The robot theater first came to life four years ago when a playwright teamed up with a robotics researcher at Osaka University in Japan. Together, they created scenarios in whichor household servants, short plays such as "Sayonara" and "I, Worker" that became part of the double-bill stage production presented at the Japan Society in New York Feb. 79.
"One of the most common questions we get is whether the robots think," said Oriza Hirata, playwright and director of the Seinendan Theater Company, showing flashes of humor through a translator. "They don't think. Neither do the actors."
The robotic stars included a "Gemnoid F" android that appeared as a lifelike Japanese woman, as well as two "Robovie R3" models that looked more like oversized robot toys. The machines performed their prerecorded scripts alongside human actors from the Seinendan Theater Company.
"Sayonara" featured the Gemnoid F android acting as a poetry-reciting companion to a blonde girl suffering from a terminal condition. The android's humanlike appearance included blinking eyes, mouth movements and several facial expressions. 
Despite Gemnoid F's acting limitations, audiences often interpreted the android's performance as conveying a much broader emotional range, said Bryerly Long, a multilingual actress with the Seinendan Theater Company who both supplied the recorded voice for the android and acted in the role of the dying blonde girl. She made her observation during a Q&A session following the two short plays.
An extended scene for "Sayonara" included a melancholy nod to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that followed in the wake of the 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami. Hirata, the playwright, took inspiration for the scene from news reports describing howsurrounding the nuclear plant meltdown.
The second play, "I, Worker," featured the Robovie robots as household servants. The machines work in a home in which a young Japanese couple struggles with the loss of a child and the husband's unemployment. In a parallel twist, one of the robots also begins suffering from a lack of will to do its daily chores.
Unlike Gemnoid F, the Robovie robots used artificial voices, not a human voice. The android in the first play required a more humanlike voice, said Hiroshi Ishiguro, a robotics researcher at Osaka University and creator of the robot performers. It would otherwise run the risk of creeping audiences out with the mismatched synthetic voice and humanlike appearance,
"It would be uncanny," Ishiguro explained. He was referring to the so-called "" phenomenon experienced when people see a mismatch between human and non-human characteristics in robots or digital animations.
Robots and humans acted together in harmony for this particular performance. But Hirata suggested thatcould begin replacing human actors within the next few decades.
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