A modern motorcycle battery is a marvel of compact packaging

June 10 [Mon], 2013, 10:33
You can make a simple wet-cell storage battery with only two lead plates. Submerge them in an electrolyte solution (64% water and 36% sulfuric acid by weight is standard), apply direct current and watch as the positive lead plate develops a brown coating of lead peroxide and the negative plate becomes sponge AS10B31 compatible lead. Remove the voltage source and put a voltmeter across the plates and you'll find approximately 2.1 volts, regardless of the size. The larger the plates, the longer the battery can supply this voltage. Combining three such cells in series can create a 6-volt battery, and six cells can make a 12-volt battery (actually 6.3 or 12.6 volts, respectively).

When we ask the battery to produce current flow by putting a load across its terminals, the plates and acid solution undergo another chemical transformation, causing both lead plates to change into lead sulfate, consuming the acid and producing water as a by-product.

Gradually the electrolyte becomes increasingly watery and the plates more sulfated until the battery either dies or we reverse the process by returning current to the battery to restore it. The basic chemistry hasn't changed for a hundred years.



A modern motorcycle battery is a marvel of compact packaging. Since even a smooth-running motorcycle subjects the innards of a batter to much greater vibration than a car, the motorcycle battery's case will be a tighter fit to prevent the lead plates from rattling to pieces. But it's still generally true that a motorycle that vibrates a lot will have a shorter battery life, because the plates themselves are more fragile than you might expect. They are constructed of highly active but very soft lead pastes applied to waffled supporting grids, which provide greater surface area for the chemical reaction than simple flat plates. The paste is porous to allow full penetration of the electrolyte, and the pastes on both the negative and positive plates begin as the same substance; a mixture of lead oxide, dilute sulfuric acid, water and special binders like plastic fiber that produce a material about the consistency of firm mud. Since the negative plates tend to contract in service, special expanders are added to their mix so they can't shrink to become inpenetrable and chemically inactive. Just like our simple cell, the plates are then submerged in electrolyte and given a electrical charge that forms them into positive and negative.

To make the battery more rugged, the plate grids must be made of a harder lead alloy, usually lead-antimony. Anywhere from .5%12% antimony is typical, with higher antimony mixtures making for tougher plates but shortening the sitting life of the charged battery. The big drawback to lead-antimony is that gradual corrosion of the positive grid releases the antimony, which may then form tiny hairlike bridges between the plates. These bridges are actually short circuits that gradually increase the current necessary to recharge the battery, causing increased water loss. Therefore, an older battery needs its water level checked more frequently, and a new battery that needs constant filling may have a voltage regulator problem that is overcharging the battery.

Sealed, maintenance-free batteries use calcium instead of antimony to strengthen the plate grids, since calcium does not produce internal shorts. By giving the battery box a slightly larger volume to hold an extra reserve of electrolyte, incorporating sulfation-retardants and gas-recombinant technology (GRT: a special glass mat surrounding the plates which helps the hydrogen and oxygen recombine rather than escape from the battery as a gas), the manufacturer can eliminate the filler caps. However, all these batteries are not truly sealed, but may incorporate almost invisible safety vents around the perimeter of their tops. As advertised, the maintenance-free battery does have a natural resistance to overcharging and water loss. But unfortunately, they are also not as resilient when deeply discharged (considered to be the loss of 80% capacity) as are their lead-antimony brothers, and may be killed by such things as leaving an electrical load on for a long time (when a 12 volt battery might drop to just 2 volts), while a lead-antimony battery might still be saved. Some of the new high-tech "smart" battery chargers (about $60) claim to be able to restore even a deeply-discharged maintenance-free battery by increasing the initial charging voltage to as high as 20 volts to overcome the internal reisistance.

To increase current capacity, modern UM09H36 compatiblehave thin multiple plates which are connected in parallel within each cell, forming a kind of lead sandwich with a negative plate at each end and alternating positive plates within, all insulated from one another by separators. The separators are micro-porous, meaning charged ions can pass through readily, but they prevent physical contact that would constitute a short circuit, and also attempt to prevent the formation of the tiny alloy short circuits.

Steady improvements in separator materials have given us more powerful batteries without size increases.

Lead acid has diverse plate compositions

April 22 [Mon], 2013, 11:31
Measuring state-of-charge by voltage is the simplest method, but it can be inaccurate. Cell types have dissimilar chemical compositions that deliver varied voltage profiles. Temperature also plays a role. Higher temperature high quality Pavilion g7 batteryraises the open-circuit voltage, a lower temperature lowers it, and this phenomenon applies to all chemistries in varying degrees.

The most blatant error of voltage-based SoC occurs when disturbing the battery with a charge or discharge. This agitation distorts the voltage and no longer represents the true state-of-charge. To get accurate measurements, the battery needs to rest for at least four hours to attain equilibrium; battery manufacturers recommend 24 hours. Adding the element of time to neutralize voltage polarization does not sit well with batteries in active duty. One can see that this method is ill suited for fuel gauging.

Each battery chemistry delivers a unique discharge signature that requires a tailored model. While voltage-based SoC works reasonably well for a lead acid battery that has rested, the flat discharge curve of nickel- and lithium-based batteries renders the voltage method impracticable. And yet, voltage is commonly used on consumer products. A “rested” Li-cobalt of 3.80V/cell in open circuit indicates a SoC of roughly 50 percent.

The discharge voltage curves of Li-manganese, Li-phosphate and NMC are very flat, and 80 percent of the stored energy remains in this flat voltage profile. This characteristic assists applications requiring a steady voltage but presents a challenge in fuel gauging. The voltage method only indicates full charge and low charge and cannot estimate the large middle section accurately.

Lead acid has diverse plate compositions that must be considered when measuring SoC by voltage. Calcium, an additive that makes the battery maintenance-free, raises the voltage by 5–8 percent. Temperature also affects the open-circuit voltage; heat raises it while cold causes it to decrease. Surface charge further fools SoC estimations by showing an elevated voltage immediately after charge; a brief high quality 516916-001discharge before measurement counteracts the error. Finally, AGM batteries produce a slightly higher voltage than the flooded equivalent.

When measuring SoC by open circuit voltage, the battery voltage must be truly “floating” with no load present. Installed in a car, the parasitic load present makes this a closed circuit voltage (CCV) condition that will falsify the readings. Adjustments must be made when measuring SoC in the CCV state by including the load current in the calculation. In spite of the notorious inaccuracies, most SoC measurements rely on the voltage method because it’s simple. Voltage-based state-of-charge is popular for wheelchairs, scooters and golf cars.

To estimate capacity and state-of-charge on the fly involves impedance

April 22 [Mon], 2013, 11:27
The resistance of a battery provides useful information about its performance and detects hidden trouble spots. High resistance values are often the triggering point to replace an aging battery, and determining resistance is especially useful in checking stationary batteries. However, resistance comparison alone is nothigh quality 497695-001 effective, because the value between batches of lead acid batteries can vary by eight percent.

Because of this relatively wide tolerance, the resistance method only works effectively when comparing the values for a given battery from birth to retirement. Service crews are asked to take a snapshot of each cell at time of installation and then measure the subtle changes as the cells age. A 25 percent increase in resistance over the original reading hints to an overall performance drop of 20 percent.

Manufacturers of stationary batteries typically honor the warranty if the internal resistance increases by 50 percent. Their preference is to get true capacity readings by applying a full discharge. It is their belief that only a discharge can provide reliable readings and they ask users to perform the service once a year. While this advice has merit, a full discharge requires a temporary disconnection of the battery from the system, and on a large battery such a test takes an entire day to complete. In the real world, very few battery installations receive this type of service and most measurements are based on battery resistance readings.

Measuring the internal resistance is done by reading the voltage drop on a load current or by AC impedance. The results are in ohmic high quality Pavilion g4 batteryvalues. There is a notion that internal resistance is related to capacity, and this is false. The resistance of many batteries stays flat through most of the service life. Figure 1 shows the capacity fade and internal resistance of lithium-ion cells.

To estimate capacity and state-of-charge on the fly involves impedance trending by scanning a battery with frequencies ranging from less than one hertz to several thousand hertz. Read more about Testing Lead Acid Batteries.

The researchers tested the device using nine bathroom tiles

March 11 [Mon], 2013, 14:12
Traditional lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics, and while already compact, they are limited to rectangular orbright Latitude E6500 battery cylindrical blocks.

But researchers at Rice University in Houston, Texas, have come up with a technique to break down each element of the traditional battery and incorporate it into a liquid that can be spray-painted in layers on virtually any surface.

"This means traditional packaging for batteries has given way to a much more flexible approach that allows all kinds of new design and integration possibilities for storage devices," Pulickel Ajayan, who leads the team on the project, said.

The new rechargeable battery is made from spray-painted layers, with each representing the components of a traditional battery: two current collectors, a cathode, an anode and a polymer separator in the middle.

The paint layers were airbrushed onto ceramics, glass and stainless steel, and on diverse shapes such as the curved surface of a ceramic mug, to test how well they bond.

Neelam Singh, who worked on the project, says the technology could be integrated with solar cells to give any surface a stand-alone energy capture and storage capability.

The researchers tested the device using nine bathroom tiles coated with the paint and connected to each other. When they were charged, the batteries powered a set of light-emitting diodes for six hours, providing a steady 2.4 volts.

One limitation of the technology is in the use of difficult-to-handle liquid electrolytes and the need for a dry and oxygen-free environment when making the new device.

But the researchers are looking for components that would allow construction in the open air for a more efficient production bright Studio 1537 batteriesprocess and greater commercial viability.

The results of the study were published on Thursday in the journal Nature Scientific Reports.

That puts it squarely in the realm of next-generation battery

March 11 [Mon], 2013, 14:11
Lithium-ion batteries have shown huge increases in their capacity when silicon crushed into powder is used in them, researchers bright Inspiron N5010 batteryat Rice University in Houston say.

The result could lead to longer-lasting, cheaper rechargeable batteries, aimed especially at electric cars.

The report from researchers Sibani Lisa Biswal and research scientist Madhuri Thakur was published today in Nature.com's journal Scientific Reports.

Their methods have achieved 600 charge-discharge cycles at 1,000 milliamp hours per gram (mAh/g) using silicon anodes — a jump bright Inspiron 1526 battery from the current 350 mAh/g capacity of existing graphite anodes.

"That puts it squarely in the realm of next-generation battery technology competing to lower the cost and extend the range of electric vehicles," said a release from the university.

Li-ion the universally acceptable battery for portable application

January 07 [Mon], 2013, 11:27
It was not until the early 1970s that the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available. Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the 1980s but the endeavor failed because of in 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Pavilion g7 batterystabilities in the metallic lithium used as anode material.

Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential and provides the largest specific energy per weight. Rechargeable batteries with lithium metal on the anode (negative electrodes) could provide extraordinarily high energy densities, however, cycling produced unwanted dendrites on the anode that could penetrate the separator and cause an electrical short. The cell temperature would rise quickly and approaches the melting point of lithium, causing thermal runaway, also known as “venting with flame.”

The inherent instability of lithium metal, especially during charging, shifted research to a non-metallic solution using lithium ions. Although lower in specific energy than lithium-metal, Li-ion is safe, provided cell manufacturers and battery packers follow safety measures in keeping voltage and currents to secure levels. In 1991, Sony commercialized the first Li-ion battery, and today this chemistry has become the most promising and fastest growing on the market. Meanwhile, research continues to develop a safe metallic lithium battery in the hope to make it safe.

In 1994, it cost more than $10 to manufacture Li-ion in the 18650* cylindrical cell delivering a capacity of 1,100mAh. In 2001, the price dropped to $2 and the capacity rose to 1,900mAh. Today, high energy-dense 18650 cells deliver over 3,000mAh and the costs have dropped further. Cost reduction, increase in specific energy and the absence of toxic material paved the road to make Li-ion the universally acceptable battery for portable application, first in the consumer industry and now increasingly also in heavy industry, including electric powertrains for vehicles.

In 2009, roughly 38 percent of all 11.1v 5200mah 9cells 516916-001by revenue were Li-ion. Li-ion is a low-maintenance battery, an advantage many other chemistries cannot claim. The battery has no memory and does not need exercising to keep in shape. Self-discharge is less than half compared to nickel-based systems.

This makes Li-ion well suited for fuel gauge applications. The nominal cell voltage of 3.6V can power cell phones and digital cameras directly, offering simplifications and cost reductions over multi-cell designs. The drawback has been the high price, but this leveling out, especially in the consumer market.

Depending on the depth of discharge and operating temperature

January 07 [Mon], 2013, 11:20
The answer is YES. Lead-acid is the oldest rechargeable battery in existence. Invented by the French physician Gaston Planté in 1859, lead-acid 11.1v 5200mah 9cells 497695-001was the first rechargeable

battery for commercial use. 150 years later, we still have no cost-effective alternatives for cars, wheelchairs, scooters, golf carts and UPS systems. The lead-acid battery has

retained a market share in applications where newer battery chemistries would either be too expensive.
Lead-acid does not lend itself to fast charging. Typical charge time is 8 to 16 hours. A periodic fully saturated charge is essential to prevent sulfation and the battery must

always be stored in a charged state. Leaving the battery in a discharged condition causes sulfation and a recharge may not be possible.

Finding the ideal charge voltage limit is critical. A high voltage (above 2.40V/cell) produces good battery performance but shortens the service life due to grid corrosion on

the positive plate. A low voltage limit is subject to sulfation on the negative plate. Leaving the battery on float charge for a prolonged time does not cause damage.

Lead-acid does not like deep cycling. A full discharge causes extra strain and each cycle robs the battery of some service life. This wear-down characteristic also applies to

other battery chemistries in varying degrees. To prevent the battery from being stressed through repetitive deep discharge, a larger battery is recommended. Lead-acid is

inexpensive but the operational costs can be higher than a nickel-based system if repetitive full cycles are required.

Depending on the depth of discharge and operating temperature, the sealed lead-acid provides 200 to 300 discharge/charge cycles. The primary reason for its relatively short

cycle life is grid corrosion of the positive electrode, depletion of the active material and expansion of the positive plates. These changes are most prevalent at higher

operating temperatures. Cycling does not prevent or reverse the trend.

The lead-acid battery has one of the lowest energy densities, making it unsuitable for portable devices. In addition, the 11.1v 5200mah 9cells Pavilion g4 battery performance at low temperatures is marginal. The self-

discharge is about 40% per year, one of the best on rechargeable batteries. In comparison, nickel-cadmium self-discharges this amount in three months. The high lead content

makes the lead-acid environmentally unfriendly.

Most online games warn about these third-party sites

September 17 [Mon], 2012, 17:21
Millions of people play online games everyday. While the most popular are MMORPGs, there are also many other genres that are popular online. Considering the amount of information that typically has to be shared to make a replacement VGP-BPS9A/Bn account on one of these games, there are some people that are worried about the potential for identity theft. Is this threat a reality, or is it being inflated? Read on and find out.

Making an Account
Most online games, except for the many free Flash games, require at least some information before you can make an account. They require the player’s name, email address and maybe their address and phone number. Other games require a credit card for monthly billing, and this means that you are sharing even more sensitive data.

Brute Force Hacking
When you share sensitive information with an online game, that information is stored within a secure server. While the server is secure, and there are countless employees and programs monitoring the access of this information, there is no system that is completely free from hacking.

In the worst-case scenario, a hacker can enter the system and steal your identity. This means that they can get your credit card number, and all the other information needed to start using it. However, as stated before, these servers are secure, and most online games know how much security is needed to prevent these attacks. There are very few instances of hackers stealing this information, and the online game creators will typically warn players as soon as they discover the leaked information.

Social Engineering
Hacking a game server isn’t easy, so most hackers use the social engineering route. They will ask players for their username and password, and in exchange they might promise to give them powerful items, free gold or some other special item. Some hackers even act like game moderators, and they may tell players that their account will be deleted unless they verify their information.

Players ignorant to this practice, and those that are new to online games, often fall prey to this. However, most online games will display warning messages stating that moderators will never ask for this information. This can typically be seen on loading screens, and it might randomly appear during play. So, if you know about this social engineering, then it won’t work on you and hackers won’t be able to steal your information.

Third-Party Sellers
There are a lot of items to be found in am MMORPG. For example, World of Warcraft has hundreds of different sword items alone, and many players don’t want to go through 5-hour raids to get them. So, they go to third-party websites that are selling these items.

Most online games warn about these third-party sites. Normally it’s because they don’t want to lose money by you buying items from another seller, but they are also worried about your safety. Many of these third-party websites don’t have the same amount of security as the online game itself, or they may intentionally steal your data once you input it.

If you are going to buy from a third-party, then make sure that the seller is secure and safe.

Game Cards
As stated above, hackers might be able to get into your account and steal your credit card information. There is no way to stop the hacker from your end, but you might be able to stop the credit card theft. Many pop 9cells PA3634U-1BRSular online games offer game cards that you can buy with cash from retail stores.

If you buy these cards and use them for your monthly subscription, then your credit card numbers won’t be saved on the game’s server. This means that they will get your name and other information, but not the credit card.

Conclusion
So, is identity theft a potential problem with online games? Yes, it is. However, you can often combat this by paying attention to the game creator’s messages, and by not falling for social engineering scams. If you just pay attention to who you are buying from and what information you are sharing, then you should have no problems with security.

Many smartphones come with security apps built into them to for protection against theft

September 17 [Mon], 2012, 17:20
A mobile phone is a very handy thing to have. You can use it to do your work—talking to your fellow staff members and clients or going online to do research for your business or conduct an order. Or you can use it for entertainment—playing games, talking to friends, listening to music, watching videos, or simply browsing the web for interesting information. All of this on a device that is small enough to fit into 11.1v 5200mah 9cells VGP-BPS14/Syour pocket.

But this small device can be the source of big trouble for you if you are not careful. Like any machine that has Internet access, a smartphone can be the target of malicious software that can be used to steal your identity. The thief can then gain access to your social security number and open up a credit card account in your name, subsequently running up huge bills and leaving you holding the bag. You can even be arrested for a crime that somebody else committed while using your identity, and the IRS can come after you to collect taxes due on money earned by that person. What is more, somebody could do this simply by stealing the phone itself and checking the data stored on it. How can you prevent such a thing from happening? Here are five new ways in which you can keep your identity secure when using a smartphone.

1) Remote theft protection

Many smartphones come with security apps built into them to for protection against theft. When an unauthorized person gets hold of it, it immediately locks up so that having the phone in his possession will do him no good; the information on it will remain forever hidden from him. If your mobile phone operates on an Android system, then you can get Avast! Mobile Security, which you can use to set of a LOUD ALARM to warn the thief.

2) Avoid “shady” online connections and apps that have not been chec

A large portion of the millions of apps downloaded each year have not been checked for malicious software. It is possible to download the Lookout App, which can check any that are subsequently downloaded to the phone and also lets the user know if the website he is about to visit is potentially unsafe or the wifi connection not a secure one.

3) Keep track of your finances.

Apps are available from almost every major bank; they can be used to examine your bank records while “on the go” and discover immediately if any suspicious activity is taking place. Bank apps can do other things too: There is Mint, for monitoring more than one bank account, and Credit Karma Mobile, in case somebody sets up a credit card account in your name.

4) Use digital technology to keep track of what is in your wallet.

Many identity thieves operate by stealing people’s wallets and using any information that they can find inside them. You can avoid this by making a digital copy of your wallet. Again, there are apps that will help you do this, notably lemon.com, which is for iPhone and devices that work on Android systems. With this, you can record the digital information contained in every card—debit and credit—that you carry in your wallet, so that if it does get stolen, at least you will be able to notify your bank and tell them to freeze all transactions on the cards.

5) Use a pass code to protect your phone.

As with all other digital accounts, the information contained on your mobile phone will be safest if you create a pass code without which nobody can access it. Use a pass code that will not be easy for anybody else tohigh quality VGP-BPS9/S guess but not so difficult that not even you can remember it, and keep it in a secret place where only you would ever think to look for it. Do NOT store it on the phone itself, on your laptop, or in any place where you keep your financial records.

Protecting your online identity is always simpler than rebuilding your damaged credit reputation. Remember well that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

New energy vehicles bulletin management methods

July 31 [Tue], 2012, 18:09
Pure electric vehicles, the relative fuel vehicles, the main difference between (different) to four parts, the drive motor, speed controller, battery, car charger. Relative to the gas station in terms of public ultra-fast charging station.

The quality difference of the pure electric vehicles depends on these four components, the value of the level also depends on the quality of these four components. Directly related to the use of pure electric vehicles are the choice of configuration of the four parts.

Per hour speed pure electric vehicles, and start the speed depends on the power and performance of the drive motor, continue the mileage is, depending on the size of the vehicle power battery capacity, the weight ofcheap rn873 A1185 the vehicle power battery depends on the choice of motive power batteries such as lead-acid, zinc carbon, lithium, their size, specific gravity, specific power, specific energy and cycle life are different. Depending on the grade of manufacturer of the vehicle to locate and use as well as market definition, market segmentation.

The pure electric vehicle drive motor, DC brush, brushless, permanent magnet, electromagnetic points, another AC stepper motors, etc., and their selection and vehicle configuration purposes, the relevant grade. The drive motor speed control can be divided into a level speed and stepless electronic speed controller and not the points of the speed controller. Motor hub motor, the inner rotor motor, single-motor-driven, multi-motor drive and the combination of motor-driven. Selection and preparation of the motor and speed controller also have an impact on vehicle grade and price.

Public ultra-fast charging station infrastructure for the commercialization of pure electric vehicles, will do it perfect place to make the former Cheong Hang worry, and vice versa is the short-legged, bound by, and impact of business practices of Europe, the U.S. electric steam fully illustrates this point. We recognize that, but the action is ineffective. In addition, the charger and car battery cable connector must be standardized to form a battery varieties voltage sub-file, the speed (power, size) of elements of consistent, or pure electric vehicles and utility of ultra-fast charging station can not be effectively unable to docking, the industry a white one when we have to open up, but you must plan to be implemented after the design of forming, in order to avoid futile, a waste of money in order to avoid labor life.

Large charge of the four parts of pure electric vehicle public charging stations, special cables, cable connectors as well as billing, charging system, new parts for the automotive industry, did not they would be without straw, not been done, do not perfect is a short-legged bound by it. Associated with this component manufacturers should take this as the formation of the industrial chain, the total development.

National political commissar of the "new energy vehicles bulletin management methods and implementation details" purposes was November 1, 2007. Towns and villages agricultural electric vehicles (private) General technical conditions "are brewing process, the pure electric vehicle commercialization in the rural areas has been the beginning of the current prototype, we should not turn a blind eye.

Future in line with international and pure electric vehicles to meet market demand must comply with the following: an electric vehicle R & D and manufacturing operations must comply with various state laws and regulations. Vehicles, parts performance must meet the national technical standards and the specific requirements. 2, electric vehicles, electric energy, traveling by a motor, that no new pollution, and no longer produce flammable, explosive hidden. 3, battery electric vehicles, energy storage must be non-polluting, environment-friendly. And has a life span of durable, with ultra-fast charging (2-3C above current) function. Vehicle to determine the continued line mileage on a single charge based on usage, this device enough power battery pack, make full use of the ultrafast charge of public charging stations to extend the mileage of the continuation line. 4, the motor group should be a high efficiency of energy conversion. Braking deceleration of energy and recycling, and strive to the high efficiency of energy use in vehicles. Set a maximum speed replacement MacBook Pro 13 battery based on vehicle use and driving occasions, and shall not exceed the limit value of the traffic laws, a reasonable choice of the power and configuration of the motor battery pack capacity. The driver of the vehicle operation control is simple and effective, reliable operation and to ensure road safety. 7, machinery, electrical installations and durable low maintenance. Vehicle operating cost. 8, the target market needs and to provide practical, appropriate models to meet, and strive to do the technical, economic, practical, functional and various aspects of an integrated and holistic.

Industrialization, commercialization welcomed by the users of electric vehicles must comply with the following features: accurate positioning, appropriate use, should drive in the area, the best performance. Suitable models, the configuration of the economy. Reliable performance, the manipulation of the lunch. Environmental protection battery, durable life, enough electricity, ultra-fast charging, improve the network, place of service. Low cost, minimal maintenance.