Always refer to the manufacturer’s specifications

June 18 [Tue], 2013, 15:06
Heat is a killer of all batteries and high temperatures cannot always be avoided. This is the case with a battery inside a laptop, a starter battery under the hood of a car and stationary batteries in a tin shelter under the hot sun. As a guideline, each 8°C (15°F) rise in temperature cuts the life of a sealed lead acid T410 replacementin half. A VRLA battery for stationary applications that would last 10 years at 25°C (77°F) would only live for five years if operated at 33°C (92°F). The same battery would desist after 2? years if kept at a constant desert temperature of 41°C (106°F). Once the battery is damaged by heat, the capacity cannot be restored. The life of a battery also depends on the activity and is shortened if the battery is stressed with frequent discharge.

According to the 2010 BCI Failure Mode Study, starter batteries have become more heat-resistant over the past 10 years. In the 2000 study, a change of 7°C (12°F) affected battery life by roughly one year; in 2010 the heat tolerance has widened to 12°C (22°F). In 1962, a starter battery lasted 34 months, and in 2000 the life expectancy had increased to 41 months. In 2010, BCI reports an average age of 55 months of use. The cooler North attains 59 months and the warmer South 47 months.

Cranking the engine poses minimal stress on a starter battery. This changes in a start-stop function of a micro hybrid. The micro hybrid turns the IC engine off at a red traffic light and restarts it when the traffic flows. This results in about 2,000 micro cycles per year. Data obtained from car manufacturers show a capacity drop to about 60 percent after two years of use in this configuration. To solve the problem, automakers are using specialty AGM and other variations that are more robust than the regular lead acid. Read more about Alternate Battery Systems. Figure 5 shows the drop in capacity after 700 micro cycles. The simulated start-stop test was performed in Cadex laboratories. CCA remains high.

The cell voltages on a battery string must be similar, and this is especially important for higher-voltage VRLA batteries. With time, individual cells fall out of line, and applying an equalizing charge every six months or so should theoretically bring the cells back to similar voltage levels. While equalizing will boost the needy cells, the healthy cell get stressed if the equalizing charge is applied carelessly. What makes this service so difficult is the inability to accurately measure the condition of each cell and provide the right dose of remedy. Gel and AGM batteries have lower overcharge acceptance than the flooded version and different equalizing conditions apply. Always refer to the manufacturer’s specifications.

Water permeation, or loss of electrolyte, is a concern with sealed lead acid batteries, and overcharging contributes to this condition. While flooded systems accept water, a fill-up is not possible with VRLA. Adding water has been tried, but this does not offer a reliable fix. Experimenting with watering turns the VRLA into unreliable battery that needs high maintenance.

Flooded lead acid batteries are one of the most reliable systems. With good maintenance these batteries last up to 20 years. The disadvantages are the need for watering and providing good ventilation. When VRLA was introduced in the 1980s, manufacturers claimed similar life expectancy to flooded systems, and the telecom industry switched to these maintenance-free batteries. By mid 1990 it became apparent that the life for VRLA did not replicate that of a flooded type; the useful service T410s replacementlife was limited to only 5–10 years. It was furthermore noticed that exposing the batteries to temperatures above 40°C (104°F) could cause a thermal runaway condition due to dry-out.

A new lead acid battery should have an open circuit voltage of 2.125V/cell. At this time, the battery is fully charged. During buyer acceptance, the lead acid may drop to between 2.120V and 2.125V/cell. Shipping, dealer storage and installation will decrease the voltage further but the battery should never go much below 2.10V/cell. This would cause sulfation. Battery type, applying a charge or discharge within 24 hours before taking a voltage measurement, as well as temperature will affect the voltage reading. A lower temperature lowers the OCV; warm ambient raises it.

Singh said the batteries were easily charged with a small solar cell

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 16:23
The rechargeable battery created in the lab of Rice materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan consists of spray-painted layers, each representing the components in a traditional battery. The research appears today in Nature’s T420s brand new online, open-access journal Scientific Reports.

“This means traditional packaging for batteries has given way to a much more flexible approach that allows all kinds of new design and integration possibilities for storage devices,” said Ajayan, Rice’s Benjamin M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and of chemistry. “There has been lot of interest in recent times in creating power sources with an improved form factor, and this is a big step forward in that direction.”

Lead author Neelam Singh, a Rice graduate student, and her team spent painstaking hours formulating, mixing and testing paints for each of the five layered components – two current collectors, a cathode, an anode and a polymer separator in the middle.

The materials were airbrushed onto ceramic bathroom tiles, flexible polymers, glass, stainless steel and even a beer stein to see how well they would bond with each substrate.

In the first experiment, nine bathroom tile-based batteries were connected in parallel. One was topped with a solar cell that converted power from a white laboratory light. When fully charged by both the solar panel and house current, the batteries alone powered a set of light-emitting diodes that spelled out “RICE” for six hours; the batteries provided a steady 2.4 volts.

The researchers reported that the hand-painted batteries were remarkably consistent in their capacities, within plus or minus 10 percent of the target. They were also put through 60 charge-discharge cycles with only a very small drop in capacity, Singh said.

Each layer is an optimized stew. The first, the positive current collector, is a mixture of purified single-wall carbon nanotubes with carbon black particles dispersed in N-methylpyrrolidone. The second is the cathode, which contains lithium cobalt oxide, carbon and ultrafine graphite (UFG) powder in a binder solution. The third is the polymer separator paint of Kynar Flex resin, PMMA and silicon dioxide dispersed in a solvent mixture. The fourth, the anode, is a mixture of lithium titanium oxide and UFG in a binder, and the final layer is the negative current collector, a commercially available conductive copper paint, diluted with ethanol.

“The hardest part was achieving mechanical stability, and the separator played a critical role,” Singh said. “We found that the nanotube and the cathode layers were sticking very well, but if the separator was not mechanically stable, they would peel off the substrate. Adding PMMA gave the right adhesion to the separator.” Once painted, the tiles and other items were infused with the electrolyte and then heat-sealed and charged.

Singh said the batteries were easily charged with a small solar cell. She foresees the possibility of integrating paintable batteries with recently reported paintable solar cells to create an energy-harvesting combination that would be hard to beat. As good as the hand-painted batteries are, she said, scaling up with modern methods will improve them by leaps and bounds. “Spray painting is already an X100e brand new industrial process, so it would be very easy to incorporate this into industry,” Singh said.

The Rice researchers have filed for a patent on the technique, which they will continue to refine. Singh said they are actively looking for electrolytes that would make it easier to create painted batteries in the open air, and they also envision their batteries as snap-together tiles that can be configured in any number of ways.

Two areas in which PNNL is focused are biological dark matter

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 16:22
Biological systems science encompasses the ability to measure, predict, design, and ultimately control multi-cellular biological systems and bioinspired solutions for energy, environment, and health. It involves fundamental T410s brand newresearch and technology development using a systems and synthetic biology approach of natural and engineered biological systems both in the laboratory and in the field.

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is recognized internationally for our biological systems science capabilities, including leadership in proteomics and other 'omic technologies, environmental microbiology, systems toxicology, and biotechnology. Our expertise also includes cell biology and biochemistry, radiation biology, computational biology and bioinformatics, bioforensics, and biodetection.

The biological systems science performed at PNNL contributes to advances in bioenergy, biogeochemistry of inorganic contaminants and carbon, human health, and national security.

Two areas in which PNNL is focused are biological dark matter and engineered biosystems.

Biological Dark Matter. Scientists can access an ever-increasing number of organisms for which the complete DNA sequence—the genome—is known. While genome sequencing reveals the basic building blocks of life, a genome T420 brand newsequence alone is insufficient for determining biological function.

"Unknown genes" are those for which the encoded function is unknown. These genes are part of what scientists refer to as "biological dark matter." PNNL is at the forefront of proteomics and computational research directed toward understanding biological dark matter.

The active ingredient in many types of detergents

May 03 [Fri], 2013, 16:20
Rechargeable lithium ion batteries, popular in cell phones, camcorders, and other devices, are based on the movement of a lithium ion—a lithium atom minus an electron. The lithium ion begins its journey attached to a metal cy T400s brand newlinder or sheet, known as an electrode. The ion pushes off the electrode, moves through a liquid, and attaches itself to an electrode on the other side.

The ion's movement generates electricity, powering the battery. The researchers' new material, titanium dioxide crystals attached to a thin carbon sheet called graphene, is incorporated into the battery's negative electrode. The carbon/titanium material greatly improves the ion's ability to move in the electrode to provide a high capacity at high charge/discharge rate.

The challenge in designing this material was water. The researchers used water to reduce the cost of manufacturing. The precursors for the titanium dioxide crystals mixed well in water, easily dispersing. However, the graphene is hydrophobic or water fearing. Like oil or grease, it does not mix in water.

The solution? The active ingredient in many types of detergents: sodium dodecyl sulfate. This long, chain-like molecule contains a cluster of chemicals, or a head at one end, that mixes well with water. It has a long tail that grabs hold of hydrophobic materials. So, adding sodium dodecyl sulfate allows the graphene to evenly mix in the water with the precursors for the oxide crystals.

The sodium dodecyl sulfate not only solves the hydrophobic/hydrophilic incompatibility problem, it also provides a molecular template for the crystals to form and grow. Using the template, the titanium oxides form tiny crystals T410 brand new on the graphene sheets.

The researchers studied the resulting materials using transmission electron microscopy at the Department of Energy's EMSL, a national scientific user facility at PNNL. The resulting images showed the desired titanium dioxide crystals formed on the graphene sheets.

Deeply-discharged maintenance-free battery

March 20 [Wed], 2013, 14:18
You can make a simple wet-cell storage battery with only two lead plates. Submerge them in an electrolyte solution (64% water and 36% sulfuric acid by weight is standard), apply direct current and watch as the positive lead plate develops a brown coating of lead peroxide and the negative plate becomes replacement U500sponge lead. Remove the voltage source and put a voltmeter across the plates and you'll find approximately 2.1 volts, regardless of the size. The larger the plates, the longer the battery can supply this voltage. Combining three such cells in series can create a 6-volt battery, and six cells can make a 12-volt battery (actually 6.3 or 12.6 volts, respectively).

When we ask the battery to produce current flow by putting a load across its terminals, the plates and acid solution undergo another chemical transformation, causing both lead plates to change into lead sulfate, consuming the acid and producing water as a by-product.

Gradually the electrolyte becomes increasingly watery and the plates more sulfated until the battery either dies or we reverse the process by returning current to the battery to restore it. The basic chemistry hasn't changed for a hundred years.

A modern motorcycle battery is a marvel of compact packaging. Since even a smooth-running motorcycle subjects the innards of a batter to much greater vibration than a car, the motorcycle battery's case will be a tighter fit to prevent the lead plates from rattling to pieces. But it's still generally true that a motorycle that vibrates a lot will have a shorter battery life, because the plates themselves are more fragile than you might expect. They are constructed of highly active but very soft lead pastes applied to waffled supporting grids, which provide greater surface area for the chemical reaction than simple flat plates.

The paste is porous to allow full penetration of the electrolyte, and the pastes on both the negative and positive plates begin as the same substance; a mixture of lead oxide, dilute sulfuric acid, water and special binders like plastic fiber that produce a material about the consistency of firm mud. Since the negative plates tend to contract in service, special expanders are added to their mix so they can't shrink to become inpenetrable and chemically inactive. Just like our simple cell, the plates are then submerged in electrolyte and given a electrical charge that forms them into positive and negative.

To make the battery more rugged, the plate grids must be made of a harder lead alloy, usually lead-antimony. Anywhere from .5%12% antimony is typical, with higher antimony mixtures making for tougher plates but shortening the sitting life of the charged battery. The big drawback to lead-antimony is that gradual corrosion of the positive grid releases the antimony, which may then form tiny hairlike bridges between the plates. These bridges are actually short circuits that gradually increase the current necessary to recharge the battery, causing increased water loss. Therefore, an older battery needs its water level checked more frequently, and a new battery that needs constant filling may have a voltage regulator problem that is overcharging the battery.

Sealed, maintenance-free batteries use calcium instead of antimony to strengthen the plate grids, since calcium does not produce internal shorts. By giving the battery box a slightly larger volume to hold an extra reserve of electrolyte, incorporating sulfation-retardants and gas-recombinant technology (GRT: a special glass mat surrounding the plates which helps the hydrogen and oxygen recombine rather than escape from the battery as a gas), the manufacturer can eliminate the filler caps. However, all these batteries are not truly sealed, but may incorporate almost invisible safety vents around the perimeter of their tops.

As advertised, the maintenance-free battery does have a natural resistance to overcharging and water loss. But unfortunately, they are also not as resilient when deeply discharged (considered to be the loss of 80% capacity) as are their lead-antimony brothers, and may be killed by such things as leaving an electrical load on for a long time (when a 12 volt battery might drop to just 2 volts), while a lead-antimony battery might still be saved. Some of the new high-tech "smart" battery chargers (about $60) claim to be able to restore even a deeply-discharged maintenance-free battery by increasing the initial charging voltage to as high as 20 volts to overcome the internal reisistance.

To increase current capacity, modern replacement U305have thin multiple plates which are connected in parallel within each cell, forming a kind of lead sandwich with a negative plate at each end and alternating positive plates within, all insulated from one another by separators. The separators are micro-porous, meaning charged ions can pass through readily, but they prevent physical contact that would constitute a short circuit, and also attempt to prevent the formation of the tiny alloy short circuits.

The work was funded in part by the Focus Center Research Program

January 16 [Wed], 2013, 12:12
The devices could monitor biological activity in the ears of people with hearing or balance impairments, or responses to therapies. Eventually, they might even deliver therapies themselves. battery for Acer AS10D75

In experiments, Konstantina Stankovic, an otologic surgeon at MEEI, and HST graduate student Andrew Lysaght implanted electrodes in the biological batteries in guinea pigs’ ears. Attached to the electrodes were low-power electronic devices developed by MIT’s Microsystems Technology Laboratories (MTL). After the implantation, the guinea pigs responded normally to hearing tests, and the devices were able to wirelessly transmit data about the chemical conditions of the ear to an external receiver.

“In the past, people have thought that the space where the high potential is located is inaccessible for implantable devices, because potentially it’s very dangerous if you encroach on it,” Stankovic says. “We have known for 60 years that this battery exists and that it’s really important for normal hearing, but nobody has attempted to use this battery to power useful electronics.”

The ear converts a mechanical force — the vibration of the eardrum — into an electrochemical signal that can be processed by the brain; the biological battery is the source of that signal’s current. Located in the part of the ear called the cochlea, the battery chamber is divided by a membrane, some of whose cells are specialized to pump ions. An imbalance of potassium and sodium ions on opposite sides of the membrane, together with the particular arrangement of the pumps, creates an electrical voltage.

Although the voltage is the highest in the body (outside of individual cells, at least), it’s still very low. Moreover, in order not to disrupt hearing, a device powered by the biological battery can harvest only a small fraction of its power. Low-power chips, however, are precisely the area of expertise of Anantha Chandrakasan’s group at MTL.

The MTL researchers — Chandrakasan, who heads MIT’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; his former graduate student Patrick Mercier, who’s now an assistant professor at the University of California at San Diego; and Saurav Bandyopadhyay, a graduate student in Chandrakasan’s group — equipped their chip with an ultralow-power radio transmitter: After all, an implantable medical monitor wouldn’t be much use if there were no way to retrieve its measurements.

But while the radio is much more efficient than those found in cellphones, it still couldn’t run directly on the biological battery. So the MTL chip also includes power-conversion circuitry — like that in the boxy converters at the ends of many electronic devices’ power cables — that gradually builds up charge in a capacitor. The voltage of the biological battery fluctuates, but it would take the control circuit somewhere between 40 seconds and four minutes to amass enough charge to power the radio. The frequency of the signal was thus itself an indication of the electrochemical properties of the inner ear.

To reduce its power consumption, the control circuit had to be drastically simplified, but like the radio, it still required a higher voltage than the biological battery could provide. Once the control circuit was up and running, it could drive itself; the problem was getting it up and running.

The MTL researchers solve that problem with a one-time burst of radio waves. “In the very beginning, we need to kick-start it,” Chandrakasan says. “Once we do that, we can be self-sustaining. The control runs off the output.”

Stankovic, who still maintains an affiliation with HST, and Lysaght implanted electrodes attached to the MTL chip on both sides of the membrane in the biological battery of each guinea pig’s ear. In the experiments, the chip itself remained outside the guinea pig’s body, but it’s small enough to nestle in the cavity of the middle ear.

Cliff Megerian, chairman of otolaryngology at Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Case Medical Center, says that he sees three possible applications of the researchers’ work: in cochlear implants, diagnostics and implantable hearing aids. “The fact that you can generate the power for a low voltage from the cochlea itself raises the possibility of using that as a power source to drive a cochlear implant,” Megerian says. “Imagine if we were able to measure that voltage in various disease states. There would potentially be a diagnostic algorithm for battery for AL10C31 aberrations in that electrical output.”

“I’m not ready to say that the present iteration of this technology is ready,” Megerian cautions. But he adds that, “If we could tap into the natural power source of the cochlea, it could potentially be a driver behind the amplification technology of the future.”

The work was funded in part by the Focus Center Research Program, the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, and the Bertarelli Foundation.

The Energy Department has stressed that none of the government's grant

January 16 [Wed], 2013, 12:09
The Obama administration provided struggling battery for AL10D56 maker A123 Systems Inc with nearly $1 million on the day it filed for bankruptcy, the company told lawmakers investigating its government grant.

The company, which makes lithium ion batteries for electric cars, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection last month after a rescue deal with Chinese auto parts supplier Wanxiang Group fell apart.

That same day, October 16, A123 received a $946,830 payment as part of its $249 million clean energy grant from the Energy Department, the company said in a letter, obtained by Reuters, to Republican Senators John Thune and Chuck Grassley.

In the letter, dated November 14, A123 said the October payment was the most recent disbursement it had received from the government, with an additional $115.8 million still outstanding on the grant.

Thune and Grassley have pressed the Energy Department for more details about its funding of A123 as the company has faltered.
"The Department of Energy needs to answer for why it appears to put federal grants on auto-pilot to the detriment of U.S. taxpayers," the two senators said in a statement. "This can't stand."

A123 said it may still need to use the rest of its grant money if it decides to update or expand its current manufacturing capacity.

"The Energy Department takes its responsibility to be good stewards of the taxpayers' money very seriously," a department spokesman, Bill Gibbons, said in a statement.
Under the department's grant program, companies receive funds only after work is completed toward the ultimate goal of a grant.

Gibbons said the department's investments have helped to build U.S. advanced battery manufacturing, supported American workers and ensured the country can compete in a fiercely competitive global market.

Republicans on the campaign trail ahead of national elections earlier this month pointed to A123 as an example of failed clean energy investment from the Obama administration.
The Obama administration has defended its efforts, arguing that despite some high-profile bankruptcies, most of its investments have been successful and have helped to double renewable energy output from wind and solar.

The administration launched a stimulus-funded $2.4 billion initiative in 2009 to bolster U.S. advanced battery production, but the sector has struggled with overcapacity and weak demand for electric vehicles.

Thune and Grassley have also raised concerns about Chinese firm Wanxiang's attempts to acquire A123's battery business, saying military and taxpayer-funded technology should not be allowed to fall into foreign hands.

The Energy Department has stressed that none of the government's grant would be allowed to fund facilities abroad.

Wanxiang, one of the largest non-government-owned companies in China, is currently locked in a battle with U.S.-based Johnson Controls Inc to buy A123.
Wanxiang had attempted to bail out A123 prior to the company's filing for bankruptcy, but the $465 million deal collapsed when A123 was unable to meet some conditions of the agreement.

The senators questioned why the Energy Department continued to fund A123 even after it learned about the potential rescue deal. The company said it informed the department about the initial deal in early August.

A123 received several military contracts, including two worth a total of more than $4 million, to develop batteries for the Air Force.

In its letter to the senators, A123 confirmed it had received one federal government contract with a "secret" security classification.

The company said that it would expect the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) would lay out conditions to battery for AS10D41 protect sensitive U.S. military data if the company is acquired by a foreign firm.

CFIUS is an interagency panel that vets foreign deals for security concerns.

You have to have some big investment from the government or some corporation

January 16 [Wed], 2013, 10:46
With the launch of the Nissan Leaf and Chevy Volt, it's been a big year for electric vehicles, but their batteries still have a fairly limited range without a recharge. For a car running on today's lithium-ion batteries to match the range provided by a tank of gasoline, you'd need a lot more batteries, which would weigh battery for UM09A41 down the car and take up too much space.

But what if you could take away one of the electrodes in a battery and replace it with air? Researchers estimate that a lithium-air battery could hold 5 to 10 times as much energy as a lithium-ion battery of the same weight and double the amount for the same volume. In theory, the energy density could be comparable to that of gasoline.

"No other battery has that kind of energy density, so far as we know," says Ming Au, principal scientist at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), in Aiken, S.C. Au was one of several scientists who reported new research into rechargeable lithium-air batteries during the fall meeting of the Materials Research Society, in Boston.

In such a battery, the anode is made of lithium. The cathode is oxygen, drawn from the surrounding air. As the lithium oxidizes, it releases energy. Pumping electricity into the device reverses the process, expelling the oxygen and leaving pure lithium.

"You can certainly make a lithium-air battery for one-time usage," says Au. In fact, such lightweight batteries are commonly sold to power hearing aids. "But to make this battery rechargeable is difficult," he says.

Rechargeable lithium-air batteries face several challenges. For one, lithium reacts violently with water, so the battery's electrolyte cannot contain any, and water vapor must be separated from incoming air. Turning the lithium oxide—the product of discharging the battery—back to lithium is difficult and only partially possible even when assisted by special catalysts: The oxide builds up and retards the process, limiting the number of charge-discharge cycles to a mere handful. Before lithium-air batteries can find use in hybrid and electric cars, they must be able to handle thousands of such cycles.

As for the time it takes to discharge and recharge the battery, "that process is very sluggish," says Yang Shao-Horn, associate professor in the Electrochemical Energy Lab at MIT. But she recently reported that she could increase that round-trip efficiency to 77 percent by incorporating nanoparticles of gold and platinum into the cathode end. Gold speeds the combination of oxygen with lithium, and platinum catalyzes their separation.

The SRNL group, meanwhile, is in the midst of a two-year, US $1 million project on lithium-air batteries. So far, they've demonstrated a coin-size battery with a capacity of 600 milliampere-hours per gram of material. That's a leap from traditional lithium-ion batteries, with capacities of 100 to 150 mAh/g. But lithium-ion battery for UM09A75have about 1000 charge/discharge cycles, and Au's device tops out at about 50.

It could be many years until a rechargeable lithium-air battery reaches the market. Au points out that lithium-ion batteries were first described in 1976 but weren't for sale until 1997. "You have to have some big investment from the government or some corporation," he says. And that hasn't arrived yet.

Its near-term goal is to produce a battery

January 16 [Wed], 2013, 10:45
Lithium-ion batteries are widely used to power devices from electric vehicles to portable electronics because they can store a relatively large amount of energy in a relatively lightweight package. The battery works by controlling the flow of lithium ions through a fluid electrolyte between its two terminals, called the battery for AS10D61 anode and cathode.

The promise – and peril – of using silicon as the anode in these batteries comes from the way the lithium ions bond with the anode during the charging cycle. Up to four lithium ions bind to each of the atoms in a silicon anode – compared to just one for every six carbon atoms in today’s graphite anode – which allows it to store much more charge.

However, it also swells the anode to as much as four times its initial volume. What’s more, some of the electrolyte reacts with the silicon, coating it and inhibiting further charging. When lithium flows out of the anode during discharge, the anode shrinks back to its original size and the coating cracks, exposing fresh silicon to the electrolyte.

Within just a few cycles, the strain of expansion and contraction, combined with the electrolyte attack, destroys the anode through a process called "decrepitation." Over the past five years, Cui’s group has progressively improved the durability of silicon anodes by making them out of nanowires and then hollow silicon nanoparticles.

His latest design consists of a double-walled silicon nanotube coated with a thin layer of silicon oxide, a very tough ceramic material. This strong outer layer keeps the outside wall of the nanotube from expanding, so it stays intact. Instead, the silicon swells harmlessly into the hollow interior, which is also too small for electrolyte molecules to enter. After the first charging cycle, it operates for more than 6,000 cycles with 85 percent capacity remaining. Cui said future research is aimed at simplifying battery for UM09A31the process for making the double-wall silicon nanotubes.

Others in his group are developing new high-performance cathodes to combine with the new anode to form a battery with five times the performance of today’s lithium-ion technology. In 2008, Cui founded a company, Amprius, which licensed rights to Stanford’s patents for his silicon nanowire anode technology. Its near-term goal is to produce a battery with double the energy density of today’s lithium-ion batteries.

The SBS forum states that a 'smart' battery

November 28 [Wed], 2012, 15:58
The battery has the inherit problem of not being able to communicate with the user. Neither weight, color, nor size provides an indication of the high quality VGP-BPS13AB state-of-charge (SoC) and state-of-health (SoH). The user is at the mercy of the battery.

Help is at hand in breaking the code of silence. An increasing number of today's rechargeable batteries are made 'smart'. Equipped with a microchip, these batteries are able to communicate with the charger and user alike. Typical applications for 'smart' batteries are notebook computers and video cameras. Increasingly, these batteries are also used in biomedical devices and defense applications.

There are several types of 'smart' batteries, each offering different complexities and costs. The most basic 'smart' battery may contain nothing more than a chip that sets the charger to the correct charge algorithm. In the eyes 9cells VGP-BPS13B/B of the Smart Battery System (SBS) forum, these batteries cannot be called 'smart'.

What then makes a battery 'smart'? Definitions still vary among organizations and manufacturers. The SBS forum states that a 'smart' battery must be able to provide SoC indications. In 1990, Benchmarq was the first company to commercialize the concept by offering fuel gauge technology. Today, several manufacturers produce such chips. They range from the single wire system, to the two-wire system to the System Management Bus (SMBus). Let's first look at the single wire system.