. Allow Li-ion to rest 90 minutes after charge or discharge before taking the voltage reading to get equilibrium.

SoC on nickel-based batteries is especially difficult to measure. A flat discharge curve, agitation after charge and discharge, and voltage change on temperature contribute to the fluctuations. Since no other estimation tool exists that is practical, and the charge level for storage is not all too critical for this chemistry, simply apply some charge if the battery is empty, and then make sure that the battery is kept in a cool and dry storage.

Storage will always cause batteries to age. Low temperature and partial SoC only slow the effect. Table 1 illustrates the recoverable capacity of lithium- and nickel-based batteries at various temperatures and charge levels over one year. The recovered capacity is defined as the available battery capacity after storage with a full charge.

Lithium-ion batteries are often exposed to unfavorable temperatures, and these include leaving a cell phone in the hot sun or operating a laptop on the power grid. Elevated temperature and allowing the battery to sit at the maximum charge voltage for expended periods of time explains the shorter than expected battery life. Elevated temperature and excessive overcharge also stresses lead and nickel-based batteries. All batteries must have the ability to relax after charged, even when kept on float or trickle charge.


Nickel-metal-hydride can be stored for about three years. The capacity drop that occurs during storage can partially be reversed with priming. Nickel-cadmium stores well, even if the terminal voltage falls to zero volts. Field tests done by the US Air Force revealed that NiCd stored for five years still performed well after priming cycles. It is believed that priming becomes necessary if the voltage drops below 1V/cell. Primary alkaline and lithium batteries can be stored for up to 10 years with minimal capacity loss.
You can store a sealed lead acid battery for up to two years.

Since all batteries gradually self-discharge over time, it is important to check the voltage and/or specific gravity, and then apply a charge when the battery falls to 70 percent state-of-charge. This is typically the case at 2.07V/cell or 12.42V for a 12V pack. (The specific gravity at 70 percent charge is roughly 1.218.) Some lead acid batteries may have different readings and it is best to check the manufacturer’s instruction manual. Low charge induces sulfation, an oxidation layer on the negative plate that inhibits current flow.

Topping charge and/or cycling may restore some of the capacity losses in the early stages of sulfation.

Sulfation may prevent charging small sealed lead acid cells, such as the Cyclone by Hawker, after prolonged storage. If seemingly inactive, these 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Inspiron 1750 battery can often be reactivated by applying a higher than normal voltage.

At first, the cell voltage under charge may go up to 5V and absorb only a small amount of current. Within two hours or so, the charging current converts the large sulfate crystals into active material, the cell resistance drops and the charge voltage gradually normalizes, and at a voltage of 2.10–2.40V the cell is able to accept a normal charge. To prevent damage, set the current limit to a very low level. Do not attempt to perform this service if the power supply does not allow setting current limiting.

A discharge/charge may be beneficial for calibrating a “smart” battery

January 08 [Tue], 2013, 12:33
Rechargeable batteries may not deliver their full rated capacity when new and will require formatting. While this applies to most 11.1v 5200mah 9cells rn873 RM791 systems, manufacturers of lithium-ion batteries disagree. They say that Li-ion is ready at birth and does not need priming. Although this may be true, users have reported some capacity gains by cycling these batteries after long storage.

What’s the difference between formatting and priming? Both address capacities that are not optimized and can be corrected with cycling. Formatting completes the manufacturing process and occurs naturally during early usage when the battery is being cycled. Priming, on the other hand, is a conditioning cycle that is applied as a service tool to improve battery performance during usage or after prolonged storage. Priming relates mainly to nickel-based batteries.

Formatting of lead acid batteries occurs by applying a charge, followed by a discharge and recharge as part of regular use. Do not strain a new battery by giving it extra-heavy duty right away. Gradually work it in with moderate discharges like an athlete trains for weight lifting or long-distance running. Lead acid typically reaches the full capacity potential after 50 to 100 cycles. Do not over-cycle on purpose; this would wear the battery down too quickly.

Manufacturers advise to trickle charge a nickel-based battery for 16 to 24 hours when new and after a long storage. This allows the cells to adjust to each other and bring them to an equal charge level. A slow charge also helps to redistribute the electrolyte to eliminate dry spots on the separator that might have developed by gravitation.

Nickel-based batteries are not always fully formatted when they leave the factory. Applying several charge/discharge cycles through normal use or with a battery analyzer completes the formatting process. The number of cycles required to attain full capacity differs between cell manufacturers. Quality cells perform to specification after 5 to 7 cycles, while others may need 50 or more cycles to reach acceptable capacity levels. Lack of formatting might cause a problem when the industrial user expects a new battery to work to specification right out of the box. Organizations using batteries for critical applications often verify performance through a discharge/charge cycle as part of quality control. Automated analyzers (Cadex) apply as many cycles as needed to achieve full capacity.

Cycling also restores lost capacity when a nickel-based battery has been stored for six months or longer. Storage time, state-of-charge and the temperature under which the battery was stored govern the recovery. The longer the storage and warmer the temperature, the more cycles will be required to regain full capacity. Battery analyzers help in the priming functions.

Some scientists believe that with use and storage, a passivation layer builds up on the cathode of a lithium-ion cell. Also known as interfacial protective film (IPF), this layer restricts ion flow and increases the internal resistance. In the worst cases, the phenomenon can lead to lithium plating. Charging, and more effectively cycling, is known to dissolve the layer. Scientists do not fully understand the nature of this layer, and the few published resources on this subject only speculate that performance restoration with cycling is connected to the removal of the passivation layer. Some scientists deny outright the existence of the IPF, saying that the idea is highly speculative and inconsistent with existing studies. Another layer is the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), which is said to form at the anode on the initial charge. SEI is an electric insulation yet provides sufficient ionic conductivity for proper function.

Whatever the truth may be, there is no parallel to “memory” of NiCd batteries, which require periodic cycling. The symptoms may appear similar but the mechanics are different. Nor can the effect be compared to sulfation of lead acid batteries.

Lithium-ion is a very clean system and does not need formatting when new, nor does it require the level of maintenance that nickel-based batteries do. The first charge is no different than the fifth or the 50th. Formatting makes little difference because the maximum capacity is available right from the 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Vostro 1310 batterybeginning. Nor does a full discharge improve the capacity once faded. In most cases, a low capacity signals the end of life.

A discharge/charge may be beneficial for calibrating a “smart” battery, but this service only addresses the digital part of the pack and does nothing to improve the electrochemical battery. Instructions to charge a new battery for eight hours are seen as “old school” from the nickel battery days.

Battery size still dictates the size and weight of most laptops

September 18 [Tue], 2012, 10:25
The jelly replaces the volatile and hazardous liquid electrolyte currently used in most lithium batteries.

Researchers from the University of Leeds cheap AS07B32hope their development leads to smaller, cheaper and safer gadgets.

Once on the market, the lithium jelly batteries could allow lighter laptop computers, and more efficient electric cars.

In 2006, Dell recalled four million laptop batteries because of concerns that they might catch fire. Dell replaced them with batteries that used lower-performance electrodes, but these batteries were significantly larger.

Battery size still dictates the size and weight of most laptops, say the developers of the new battery.

Electronics manufacturer Apple got around the safety problem for their lightweight laptops with a solid polymer electrolyte, but in doing so, the powerrn873 AS07A51 output of the computers suffered.

Overheating is also an issue for electric cars. Developers have had to use reinforced, steel-clad battery housings, multiple fuses and circuits to protect the battery during charging. All of these contribute to the cost and weight, and hence efficiency, of electric cars.

This helps lithium ions move and find a place to be stored much faster

September 18 [Tue], 2012, 10:21
Engineers at Northwestern University in the US have changed the materials in lithium-ion batteries to boost their abilities.

One change involves poking millions of minuscule holes in thereplacement AS07A71.

Batteries built using the novel technique could be in the shops within five years, estimate the scientists.

Fast movers
A mobile phone battery built using the Northwestern techniques would charge from flat in 15 minutes and last a week before needing a recharge.

The density and movement of lithium ions are key to the process.

Dr Harold Kung and his team at Northwestern said they have found a way to cram more of the ions in and to speed up their movement by altering the materials used to manufacture a battery.

The maximum charge has been boosted by replacing sheets of silicon with tiny clusters of the substance to increase the amount of lithium ions a battery can hold on to.

The recharging speed has been accelerated using a chemical oxidation process which drills small holes - just 20-40 nanometers wide - in the atom-thick sheets of graphene that batteries are made of.

This helps lithium ions move and find a place to be stored much faster.

The downside is that the recharging and power gains fall off sharply after a battery has been charged about 150 times.

"Even after 150 charges, which would be one year or more of operation, the battery is still five times more effective than lithium-ion batteries on the market today," said lead scientist Prof Harold Kung from the chemical and biological engineering department at Northwestern.

So far, the work done by the team has concentrated on making improvements to anodes - where the current flows into the 9cells AS07B71when they are providing power.

The group now plans to study the cathode - where the current flows out - to make further improvements.

A paper detailing the work of Prof Kung and his co-workers has been published in the journal Advanced Energy Materials.

Enterprises to increase the rectification intensity of the means

July 30 [Mon], 2012, 17:58

Present, in some places, lead-acid battery production or recycling industry pollution has become a major problem in the local environmental governance. I combine special rectification work involving lead entreplacement 493976-001 erprises this year, local organizations, enterprises monitoring, law enforcement, as well as discussion with the relevant responsible persons recognize that to effectively prevent pollution of the environment of lead-acid battery recycling industry should focus on the following points.

Business leaders attach importance to environmental protection is a prerequisite. Lead-acid battery production and regeneration of corporate leadership, especially senior leadership attaches great importance to environmental protection work, is the premise of prevention of lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling industries pollute the environment. In the implementation of related environmental protection system and work hard to actively promote corporate employees to carry out environmental protection work; business leaders to personally pitched in to take the lead in grasping the environmental protection work to implement the personal supervision of; business leaders not only to regularly address the emerging environmental issues in the production, but also focus on issues of production and potential environmental hazards.


Enterprises to increase investment in environmental protection is the key. Establish and make good use of funding for environmental protection is to prevent lead-acid battery production and recycling industry, an important part of the pollution of the environment. To actively revitalize the effective funds to solve the problem of insufficient investment in environmental protection; focus on increasing investment in lead dust cleaning equipment, sewage treatment equipment and other facilities; the same time, in accordance with the requirements of the production process, and regular checks of the operation of pollution control facilities to ensure that its always stable operation of the pollutant discharge standards.


Enterprises to increase the rectification intensity of the means. Examination revealed the problems of environmental authorities, enterprises should actively project to tackle the problem, and develop corrective measures as soon as possible in-depth rectification. To resolve environmental issues can be resolved immediately, do to solve the problem overnight. Rectification in place of the problems found at the same time, to learn by analogy, lessons learned, and actively develop effective measures to prevent similar problems from happening again.


Employees full participation in environmental protection is a guarantee. Enterprises should shoulder their social responsibility, but also to be responsible for their own employees. Enterprises to full mobilization, creation of everyone involved in grasping the environmental atmosphere. The replacement 482962-001 same time, the enterprise applies propaganda, such as blackboard newspaper, published within the electronic screen, employee manuals, and promotional CD-ROM form, efforts to strengthen publicity, education of employees, at the same time to carry out training for staff safety in production, from the source on the containment of lead-acid battery manufacturing and recycling industry pollute the environment.

Enhance the effects of industrial agglomeration

July 30 [Mon], 2012, 17:53
In recent years, lead-acid battery technology continues to develop, the product has matured. Start gradually the battery structure optimization and upgrading, maintenance-free batteries are widely used, is still an important power supply unit of the military, civilian transportation equipment, China has become the world's major car-producing countries play an important supporting role. VRLA batteries, gel batteries as backup power, the core component of the large reserves of power, its production has become an important basic industry in national economic development. Promising lead-acid battery industry.

Repeated use of the main raw material of lead-acid batteries - lead recyclable, as long as the introduction of relevant industrial policy of the recycling of used batteries properly guide the market, we can effectively solve the shortage of China's nonferrous metal, lead contamination and other resources, environment, many problems. Therefore, the correct understanding of the statusreplacement JKVC5 of the battery industry, identify trends, to effectively solve its own problems in the recycling of resources and building a conservation-minded society, is an effective way to the scientific development of the national economy.
China's lead-acid battery industry status quo

Since joining the WTO, with the increase of investment driven by national industry and international battery manufacturers in China, the Chinese lead-acid battery industry development faster annual growth rate of more than 30%. With the increasing international market demand, China has also become one of the world's largest exporter of lead acid batteries. China's lead-acid battery technology is not obvious, and the gap between international standards and car batteries at the international advanced level, with power for electric bicycle battery technology approach international advanced level.

After 20 years of development, maintenance-free sealed battery technology and progress made great achievements in the lead-acid batteries are widely used not only in traditional areas such as transportation, military defense, and is widely used solar photovoltaic, wind power, communication power , electrical power distribution systems, railways, ship communications, starting, lighting, power supply, UPS power supply. Technological progress to promote the rapid development of the battery industry, making it one of the new sunrise industry. However, due to the substantial increase of the prices of major raw materials of lead-acid batteries - lead in the second half of 2004, and continued to maintain the operation of the high price of lead-acid battery industry profits declining.
In recent years, with changes in market demand, production methods and processes of lead-acid batteries continue to improve, the manufacturing level rising, battery energy density, cycle life, performance, consistency, security and environmental continuous improvement. With the development of electric bicycle battery power supply, high-temperature curing technology has developed rapidly. Is generally believed that the high temperature curing can improve battery life in recent years and negative additive and ratio also accumulated a Greater gesep.com amount of parameters, and identify some regular experience. Domestic other advanced technologies such as spiral wound batteries, bipolar, thin plates, etc. are still in the research stage, there is no mass production.
The report from our patented technology, the battery industry in recent years, the overall technology development line of defense is the battery structure improvement and battery model development. Thin plate of foreign patents mainly involve cash bipolar lead batteries, sealed battery module structure, and colloid electrolyte lead battery. Therefore, our patented technology with foreign countries there is a certain gap.

Environmental status quo and the problems of lead-acid battery industry

After years of construction and development of lead-acid battery industry in China has basically formed the system and showed a trend of rapid development, environmental problems have made breakthrough progress, present, China's lead fume and dust, sulfuric acid mist and water treatment methods and technology ripe, the major and medium-sized lead-acid battery manufacturers continue to increase the technological transformation efforts, updating process equipment, and generally environmentally friendly high-efficiency cartridge dust collector instead of electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubber to clean smoke lead, using the turbulent type mist purification tower sulfuric acid mist to absorb processing, response to the lead-acid-containing wastewater flocculation treatment to eliminate or reduce the impact of pollutants on the environment, technically, the production operating environment continues to improve, most large and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises to achieve cleaner production. in part through the National Environmental System Certification.
However, due to several reasons, the pollution problem of the battery production process has not been solved, in particular, is a serious pollution problem in a large number of some medium-sized and small enterprises of the production process: many manufacturers, small scale, and are more polluting, quality varies missing, do not have the environmental conditions of workshops factory herd, about a quarter of enterprises without the approval of the environmental unauthorized site construction, pollution control facilities is not complete, the production is not in the strict environmental protection measures and industrial safety and health conditions, caused harm to the operator and the ecological environment. Production license system is not strict clean production, environmental protection facilities standard mark. Although China since 2005, the production license system, but there are some problems in the approval and implementation, and did not really promote the production enterprises to achieve cleaner production, many manufacturers are not up to converted to legalization (currently issuing enterprise has reached 930 home), resulting in serious environmental problems. Related to environmental protection law, there are still many imperfect and unsatisfactory. Comparable to the amount of the fine for polluting enterprises, environmental protection departments is limited, and can not be caused by industrial pollution and social losses. In addition, the state is not specified, the protection of large, medium-sized battery manufacturer's policy, and local environmental protection departments also belong to the management of a small battery manufacturers only paid attention to the supervision of large and medium-sized enterprises, resulting in large and medium-sized enterprises sewage charges and monitoring costs, the "three simultaneous" evaluation fees, and a heavy burden.

The key initiatives to solve the environmental problem is the full implementation of a battery recycling policy

China is actively implementing a circular economy, 90 percent of the waste batteries can be recycled, but China's industrial policy is not to waste battery recycling is a good development space, resulting in a long-term problem in China's battery development bottleneck. China there is no statutory specification of a used lead-acid battery recycling management, the country did not establish a professional waste lead-acid battery recycling companies, without a professional Secondary Lead business or battery enterprises to establish a nationwide recycling network and regional recycling network, the whole recovery work in the disordered state of the decentralized management of waste lead-acid battery recovery rate is not high. Lead recovery problems among the non-standard enterprise, rectification is imperative to strengthen the management, the relevant state departments should introduce policies to ban small coal mines, smelting, banned a small scrap of lead recycling business. Also introduced policies to encourage and support large-scale battery manufacturers for recycling of used batteries. Restricting China's Secondary Lead the development of the industry factors: first, the heavy burden on the cost of environmental protection equipment. Enterprises with advanced technology, and environmental well-equipped business efficiency is no match for technological backwardness, serious pollution of the township, "lead smelting. Second, the supervision is not enough. No business license is also Lead production, rectification palliatives, were closed to the lead smelting wind over the resurgence. Third, industrial policy is not conducive to the development of informal enterprises. Taxes too heavy also weakened the ability of enterprises to increase environmental protection and management of large Secondary Lead.

China's lead-acid battery industry development trend

The hundred-year-old lead-acid batteries due to cheap materials, simple technology, the technology is mature, self-discharge is low, and requirements for maintenance-free features in the next few decades will still be in the market dominant, although the starter. power battery market space may be the turning point, will remain dominant in the recent national industrial development, medium-term will have a place in the long run, without the high weight-specific energy use field will continue to exist. Currently, its main application areas such as automotive, motorcycle, standby power use in a substantial increase, but also in new fields of application such as electric bikes, the tour bus with the development of valve-regulated battery technology development to meet the power needs of high-tech equipment such as UPS, electric power and communications. Lead-acid battery technology continues to progress, making electric bikes industry tremendous development, and contributed to the pollution and reduce fuel cars and fuel motorcycle. Maintenance-free technology, the development of the pull-grid technology to meet the demand for rapid development of automobile industry. It can be said that the technological progress of the lead-acid batteries in these applications to make a real contribution to enhance national competitiveness.

Demand for small mobile power supply, power tools, electric bicycles and other industry stimulated the rapid growth of the battery industry. Configured in the electric bicycle battery most of the VRLA battery, after a performance improvement, than a breakthrough in energy and cycle life, but so far, there are still in the high rate is not high enough energy, deep cycle life is not long enough shortcomings, largely affected the rapid growth of the electric bike industry.
Electric bicycles as a means of transport in less developed countries in recent years has developed rapidly, especially in China. Development by 290 000 in 2000 to 12.09 million in 2005, average annual growth rate of 174%. Can be expected in the future for a long period of time, the electric moped battery products will flourish. China's electric bicycle battery power for more than 95% of lead-acid batteries. Electric bike battery market capacity in 2006 have a 40-50 billion by 2015, China's electric car output will reach 100 billion yuan, of which 16 billion yuan supporting the battery. Replace the battery of the secondary market amounted to 48 billion yuan, which is a huge market.

China's lead-acid battery industry development direction envisaged

(A) to encourage enterprises bigger and stronger, increased industrial concentration

Enhance the effects of industrial agglomeration, and actively respond to various market risks, and reduce waste through the effective integration of the equipment, personnel, technology, and the formation of these columns, structural optimization of products, increase investment in environmental protection efforts, an effective solution to the problem of the production process pollution, further improve the backbone enterprises comprehensive strength, achieve economies of scale and development group.

(B) lead-acid batteries is an increasing trend

Seize a given market, expanding the size of the lead-acid battery industry, and strive to the 2010 annual production of about 131.75 million KVAH sales revenue of 66 billion yuan.

(C) lead-acid battery development priorities

Although lead-acid battery technology continues to progress, but the specific power, cycle life and other issues is still the industry focus on the subject. Therefore, the strengthening of R & D strength, and strive to improve the level of scientific research, to enhance their competitiveness is the only way to industrial development. Through the bridge and link the role of the Association, and vigorously in order to create a platform for communication and exchange, with the upstream lead, partitions and other industries, downstream, such as vehicles, electrical and mechanical equipment to form a joint research and development body, the collective to join the the foreign ALABC Union or form a similar alliance to jointly develop, enhance the industry's R & D capabilities.

(D) to speed up the adjustment of product structure, and regulate the recovery and recycling market

Increase the proportion of new products, the development of sound and resource-saving products, focus on the development of sealed maintenance-free lead-acid batteries to gradually phase out the opening battery. Accelerate the technological transformation of lead-acid batteries, the use of advanced process equipment, and effective control of environmental pollution problems of the production process to achieve cleaner production. Encourage the colloidal lead-acid batteries, new spiral wound lead-acid batteries and bipolar battery research and development, improve the utilization of specific power and lead. Regulate lead-acid battery9cells K450N recycling and regeneration of the market, reducing the environmental pollution of waste lead-acid batteries, to the sound and resource-saving direction.

(E) to expand and regulate the export market, to avoid trade friction

Seriously study the international market demand, and make proper adjustments to the export product mix, reducing the price of the export of competitive products, develop new application fields and market. At a low price, gaining market share, and only on the export of lead-acid batteries in China caused the fatal blow. At the same time, may be subject to foreign anti-dumping proceedings, cause the product to be imposed high anti-dumping duties, loss of self to the right to raise prices. Therefore, we should play a coordinating role of the Association in the order of foreign trade and industrial development of the specification, to protect the legitimate rights and interests of enterprises, establish a standard competition in order to prevent improper cheap exports behavior. Also studied the relevant policies of the target market countries, to consider the establishment of overseas manufacturing base.