Warming the battery with your hand may be sufficient to detect

July 11 [Thu], 2013, 10:20
Most laptop batteries are smart. This means that the pack consists of two parts: the chemical cells and the digital circuit. If the cells are weak, cell replacement makes economic sense. While nickel-based cells are readily available, lithium-ion cells are commonly not sold over the counter, and most manufacturers only offer12 cells 511872-001 them to authorized pack assemblers. This precaution is understandable given liability issues. Read also about Safety Concerns and Protection Circuits. Always use the same chemistry; the mAh rating can vary if all cells are replaced.

A laptop battery may have only one weak cell, and the success rate of replacing the affected cell depends on the matching with the others. All cells in a pack must have a similar capacity because an imbalance shortens the life of the pack. Read more about Can Batteries Be Restored?. Furthermore, the state-of-charge of all cells being charged for the first time should have a similar charge level, and the open-circuit voltages should be within 10 percent of each other. Welding the cells is the only reliable way to get dependable connection. Limit the heat transfer to the cells during welding to prevent excess heat buildup.

The typical SMBus battery has five or more battery connections consisting of positive and negative battery terminals, thermistor, clock and data. The connections are often unmarked; however, the positive and negative are commonly located at the outer edges of the connector and the inner contacts accommodate the clock and data.

Some batteries are equipped with a solid-state switch that is normally in the “off” position and no voltage is present on the battery terminals; connecting the switch terminal to ground often turns the battery on. If this does not work, the pack may need a proprietary code for activation, and battery manufacturers keep these codes a well-guarded secret.

How can you find the correct terminals? Use a voltmeter to locate the positive and negative battery terminals and establish the polarity. If no voltage is available, a solid-state switch in the “off” position may need activating. Connecting the voltmeter to the outer terminals, take a 100-Ohm resistor (other values may also work), tie one end to ground, and with the other end touch each terminal while observing the voltmeter. If no voltage appears, the battery may be dead or the pack will require a security code. The 100-Ohm resistor is low enough to engage a digital circuit and high enough to protect the battery against a possible electrical short.
Establishing the connection to the battery terminals should now enable charging. If the charge current stops after 30 seconds, an activation code may be required, and this is often difficult if not impossible to obtain.

Some battery manufacturers add an end-of-battery-life switch that turns the battery off when reaching a certain age or cycle count. Manufacturers argue that customer satisfaction and safety can only be guaranteed by regularly replacing the battery. Such a policy tends to satisfy the manufacturer more than the user, and newer batteries do not include this feature.

If at all possible, connect the thermistor during charging and discharging to protect the battery against possible overheating. Use an ohmmeter to locate the internal thermistor. The most common thermistors are 10 Kilo Ohm NTC, which reads 10kΩ at 20°C (68°F). NTC stands for negative temperature coefficient, meaning that the resistance decreases with rising temperature. In comparison, a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) causes the resistance to increase. Warming the battery with your hand may be sufficient to detect a small change in resistor value when looking for the correct terminal on the battery.

In some cases the chemical battery can be restored, but the fuel gauge might not work, is inaccurate, or will provide wrong information. After repackaging, the battery may need some sort of initialization/ calibration process. Simply charging and discharging the pack to reset the flags might do the trick. A “flag” is a measuring point to mark and record an event.

The circuits of some smart batteries must be kept alive during cell replacement. Disconnecting the voltage for only a fraction of a second can erase vital data in the memory. The lost data could contain the resistor value of the digitized shunt that is responsible for the coulomb counter. Some integrated circuits (IC) responsible for fuel gauge function have wires going to each cell, and the sequence of assembly must to be done in the correct order.

To assure continued operation when changing the cells, supply a secondary voltage through a 100-Ohm resistor to the circuit before 12 cells 511884-001 disconnection and remove the supply only after the circuit receives voltage again from the new cells. Cell replacement of a smart battery has a parallel with open-heart surgery, where doctors must keep all organs of the patient alive.

Anyone repairing an SMBus battery needs to be aware of compliance issues. Unlike other tightly regulated standards, the SMBus allows some variations, and this can cause problems when matching battery packs with existing chargers. The repaired SMBus battery should be checked for compatibility before use

Some laptop manufacturers disallow aftermarket batteries

July 11 [Thu], 2013, 10:19
In the search for low-cost batteries, consumers may inadvertently purchase counterfeit batteries that are unsafe. The label appears bona fide and the buyer cannot distinguish between an original and a forged product. Cell phone manufacturers are concerned about these products flooding the market and advise customers to use approved brands; defiance could void the warranty. Manufacturers do12 cells HSTNN-OB88 not object to third-party suppliers as long as the aftermarket batteries are well built, safe and approved by a safety agency.

Caution also applies to purchasing counterfeit chargers. Some aftermarket chargers do not terminate the battery correctly and rely on the battery’s internal protection circuit to cut off the charge when the battery is full. The need for redundancy in charging is important because a bona fide battery could have a12 cells G42 malfunctioning protection circuit that was damaged by a static charge or other cause. If, for example, the maker of the counterfeit battery relies on the charger to terminate the charge, and the manufacturer of the charger depends fully on the battery’s protection circuit, a combination exists that can have serious consequences.

Some laptop manufacturers disallow aftermarket batteries by digitally locking the pack with a tamperproof security code. This is done in part for safety reasons; the potential damage resulting from a faulty laptop battery is many times greater than that of a cell phone.

Solar cells and wind turbines do not always provide sufficient charge

May 23 [Thu], 2013, 11:35
Sulfation occurs when a lead acid battery is deprived of a full charge. This is common with starter batteries in cars driven in the city with lSulfation occurs when a lead acid battery is deprived of a full charge. This is common HSTNN-OB88 compatiblewith starter batteries in cars driven in the city with load-hungry accessories. A motor in idle or at low speed cannot charge the battery sufficiently.

Electric wheelchairs have a similar problem in that the users might not charge the battery long enough. An eight-hour charge during the night when the chair is free is not enough. Lead acid must periodically be charged 14–16 hours to attain full saturation. This may be the reason why wheelchair batteries last only two years, whereas golf car batteries deliver twice the service life. Longer leisure time allows golf car batteries to get the fully saturated charge.

Solar cells and wind turbines do not always provide sufficient charge, and lead acid banks succumb to sulfation. This happens in remote parts of the world where villagers draw generous amounts of electricity with insufficient renewable resources to charge the batteries. The result is a short battery life. Only a periodic fully saturated charge could solve the problem, but without an electrical grid at their disposal, this is almost impossible. An alternative is using lithium-ion, a battery that is forgiving to a partial charge, but this would cost about six-times as much as lead acid.

What is sulfation? During use, small sulfate crystals form, but these are normal and are not harmful. During prolonged charge deprivation, however, the amorphous lead sulfate converts to a stable crystalline that deposits on the negative plates. This leads to the development of large crystals, which reduce the battery’s active material that is responsible for high capacity and low resistance. Sulfation also lowers charge acceptance. Sulfation charging will take longer because of elevated internal resistance.

There are two types of sulfation: reversible (or soft sulfation), and permanent (or hard sulfation). If a battery is serviced early, reversible sulfation can often be corrected by applying an overcharge to a fully charged battery in the form of a regulated current of about 200mA. The battery terminal voltage is allowed to rise to between 2.50 and 2.66V/cell (15 and 16V on a 12V mono block) for about 24 hours. Increasing the battery temperature to 50–60°C (122–140°F) further helps in dissolving the crystals. Permanent sulfation sets in when the battery has been in a low state-of-charge for weeks or months. At this stage, no form of restoration is possible.

There is a fine line between reversible and non-reversible sulfation, and most batteries have a little bit of both. Good results are achievable if the sulfation is only a few weeks old; restoration becomes more difficult the longer the battery is allowed to stay in a low SoC. A sulfated battery may improve marginally when applying a de-sulfation service. A subtle indication of whether a lead acid can be recovered is visible on the voltage discharge curve. If a fully charged battery retains a stable voltage profile on discharge, chances of reactivation are better than if the voltage drops rapidly with load.

Several companies offer anti-sulfation devices that apply pulses to the battery terminals to prevent and reverse sulfation. Such technologies tend to lower sulfation on a healthy battery but they cannot effectively reverse the condition once present. Manufacturers offering these devices take the “one size fits all” approach and the method is unscientific. A random service of pulsing or blindly applying an overcharge can harm the battery in promoting grid corrosion. Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation and apply a calculated overcharge to dissolve the crystals. Chargers featuring this technique only apply de-sulfation if sulfation is present and only for the time needed.Load-hungry accessories. A motor in idle or at low speed cannot charge the battery sufficiently.

Electric wheelchairs have a similar problem in that the users might not charge the battery long enough. An eight-hour charge during the night when the chair is free is not enough. Lead acid must periodically be charged 14–16 hours to attain full saturation. This may be the reason why wheelchair batteries last only two years, whereas golf car batteries deliver twice the service life. Longer leisure time allows golf car batteries to get the fully saturated charge.

Solar cells and wind turbines do not always provide sufficient charge, and lead acid banks succumb to sulfation. This happens in remote parts of the world where villagers draw generous amounts of electricity with insufficient renewable resources to charge the batteries. The result is a short battery life. Only a periodic fully saturated charge could solve the problem, but without an electrical grid at their disposal, this is almost impossible. An alternative is using lithium-ion, a battery that is forgiving to a partial charge, but this would cost about six-times as much as lead acid.

What is sulfation? During use, small sulfate crystals form, but these are normal and are not harmful. During prolonged charge deprivation, however, the amorphous lead sulfate converts to a stable crystalline that deposits on the negative plates. This leads to the development of large crystals, which reduce the battery’s active material that is responsible for high capacity and low resistance. Sulfation also lowers charge acceptance. Sulfation charging will take longer because of elevated internal resistance.

There are two types of sulfation: reversible (or soft sulfation), and permanent (or hard sulfation). If a battery is serviced early, reversible sulfation can often be corrected by applying an overcharge to a fully charged battery in the form of a regulated current of about 200mA. The battery terminal voltage is allowed to rise to between 2.50 and 2.66V/cell (15 and 16V on a 12V mono block) for about 24 hours. Increasing the battery temperature to 50–60°C (122–140°F) further helps in dissolving the crystals. Permanent sulfation sets in when the battery has been in a low state-of-charge for weeks or months. At this stage, no form of restoration is possible.

There is a fine line between reversible and non-reversible sulfation, and most batteries have a little bit of both. Good results are achievable if the sulfation is only a few weeks old; restoration becomes more difficult the longer the battery is allowed to stay in a low SoC. A sulfated battery may improve marginally when applying a de-sulfation service. A subtle indication of whether a lead acid can be recovered is visible on the voltage discharge curve. If a fully charged battery retains a stable voltage G42 compatible profile on discharge, chances of reactivation are better than if the voltage drops rapidly with load.

Several companies offer anti-sulfation devices that apply pulses to the battery terminals to prevent and reverse sulfation. Such technologies tend to lower sulfation on a healthy battery but they cannot effectively reverse the condition once present. Manufacturers offering these devices take the “one size fits all” approach and the method is unscientific. A random service of pulsing or blindly applying an overcharge can harm the battery in promoting grid corrosion. Technologies are being developed that measure the level of sulfation and apply a calculated overcharge to dissolve the crystals. Chargers featuring this technique only apply de-sulfation if sulfation is present and only for the time needed.

The lithium-ion batteries we currently use

March 28 [Thu], 2013, 11:55
The issue of limited range has been an impediment to EV sales since before such vehicles even went on sale. But as The Truth About Cars now reports, Toyota just might have the answer to this problem. The first steps have been taken toward making a battery which uses sodium-ion compound as the positive 12 cells T116Celectrode. This produces 30 percent more voltage than a lithium-ion battery, and it’s estimated that it could at least double the range of electric cars. It is even estimated that range to extend to 1,000 km (620 miles) with sodium batteries.

Toyota hasn’t said what we can expect for recharge times on these batteries, and a 600-mile range would be something of a mixed blessing if it also needed two days to recharge. But improvements are being made in the area of recharging as well, and sine Toyota has said that they don’t expect the sodium batteries to be ready until 2020, it’s still a bit early to say what conditions will be like when it comes time to actually charge the batteries. One thing we do know will get better along with range is price. Sodium is one of the most abundant elements on earth, and Toyota says the new batteries would almost surely be cheaper than the lithium-ion batteries we currently use.

This announcement came as a bit of a shock, as it was just a couple of months ago that Toyota announced they would be scaling back on EV building and that the technology just wasn’t ready for full-scale implementa12 cells Vostro 1720tion. We can only assume that this research is being conducted as part of Toyota’s desire to remain the world leader in hybrids. Whatever their motivation, we’re marking off 2020 on our calendars. It should be fascinating to see how this impacts the market and even whether the technology will spread to other devices which use batteries as well.

Batteries that do not pass the required tests

January 23 [Wed], 2013, 17:43
Emergency batteries that are connected to the bus are constantly in charge and thus continuously evaporate water from the electrolyte. As the electrolyte level drops and the plate separator begins to be exposed replacement Aspire 5820T(dried out in extreme cases), the separator material begins to deteriorate which results in cell heating and shorts in extreme cases.

Batteries that are subject to continuous charging and have little or no opportunity to deliver power, need to be removed periodically, first to check the water level and second to check for capacity.

Water level checking cannot be performed on the aircraft. It can only be performed under bench test conditions with a constant current charger and only when the battery has reached full charge. Excessive water consumption can be indicative of overcharging (bus voltage too high) or infrequent servicing, or both. The time required for this test will range from one day for a "good" battery to several days for a "problem battery".

Since emergency batteries are basically in stand-by condition and are subject to continuous charging, their capacity to deliver current when needed slowly diminishes (capacity fading), so it is also necessary to periodically perform a capacity test. If this test is passed marginally, or not at all, the cells have to be deep cycled (total discharge) to restore the rated capacity. Depending on the severity of the fading, the total discharge and subsequent recharge must be performed several times before proper capacity restoration will occur. The time required for this type of testing will require from two days for a "good" battery to a full week for a "problem" battery.

Batteries that do not pass the required tests can be repaired by replacing the individual cells that fail the specific tests, but not more than 20% of the total number of cells in the battery (4 to 5 cells) should be replaced. If more than 20% of the cells need to be replaced, the entire battery needs to be replaced (this is done to minimize the mismatching between new cells and old cells).

Under normal conditions, most batteries are expected to last five to six years, provided that they are serviced properly (Including occasional cell replacement). This is true even for the larger batteries that are used to start engines or APU’s. But, with improper maintenance (basically infrequent maintenance) the life of the batteries will be significantly shorter. If servicing is infrequent, by the time that the replacement Aspire 7551 are finally removed for testing, it may be too late.

Proper servicing is costly. Time to do it, proper personnel, availability of a replacement battery, service charges by the battery shop, etc. But, if as a result of inadequate servicing the battery must be replaced, its cost far exceeds the cost of proper servicing. This is also true if a battery failure results in a grounded airplane. Finally, the cost of an in-flight battery failure (Overheating, little or no capacity to provide power, etc.) could have more severe consequences.

Check the battery cables to make sure there are no frayed or broken wires

November 07 [Wed], 2012, 11:08
Other then driving the vehicle on a regular basis to keep the battery fully charged, most batteries require minimal maintenance - provided the replacement rn873 Pavilion Mini 311 battery
is holding a charge and functioning normally.

Most manufacturers now make maintenance free batteries with sealed tops. This makes it impossible to check the water level inside the battery unless the battery case is translucent and you can see the water level in the cells. Even then, there are no provisions for adding make-up water if the water level is low. Prying open the top of a maintenance free battery can damage the battery and void the warranty.

Batteries that still have removable caps and are classified as Maintenance-accessible, can have water added to the individual cells if the level is low. If you have a maintenance-accessible battery, make sure only clean distilled water is added to the cells. Never add ordinary tap water to your battery as it contains dissolved salts and minerals and will contaminate the battery's electrolytes.

Never add acid to a battery as this can be extremely dangerous and is unnecessary for car batteries.

The battery posts should be checked regularly and should be cleaned if corrosion occurs or battery cables are being replaced.

Check the battery cables to make sure there are no frayed or broken wires. Frayed or broken wires should be replaced immediately to prevent battery failure.

Also check the battery holddowns to high quality rn873 HSTNN-CB73make sure they are tight and prevent the battery from moving or bouncing around.

Checking the battery connections to make sure they are tight will ensure a proper battery charge when the vehicle is running and will also ensure proper voltage is delivered to the necessary compnents when the vehicle is being started.

Lead-acid wet cell car batteries must be maintained near full charge

November 07 [Wed], 2012, 11:07
A good battery and charging system are essential for reliable starting and vehicle operation. A starter motor can pull several hundred amps while cranking the engine. If your battery is low or weak, it will not provide enough Original Pavilion dv3 battery
amps to the starter for the engine to start.

The onboard electronics and control modules that operate almost everything in today's vehicles require a steady voltage level to operate properly. If the battery voltage drops to low, it can cause erratic behavior and problems with the car's electronic components.

Starting and electrical problems, which are usually blamed on the battery may not actually be the battery's fault. Instead, these problems could be caused by a faulty charging system. Your vehicle's alternator has two jobs: the first is to supply current to the vehicle's charging system, and the second id to is to maintain the battery at full charge. Lead-acid wet cell car batteries must be maintained near full charge, otherwise the plates become sulfated and the battery loses its ability to store power.

Normally, a battery is only used to crank the engine, provide power for lights and accessories when the car is not running, to stabilize voltage withing the vehicles electrical system and to provide supplemental power when the demands of the vehicle's electrical system temporarily exceed the output of the alternator. If the battery is in good condition and fully charged, it won't increase the normal load of the charging system. Driving your vehicle will help maintain the battery's charge.

However, if the battery is in poor condition or is run down, it may take 20 to 30 minutes of driving to bring thebattery for rn873 Pavilion dm4 batteryback up, and even then, it may not reach full charge or hold the charge if the battery is in poor condition. Thus vehicles used for short term driving may not give the alternator enough time to fully recharge the battery.

Should you experience erratic behavior or starting issues with your vehicle, call Nevada Mobile Automotive Service at (775) 200-4669 and we will be happy to send one of our experienced Mobile Automotive Technicians to diagnose and advise you of the possible cause and recommended repair of the problem.

Lithium-ion batteries hold ten times the charge

September 04 [Tue], 2012, 16:42
Lithum-ion battery technology has made it so that portable devices can be used for a good portion of a day before needing more juice. Even then, I find myself wanting more. Maybe it’s because I’ve been spoiled by my iPad’s amazing battery life, but I wish that both my smartphone and my laptop replacement 446506-001could hold at least half a day’s worth of charge without me having to shut off absolutely every useful function on either electronic.

It looks like my hopes and dreams for my electronics might be fulfilled in the near future.

A team of Stanford researchers have found the solution to make lithium-ion batteries hold ten times the charge they currently can. How? By replacing the battery’s anode, usually constructed out of graphite, with silicon. It sounds like a simple fix, but scientists haven't been able to do so until now because the silicon would be quickly destroyed in a process called decrepitation. Even though silicon atoms would allow more lithium ions to bind than carbon atoms, therefore allowing the battery to store more charge, the silicon would expand and retract as ions flowed through the battery. These expansions and retractions caused cracks in the silicon. Another problem is that the lithium ions would sometimes react with the silicon, removing the battery’s ability to charge.

The Stanford team has developed a technique to strengthen the silicon anodes by making them out of nanowires and hollow nanoparticles. The anode is also coated with an outer layer of silicon oxide, a ceramic material that prevents the silicon from expanding.

For now, these a battery for 482962-001are able to operate for more than 6,000 cycles, well beyond current lithium-ion battery cycle life standards.

The team’s given no timetable for when this technology will be commercialized. For now, they’re working on simplifying the process of creating the new silicon anodes and creating better cathodes to match the new silicon anodes on lithium-ion batteries. I can only hope that such technology will trickle down to the consumer level soon.

Lithium battery voltages from 2.5V to 4.2V at work

June 26 [Tue], 2012, 11:47
For many consumers, not understand why lithium rechargeable first pre-charge, this is mainly due to the lithium-ion batteries have higher energy than directly into the fast red power mode, the battery will produce damage, affect the use oflife and may therefore pose a security risk.

Although lithium-ion battery in the design process are built into the line protection plate, usually battery over charge and charge the chance rarely, but if the battery is at first not pre-charge, will bring a lot of hidden dangers, such as the protection board failure, long time to put the self-discharge battery for UM09A75rate of recovery difficult when the battery overdischarge cause the active material, this first small current charge to 2.5V to 3.0V, converted to fast-charge is necessary. Pre-charging a small battery can be an effective solution to put the battery charging problem.

Lithium battery voltages from 2.5V to 4.2V at work, when the voltage is less than 2.5V, the battery discharge, the discharge closed loop so that the current consumption of the internal protection circuit is also reduced to a minimum, of course, the practical application due to the different internal material, the discharge voltage in the 2.5V-3.0V range, when the voltage exceeds 4.2V, the charging circuit termination to protect the safety of the battery; monomer battery voltage drops below 3.0V, we can be considered discharge state, the discharge circuit termination to protect the safety of the battery.

Consumers: quick fully charged, the choice of high current fast charge, this idea is a misunderstanding, the charging current is not the greater, the better, Take the monomer lithium ion battery, its charging method includes the constant the process of charging current, constant voltage, constant voltage is typically 4.2V, constant current set value of 0.1C ~ 1C, high-current charging will shorten the charging time, but it can also shorten the battery life cycle and capacity reduction, the experts suggested that consumers should correctly recognize the battery to the importance of pre-charging, lithium reason why the growth of pre-charge replacement AL10D56function in the design process, this must be newly purchased battery pre-charge, and select the appropriate value of the constant current for charging the battery.

Can be judged from several major aspects of the above batch battery

June 26 [Tue], 2012, 11:45
Lithium ion batteries are the 1990s, the rise of a green energy, is also recognized by the state environmental ultimate energy, lithium-ion batteries after the button batteries used in small electronichigh quality AS10D61 products to all of the large car battery power stage of development, is now widely used in people of life.

Compared to lithium-ion battery and battery either volume or weight and performance has a great advantage in the choice of lithium must be within the range of reasonable voltage capacity, many consumers to pursue large capacity, high voltage, completely wrong kind of thinking and practice, must be clear in a limited volume of the accumulation of energy, the more the more hard to manage, the higher the voltage, the greater the capacity, protection circuit and the difficulty of the equalization circuit and the failure rate is greater.

In order for the equipment used with lithium batteries are more match, depends on lithium battery safety testing and certification; UL certification (UL mark has become world-renowned safety certification mark, must obtain a safety certification before entering the market.) mainly investigated from the top of the shell, electrolyte leakage and use;, mechanical tests, to squeeze through,) impact, acceleration, vibration, thermal shock, thermal cycle testing, altitude simulation test, the sample cell does not explode or fire, can not have a perforation or leakage. 3, the charge-discharge test, from the charge-discharge cycle, short-circuit test, abnormal charging test, forced discharge test, overcharge and other aspects of understanding;, product identification: from the manufacturer name, trade name or trademark style setting and Battery should identify the description.

Above, there are two kinds of Extra Energy, standards certification and CE certification; the certification of Energy, is a non-profit organization, headquartered in the German tanks to take the neutrality of the information of the main job is to focus on the global light electric vehicles, and provide value-added services related to lithium battery safety testing is very strict, rigorous, recognized by most European customers; more and more the use of the CE certification mark, to affix the CE certification mark to goods that their safety, health, environmental protection and series of European directives to express requirements of consumer protection in sales of goods on the marketcheap UM09A31 of the European Economic Area.

Can be judged from several major aspects of the above batch battery is good or bad and could be applied to the current device, this is the selection of the battery through the hands of hand, in order to better equipment, it is recommended that for the batch of power lithium battery must be After the above strict validation, to avoid you in the process of using abnormal.