Constant current chargers like the Optimate or Battery Tender

July 11 [Thu], 2013, 14:37
To learn the proper maximum charging rate for your battery, look at the alphanumeric code printed across the case of the battery and you will usually find its Amp/Hour rating. If it's not obvious, check your owners manual. The proper trickle-charging rate for a motorcycle battery is one-tenth of the A/H rating for12 cells mini 1000 as long as 10 hours, depending on how discharged it is. Charging faster than 2.02.5 amps causes overheating which can warp and even melt the battery case if ignored.

High-rate charging also speeds up internal corrosion, and its visible sign is sediment buildup under the cells, which if it reaches high enough, will also permanently short out the battery. Too high a charging rate can also result in a battery that does not hold a charge because too-rapid transformation of the lead sulfate may actually trap sulfate under a surface coating of rejuvenated lead, producing a battery that can test okay but fails quickly. Thankfully, this last effect can be reversed with a very slow charge of no more than 1/20 (yes, that's one-twentieth) of rated capacity for 25 to 30 hours.

Therefore, because we really don't want a powerful charger, a good battery charger for most purposes is the inexpensive low-output type. Typically selling for around $20, the so-called "trickle chargers" usually produce no more than 1.2 amps. They often incorporate a solid-state feedback circuit that will taper the charge down to even lower levels as the battery voltage comes back up, preventing overcharging. Most convenient are the quick-connect type that provide a pigtail connector that can be permanently attached to the battery. The trickle charger will also work on your car 12 cells 513775-001 , but even more slowly, and produces the same battery-friendly results.

Both the taper-rate and trickle charger supply only a fixed voltage. However, the lead-antimony battery should be charged at 1415 volts, but the lead-calcium type needs l516 volts to reach full charge. What's the voltage of your charger? Does it match your battery type?

Constant current chargers like the Optimate or Battery Tender brands are called smart chargers because they can vary the charging voltage to keep current constant and charge a battery much more quickly. We'll cover their other advantages in a future article.

Stay tuned to MCN for a comprehensive battery charger

July 11 [Thu], 2013, 14:35
Although not so messy as your typical housepet discharge, we must always have our plastic and lead pal strong and full of energy, so it's still a problem. Because motorcycles are often simply recreational beasts and may have to wait a long time for our rare opportunities to give them some exercise, accessories that draw even small amounts of power like clocks or radio memories can sap the energy of even a big 12 cells 537626-001 more quickly than we often imagine. You can measure the draw by disconnecting your positive battery terminal and connecting an ammeter in line.

However, even a battery disconnected from its cables slowly self-discharges over time, typically at a rate of between .5% and 1% of total output per day for the refillable lead-antimony battery, or between .15% and .3% per day for the maintenance-free lead-calcium type. It's therefore prudent to charge your bike's battery every two to four weeks if the bike is not being used, more often if accessories are drawing power. The new smart chargers make the drudgery of this chore a thing of the past. Internal circuitry monitors the battery's condition and applies voltage only as necessary so your battery is always ready to go when you are. Stay tuned to MCN for a comprehensive battery charger tech feature and comparison test in the near future.

Try glueing a penny to the top of the battery as a sacrificial anode to minimize corrosion of the terminals.

The discharge rate is also temperature-dependent. Hot weather greatly accelerates self-discharge (at 95o, it's twice as fast as at 77o, and 130o is considered lethal) and cold weather slows it, so it stands to reason that charged batteries are best stored in a cool (and dry) place. However, very cold weather can actualy turn electrolyte to jelly or even freeze it solid. And since a discharged battery contains a greater percentage of water, it freezes sooner than a fully charged one. Just a frosty 27o can be enough, but a fully charged battery will resist freezing down to a -75o. Also, don't attempt to jump-start a very cold battery without letting it thaw out first. You may have heard the story that a battery sitting on cement will discharge very quickly, and so it's best to store it on wood. This is no longer true, but once was when battery case materials were actually porous enough to enable discharge through damp cement.

Even if you're not experiencing any problems, routine battery inspection can be the ounce of prevention that saves many pounds of new lead cure. Periodic checks of the electrolyte level allow you add distilled water before the level drops below the tops of the plates. Should this happen, contact with the oxygen in the air will cause the sulfation, which is actually crystalline, to grow until it will bridge the plates and short them out permanently. And distilled water is an absolute necessity in a motorycle battery. The second worse thing you can do to hurt a battery is use tap water to top it up. Since you should already be keeping a jug of distilled water around for your bike's cooling system, you already have it for your battery, and should use it in your car's battery as well. You should also know that the electrolyte-level sensors fitted to many touring bikes should be replaced with the battery because the length, size and diameter vary from one manufacturer to another.

Simple corrosion of the battery terminals can drastically reduce the battery's ability to supply, receive or hold voltage. Plus, the gradual buildup of acid fumes, dirt and grime into an electrically-conductive film on the case between the terminals can greatly accelerate self-discharge. Baking soda mixed with warm water is the perfect tonic to cure these problems. Sponging this mixture over the area around the battery is a good idea too; rusting usually begins first where the paint on the seat base, frame and battery box are etched by the battery's fumes. The battery top should be kept clean, but be careful not to get baking soda inside the battery where it will neutralize your electrolyte. Carbonated soft drinks will also work to dissolve corrosion in a pinch, but you'll have to rinse away the sugar; or you'll soon be riding a high-speed ant farm.

It's wise to occasionally disconnect your 12 cells 572032-001 cables and clean the connections even if they don't look bad. The surface you can't see is where the contact corrodes first. Brushing the soda solution on the corrosion produces a satisfying rapid white foaming as the crusty stuff is neutralized. Just apply until the foaming stops, dry the pieces and burnish the terminals with a wire brush or fine sandpaper to ensure an excellent connection. Try glueing a penny to the battery's top as a sacrificial anode to minimize corrosion.

Before bolting the connections back together, put a wipe of dielectric grease (available from auto parts stores) on the terminals to resist corrosion in the future. Vaseline also works if you can handle the bad jokes when friends find it in your toolbox.

Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation

May 23 [Thu], 2013, 12:32
Sulfation occurs when a lead acid battery is deprived of a full charge. This is common with starter batteries in cars driven in the city with load-hungry accessories. A motor in idle or at low speed cannot charge the Mini 311 compatible sufficiently.

Electric wheelchairs have a similar problem in that the users might not charge the battery long enough. An eight-hour charge during the night when the chair is free is not enough. Lead acid must periodically be charged 14–16 hours to attain full saturation. This may be the reason why wheelchair batteries last only two years, whereas golf car batteries deliver twice the service life. Longer leisure time allows golf car batteries to get the fully saturated charge.

Solar cells and wind turbines do not always provide sufficient charge, and lead acid banks succumb to sulfation. This happens in remote parts of the world where villagers draw generous amounts of electricity with insufficient renewable resources to charge the batteries. The result is a short battery life. Only a periodic fully saturated charge could solve the problem, but without an electrical grid at their disposal, this is almost impossible. An alternative is using lithium-ion, a battery that is forgiving to a partial charge, but this would cost about six-times as much as lead acid.

What is sulfation? During use, small sulfate crystals form, but these are normal and are not harmful. During prolonged charge deprivation, however, the amorphous lead sulfate converts to a stable crystalline that deposits on the negative plates. This leads to the development of large crystals, which reduce the battery’s active material that is responsible for high capacity and low resistance. Sulfation also lowers charge acceptance. Sulfation charging will take longer because of elevated internal resistance.

There are two types of sulfation: reversible (or soft sulfation), and permanent (or hard sulfation). If a battery is serviced early, reversible sulfation can often be corrected by applying an overcharge to a fully charged battery in the form of a regulated current of about 200mA. The battery terminal voltage is allowed to rise to between 2.50 and 2.66V/cell (15 and 16V on a 12V mono block) for about 24 hours. Increasing the battery temperature to 50–60°C (122–140°F) further helps in dissolving the crystals. Permanent sulfation sets in when the battery has been in a low state-of-charge for weeks or months. At this stage, no form of restoration is possible.

There is a fine line between reversible and non-reversible sulfation, and most batteries have a little bit of both. Good results are achievable if the sulfation is only a few weeks old; restoration becomes more difficult the longer the battery is allowed to stay in a low SoC. A sulfated battery may improve marginally when applying a de-sulfation service. A subtle indication of whether a lead acid can be recovered is visible on the voltage discharge curve. If a fully charged battery retains a stable voltage profile on discharge, chances of reactivation are better than if the voltage drops rapidly with load.

Several companies offer anti-sulfation devices that apply pulses to the battery terminals to prevent and reverse sulfation. Such technologies tend to lower sulfation on a healthy battery but they cannot effectively reverse the HSTNN-CB73 compatible condition once present. Manufacturers offering these devices take the “one size fits all” approach and the method is unscientific.

A random service of pulsing or blindly applying an overcharge can harm the battery in promoting grid corrosion. Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation and apply a calculated overcharge to dissolve the crystals. Chargers featuring this technique only apply de-sulfation if sulfation is present and only for the time needed.

Remove the batteries when you think

March 28 [Thu], 2013, 15:29
The charge algorithm for NiMH is similar to NiCd with the exception that NiMH is more complex. The NDV method to measure full charge shows only a faint voltage drop, especially when charging at less than 0.5C. A hot12 cells Inspiron 1750 or one with mismatched cells works against the already minute voltage drop.

The NDV in a NiMH charger must respond to a voltage drop of 5mV per cell. To assure reliable charging, NiMH chargers must include electronic filtering to compensate for noise and voltage fluctuations induced by the battery and the charger. Modern chargers achieve this by combining NDV, voltage plateau, delta temperature (dT/dt), temperature threshold and time-out timers into the full-charge detection algorithm. These “or-gates” utilize whatever comes first depending on battery condition. Many chargers include a 30-minute topping charge of 0.1C to add a few percentage points of extra charge.

Some advanced chargers apply an initial fast charge of 1C. When reaching a certain voltage threshold, a rest of a few minutes is added, allowing the battery to cool down. The charge continues at a lower current and applies further current reductions as the charge progresses. This scheme continues until the battery is fully charged. Known asthe “step-differential charge,” this method works well for all nickel-based batteries.

Chargers utilizing the step-differential or other aggressive charge methods achieve a capacity gain of about six percent over a more basic charger, an increase that is not possible without stressful overcharge. Although a higher capacity is desirable, filling the battery to the brim has a negative effect in that it will shorten the overall battery life. Rather than achieving the expected 350 to 400 service cycles, the aggressive charger might exhaust the pack after 300 cycles.
NiMH cannot absorb overcharge well and the trickle charge is set to around 0.05C. In comparison, the older NiCd charger trickle charges at 0.1C, double that rate. Differences in trickle charge and the need for a more sensitive full-charge detection render the original NiCd charger unsuitable for NiMH batteries. A NiMH in a NiCd charger would overheat, but a NiCd in a NiMH charger does well because the lower trickle charge is also sufficient for NiCd.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to slow-charge a NiMH battery. At a C?rate of 0.1 to 0.3C, the voltage and temperature profiles fail to exhibit defined characteristics to measure the full-charge state accurately and the charger must depend on a timer. Harmful overcharge will occur if a fixed timer controls the charge. This is especially apparent when charging partially or fully charged batteries.

The same scenario occurs if the battery has lost capacity due to aging and can only hold half the capacity. In essence, this battery has electrically shrunk to half size while the fixed timer is programmed to apply a 100 percent charge without regard for the battery condition. In most cases an overcharge will heat the battery, but this is not always the case. A poorly designed NiMH charger is capable of overcharging a battery without heat buildup. At a sufficiently low charge rate, NiMH can remain totally cool and yet suffer from overcharge.

Battery users are often dissatisfied with shorter than expected service life of a battery. Let’s not blame the battery manufacturer, because the fault might lie in the charger. Low-priced consumer chargers are especially prone to incorrectly charging. If you use such a charger and want to improve battery performance, estimate the battery state-of-charge and capacity and set the charge time accordingly. Remove the batteries when you think they are full. If your charger charges at a high charge rate, do a temperature touch. Lukewarm indicates that the batteries may be full enough for 12 cells W953Gremoval. It is far better to remove the batteries and then recharge before use than to leave them in the charger for eventual use.

Note that some nickel-based batteries heat up during charge and this is in part due to high internal resistance. Such a battery may be warm to the touch even though it is only partially charged. Another battery might be fully charged and remain cool. Charging NiCd and NiMH batteries on an inexpensive charger is guesswork, and it is best not to charge them longer than necessary. Remove the batteries when perceived full and give them a quick charge before use.

A fast charge also improves charge efficiency

March 28 [Thu], 2013, 15:28
Advanced chargers terminate charge when a defined voltage signature occurs. This provides more precise full-charge detection of nickel-based batteries than temperature-based methods. Monitoring time and voltage, a microcontrolle12 cells RM791r in the charger looks for a voltage drop that occurs when the battery has reached full charge. This method is called negative delta V (NDV).

NDV is the recommended full-charge detection for “open-lead” nickel-based chargers. “Open-lead” refers to batteries that have no thermistor. NDV offers a quick response time and works well with a partially or fully charged battery. When inserting a fully charged battery, the terminal voltage rises quickly, and then drops sharply to trigger the ready state. The charge in this case lasts only a few minutes and the cells remain cool. NiCd chargers based on the NDV full-charge detection typically respond to a voltage drop of 10mV per cell.

To obtain voltage drop of 10mV per cell, the charge rate must be 0.5C and higher. Slower charging produces a less defined voltage drop and this becomes difficult to measure, especially if the cells are mismatched. In this case, each cell in a mismatched pack reaches the full charge at a different time and the voltage curve flattens out.

Failing to achieve a sufficient negative slope would allow the fast charge to continue. To prevent this, most chargers combine NDV with a voltage plateau detector that terminates the charge when the voltage remains in a steady state for a given time. For additional safety, most advanced chargers also include delta temperature, absolute temperature and a time-out timer.

NDV works best with fast charging. A fast charge also improves charge efficiency. At a 1C charge rate, the charge efficiency of a standard NiCd is 91 percent, and the charge time is about an hour (66 minutes at an assumed charge efficiency of 91 percent). A battery that is partially charged or has reduced capacity due to age will have a shorter charge time because there is less to fill. In comparison, the efficiency on a slow charger drops to 71 percent. At a charge rate of 0.1C, the charge time is about 14 hours.

During the first 70 percent of charge, the efficiency of a NiCd is close to 100 percent; the battery absorbs almost all energy and the pack remains cool. NiCd batteries designed for fast charging can be charged with currents that are several times the C-rating without much heat buildup. Ultra-fast chargers use this quality and charge to 70 percent in minutes. Read more about Ultra-fast Chargers. The full charge must be done with a reduced current.

Figure 1 illustrates the relationship of12 cells Vostro 1310 cell voltage, pressure and temperature of a charging NiCd. We observe an almost perfect charge behavior up to about 70 percent, after which the battery loses the ability to accept charge. The cells begin to generate gases, the pressure rises and the temperature increases rapidly. One can appreciate the importance of accurate full-charge detection to terminate the fast charge before damaging overcharge occurs. In an attempt to gain a few extra capacity points, however, some chargers allow a limited amount of overcharge.

Nickel-metal-hydride batteries contain nickel and electrolyte

November 30 [Fri], 2012, 14:23
Lead acid led to the success of early recycling and today more than 97 percent of these batteries are recycled in the USA. The automotive industry should be given credit for having organized recycling early on. The recycling process is simple and 70 percent of the battery’s weight is reusable lead. As a result, over 50 percent of the lead supply comes from recycled batteries. Other battery types are not being returned as readily as lead acid, and several organizations are working on programsrn873 Inspiron 1750 battery to make collection of spent batteries more convenient. Only 20 to 40 percent of cellular phone and consumer batteries are currently recycled.

The main objective for recycling batteries is to prevent hazardous materials from entering landfills. Lead acid and nickel-cadmium batteries are of special concern, and although Li-ion is less harmful, the aim is to include all batteries in the recycling programs. Do not store old lead acid batteries in households where children play. Simply touching the lead poles can be harmful. Read more about the Health Concerns with Batteries.

Even though they are environmentally unfriendly, lead acid batteries continue to hold a strong market niche. Wheeled mobility and UPS systems could not run as economically if it were not for this reliable battery. NiCd also continues to hold a critical position among rechargeable batteries. Large flooded NiCds start the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of commercial airplanes and power sightseeing boats in rivers of larger cities, pollution-free.

Toxic batteries will continue to be with us for a while longer because we have no practical alternatives. There is nothing wrong in using these batteries as long as we properly dispose of them. Europe banned NiCds in consumer products because there is a suitable replacement, the NiMH battery. Controlling the disposal of NiCds from consumer products is difficult because many users do not know that the retiring equipment includes this battery. The long-term environmental damage if the world’s NiCds were improperly disposed of could be devastating.

Let’s look at what happens when NiCds are carelessly disposed of in landfills. The metallic cylinder of the cell eventually begins to corrode and the cadmium gradually dissolves, seeping into the water supply. Once such contamination begins, the authorities have few options to stop the carnage. Our oceans already show traces of cadmium (along with aspirin, penicillin and antidepressants) but scientists are not certain of its origin. Regulatory discipline will lead to a cleaner environment for the next generations.

Nickel-metal-hydride batteries contain nickel and electrolyte, which are considered semi-toxic. If no disposal service is available in an area, individual NiMH batteries can be discarded with other household waste. When accumulating 10 or more batteries, the user should consider disposing of the packs in a secure waste landfill. The better alternative is bringing the spent batteries to a neighborhood drop-off bin for recycling.

Primary lithium batteries contain metallic lithium that reacts violently when in contact with moisture and the batteries must be disposed of appropriately. If thrown in the landfill in a charged state, heavy equipment operating on top could crush the cases and the exposed lithium would cause a fire. Landfill fires are difficult to extinguish and can burn for years underground. Before recycling, apply a full discharge to consume the lithium content. Non-rechargeable lithium batteries are used in military combat, as well as watches, hearing aids and memory backup. Li-ion for cell phones and laptops do not contain metallic lithium.

In North America,Toxco and Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) collect spent batteries and recycle them. While Toxco has its own recycling facilities, RBRC is in charge of collecting batteries and sending them to recycling organizations. Toxco in Trail, British Columbia, claims to be the only company in the world that recycles large lithium batteries. They receive spent batteries from oil drilling in Nigeria, Indonesia and other places. Toxco also recycles retired lithium batteries from the Minuteman missile silos and tons of Li-ion from the war in Iraq. Other divisions at Toxco recycle nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal-hydride, lead, mercury, alkaline and more.

Europe and Asia are also active in recycling spent batteries. Among other recycling companies, Sony and Sumitomo Metal in Japan and Unicore in Belgium have developed technology to retrieve cobalt and other precious metals from spent lithium ion batteries. The raw material lithium can also be retrieved and re-usedoriginal Inspiron N5010 battery repeatedly. Read about Battery Recycling as a Business.

Table 1 lists the material value per ton of lithium-ion batteries. The table also includes lead acid, the most profitable battery in terms of recycling.

You might be wondering now how you can select the best brand of rechargeable battery

November 01 [Thu], 2012, 16:53
Rechargeable batteries are more expensive than the normal batteries in price, but they are more reliable in the long run. Your initial payment will pay off later since you will be able to power it up from time to time, unlike one-time usage replacement battery for 57Y4559 . But the increasing number of rechargeable battery brands in the market today may leave you feeling very much confused and disoriented.

You might be wondering now how you can select the best brand of rechargeable battery that best fits your needs. Here are the steps in selecting a brand of rechargeable battery.

Battery Capacity. The battery cycle life is the first thing that you need to consider when choosing among brands. The covers will usually indicate how much life or hours of activity it can sustain before it needs to be recharged. This is your first priority when you are choosing among the different brands. You need to cheap rn873 L08S6D13 laptop batteryconsider your usage or gadgets that will make use of the battery so that you will not make a wrong choice.

Cost. Cost involves your available budget and the existing prices in the market. You need to compare the costs of each brand and see which one fits your budget best. Only Batteries is a good place to check out the prices of rechargeable batteries side by side. Just remember that price is not the only factor in play as you choose the right brand.

Your best move for depleted single-use batteries

November 01 [Thu], 2012, 16:49
I always carry some as spares, though precharged NiMHs will also do. They store well for years, are always ready for action and offer high energy capacity. Pricey lithium batteries are superb performers (especially in cold weather), but check your gizmo's instructions first before using them. Lithium lenovo L09M6Y02 (at 3 volts per cell) can overpower some devices (headlamps in particular) and fry their circuitry.

Alkaline batteries, meanwhile, are tried-and-true workhorses suitable for any device. In a GPS unit, for instance, they typically deliver about 2 days' worth of continual service. Their chief downsides: 1) rapid depletion when used in a digital camera and 2) their unending cycle of use-discard-replace.

No ideal battery exists: As the charging cycles add up, rechargeable batteries hold charges for progressively shorter stretches. No rechargeable battery lasts forever, though they can usually be counted on for years. Single-use batteries, meanwhile, are predictable and convenient, but over the long long-term are more expensive due to the endless need to replace them. Plus, each year billions wind up in landfills because many people aren't aware they can be recycled or don't make the effort to do so.
14
Many communities allow single-use batteries, made without mercury since 1996, to be placed in household trash. One notable exception is California. The state still regards all batteries as hazardous waste and requires them to be either recycled locally or taken to:

a household hazardous waste disposal facility
a universal waste handler (e.g., storage facility or broker)
an authorized recycling facility.
Are batteries truly recycled—meaning that their materials are reclaimed for use in the manufacture of other products? Paul Schneider, director of sales and marketing for Kinsbursky Brothers, a waste-materials recycling specialist based in Anaheim, Calif., says rechargeable batteries are definitely recycled. It's a different story for single-use batteries, though. While recycling technology is available, he says, it is rarely used because little economic incentive exists to use it.

"Nickel in NiMH batteries and cobalt in lithium-ion batteries have intrinsic value," Schneider says. "There's not much demand for what's in alkaline batteries. We send them to our partner in Canada, Toxco, which recycles them for us. When alkaline batteries are collected in most local communities, they're usuallyoriginal L09S6Y11 sent to a hazardous-waste landfill." This reality presents another reason to seriously consider using rechargeable batteries.

Your best move for depleted single-use batteries? Contact your community's waste-disposal company for guidance. Some electronics stores may collect batteries. Recycling resources include The Big Green Box, Earth911 (1-800-CLEANUP), Kinsbursky Brothers, Toxco and Battery Solutions.

This means that the news screen will with higher resolution

September 21 [Fri], 2012, 15:40
According to foreign media reports, the Sharp will display a screen based on IGZO technology manufacturing at the Boston International Information Society next week. IGZO is the abbreviate of Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide, and using thisrn873 VGP-BPS8 technique enables the transistor size much smaller than the current standard.

This means that the new screen will with higher resolution, lower power consumption and higher touch and slimmer in size.

Before the third-generation iPad, many rumors said that the Sharp IGZO screen will be the panel supplier. It was a pity that Sharp failed to meet production standards due to technical problems, and ultimately Unfortunately, Sharp was been eliminated in the selection of suppliers of the new iPad screen. We think that many12 cells VGP-BPS2C mobile phone manufacturers, including Apple will consider adopting this new screen.

LCD screen using IGZO technology currently has two dimensions: 4.9 inches 720 * 1280 resolution screen, it is designed specifically for mobile phones; the other is a resolution of 2560 * 1600 6.1-inch screen, the pixel density as high as 498ppi. OLED panel the IGZO technology also has two: a 13.5 inches with a resolution of 3840 * 2160 QFHD screen; the other is 3.4 inches with a resolution of 540 * 960 toughness screen.

MOTOKEY 3-CHIP is equipped with a full keyboard

September 21 [Fri], 2012, 15:34
Almost everyone has a phone with dual-core, dual card and dual cameras But now, Motorola released three card phone – MOTO KEY 3-the CHIP in rn873 VGP-BPS22Brazil and its biggest bright spot is there are three SIM card slot.

MOTOKEY 3-CHIP is equipped with a full keyboard, 2 million pixel camera, FM radio, MicroSD card slot, the retail package comes with 2GB MicroSD card. The phone belongs to a location entry function machine, the screen cannot be touched. As for the three Cards, only one of SIM card can be used as the datahigh quality VGP-BPS9 storage, the remaining two cards can be used in text messages.

It is reported that, MOTOKEY 3-CHIP will be listed after the first week in June, Brazil’s suggested retail price is 349 Brazilian Real.
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